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T D A \T U I 












THE LIBRARY 

of 
VICTORIA UNIVERSITY 

Toronto 



Japan is r< 

you with breev 

beaches cooling, mountain air 

and healthy hot springs. 



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A Yearbook that Appeals to 
the Masses 



A Reliable Source of Information and 
Delightful Reading. 




Published by Nippon Dempo 
News Agency 

Sale Agent: KYO BUN KWAN, 

Tokyo. 



THE JAPAN CHRISTIAN YEAR BOOK 

continuing 

THE JAPAN MISSION YEAR BOOK 

being the thirty-fourth issue of 

The Christian Movement 

in 
JAPAN AND FORMOSA 

issued by 
THE FEDERATION OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONS 

IN JAPAN 

IN COOPERATION WITH THE NATIONAL 
CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 

Editor: 
FRED D. GEALY 

Associate Editor: 
AKIRA EBISAWA 
Editorial Committee: 

MRS. H. D. HANNAFORD T. MATSUMOTO 
ARTHUR JORGENSEN N. TOKITA 

Published by 
KYO BUN KWAN 

GINZA, TOKYO 

1936 



EM 



THE JAPAN CHRISTIAN YEAR BOOK 1936 

iirt 

Will be found in the libraries of each of the 22 
Nippon Yusen Kaisha boats plying on the Pacific. 

Is on sale at the following places: 

IN JAPAN, 

Kyo Bun Kwan, Ginza, Tokyo, and 
Kawara Machi, Kyoto, and 
other book stores. 

IN KOREA, 

Christian Literature Society of Korea, 

Chong-no, Seoul. 

IN CHINA, 

Kwang Hsiieh Publishing House, 

140 Peking Road, Shanghai. 

IN GREAT BRITAIN, 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd. 

38 Great Russell St., London, W.C., 1. 

IN AMERICA, 

Committee of Reference and Council, 

419 Fourth Avenue, New York City, N.Y. 



Price in Japan : Yen 2.50 



FOREWORD 

This thirty-fourth issue of the annual publica 
tion of the Federation of Christian Missions in 
Japan is presented to, the public with the modest 
hope that it may take a worthy place in the long 
series of efforts to record the most significant 
events of the years as they have come and gone, 
and especially as they have concerned the Chris 
tian Movement. The times through which Japan 
is now passing are indeed important. And what 
they may mean for the future, who can tell? In 
any case, the Editors hope that an honest effort to 
set forth present trends and current situations 
may help to spread abroad knowledge which in 
turn may aid in the development of a Christian 
civilization. 

Gratitude is due to all those who have had a 
share in the making of this book, especially to 
those who are not directly related to the Federa 
tion of Christian Missions. The drudgery which 
certain portions of the book demands of those 
who are kind enough to consent to undertake such 
labors, is understood only by those who have had 
the experience. But work well done has its own 
incorruptible reward. 

That the book is not all that it should be, and 
that it has many shortcomings is well known to the 
Editor. Therefore, gentle reader, let us seek to 
gether a more adequate Year Book and a more 
Christian Japan. 



WHO S WHO AMONG OUR CONTRIBUTORS 



Rev. William Axling, D.D., a missionary of the American 
Baptist Foreign Missionary Society, has long held an 
important position in the National Christian Council. 

Rev. Darley Downs, a missionary of the Congregational 
Church, is director of the School of Japanese Lan 
guage and Culture. 

Rev. F. W. Heckelman, D.D., is a member of the Methodiot 
Episcopal Mission, and is professor of English Litera 
ture and Christian Morals in Aoyama Gakuin. 

Mrs. Heckelman is a missionary of the Methodist Epis 
copal Church, being assigned to Aoyama Gakuin. 

Rev. Egon Hessell is the missionary representative of the 
Ost Asien Mission in Japan. 

Rev. D. C. Holtom, Ph.D., a Baptist missionary, is a pro 
fessor in Kwanto Gakuin and in Aoyama Gakuin 
Theological Seminary. 

Rev. C. W. Iglehart, D.D., Ph.D., is a missionary of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, engaged in evangelistic 
work. 

Rev. Toyahiko Kagawa, D.D., is so distinguished a Chris 
tian worker that it is unnecessary to mention more 

in his name. 

K Shigeharu Kimura, LL.D., is Director of St. Paul s 
University (American Episcopal Church Mission) . 
He is a graduate of Hobart College, and of Harvard 
University and the Episcopal Theological School at 
Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Rev. Hugh MacMillan is a missionary of the Board of 
Foreign Missions, Presbyterian Church in Canada, 
^ stationed in Tamsui, Formosa. 

Mr. Toyota.ro Miyoshi is Secretary of the National Chris 
tian Educational Association, and a professor in Meiji 
Gakuin. 




vi WHO S WHO AMONG OUR CONTRIBUTORS 

.- 

Retf.M.S.Murao is a minister of the Seikokwai (Anglican- 
Episcopal Church). He has been professor in the 
Theological School of St. Paul s University, Tokyo, 
and at present is the Secretary of the Tokyo Young 
Men s Christian Association. He is known as the 
author and translator of many books, and is now 
interested in the production of a unique Christian 
newspaper. 

Mr.. Herbert V. Nicholson is a member of the Friends 
Mission of Philadelphia, and is engaged in a variety 
of economic reconstruction projects in rural Japan. 

Rev. George S. Noss is a missionary of the Evangelical 
and Reformed Church, stationed in Aomori, in the 
bleaker northern section of Japan s main island. 

Rev. Paul V. Oltman is a missionary of the Board of For 
eign Missions of the Presbyterian Church of the 
United States. He is a professor in Meiji Gakuin. 

Rev. Albert Otmans, D.D., is a retired member of the Re 
formed Church in America Mission, living at Meiji 
Gakuin. 

Mr. H. Vere Redman is one of the best-informed writers 
on the Far East today. He is author of Japan in 
Crisis, and co-author of The Problem of the Far 
East, is foreign associate of Contemporary Japan 
and editorial associate of The Japan Advertiser. 

Rev. A. R. Stone is a missionary of the United Church of 

Canada, engaged in rural work in Nagano-ken. He 

4s Secretary of the Federation of Christian Missions. 

Mrs Beatrice Lane Suzuki, at home in Kyoto, the center 
of Buddhism in Japan, has prepared selections of 
readings on Buddhism, and has published transla 
tions of Noh plays in English. Her husband is the 
distinguished Zen scholar, Daisetsu Teitaro Suzuki. 

Rev. Paul Yoshigoro Taguchi is Director of the Catholic 
Press Centre, and is himself an author and publisher 
of Catholic literature. 



WHO S WHO AMONG OUR CONTRIBUTORS vil 

Mr. Morikichi Takumi is on the staff of Ferris Seminary, 
Yokohama. 

Miss Elma R. Tharp is Secretary of the American Baptist 
Foreign Missionary Society. 

Mr. G. H. Vinall is Secretary of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society and the National Bible Society of Scot 
land, located in Kobe. 

Mr. William Merrell Varies, LL.D., is the founder of the 
Omi Brotherhood at Omi-Hachiman, and is the mov 
ing spirit in all the various projects of that well- 
known institution. He and his architects have 
planned and projected some of the most notable 
buildings of modern Japan. >J*i : . 

Rev. S. H. Wainright, M.D., D.D,, a missionary of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, is Honorary 
General Secretary of the Christian Literature Society 
of Japan. 

Rev. Koh Yuki is minister of the Tokyo Futaba Dokuritsu 
Kyokai; he is the author of books on Christian Wor 
ship, and Hymnology, and on Blaise Pascal s writ 
ings. Mr. Yuki is also one of the editors of the im 
portant magazine Shinko Kirisutokyo. He held a 
responsible position in the words section of the 
committee which produced the new Sambika (Hym 
nal), and is lecturer on Hymnology in Aoyama 
Gakuin. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 

FOREWORD iii 

WHO S WHO AMONG OUR CONTRIBUTORS v 

TABLE OF CONTENTS viii 

Part I Japan Today 

Chapter I A Social and Political Survey, 1935 

The Editor 3 

Chapter II An Economic Survey of Japan, 1935 

H. Vere Redman 41 

Chapter III State Shinto During 1935 

D. C. Holtom 57 

Chapter IV Problems of Present-day Buddhism 

Beatrice Lane Suzuki 77 

Chapter V The Catholic Church in Japan at the 

Present Time Yoshigoro Taguchi 89 

Part II The Christian^ Movement 

Chapter VI The Christian Church in 1935 

Charles Wheeler Iglehart 119 

Chapter VII Christian Education in Japan 

Shigeharu Kimura 141 

Chapter VIII The New Evangelistic Strategy in 

Japan Toyohiko Kagawa 147 

Chapter IX Rural Conditions and Prospects in 

Aomori Ken George S. Noss ... .. 159 



CONTENTS Jx 

Page 

Chapter X Medical Cooperatives in Japan 

R. D. McCoy 177 

Chapter XI The Development of Hymnology in 

Japan Koh Yuki 189 

Chapter XII Church Architecture in Japan 

William Merrell Varies 203 

Chapter XIII The Abolition Movement 

E. C. Hennigar 209 

Chapter XIV Christian Literature in Formosa 

(Taiwan) Hugh MacMillan 221 

Part III Reports 

1. The National; Christian Council of Japan 

William Axling 229 

2. The Federation of Christian Missions 

A. R. Stone 241 

3. The Christian Literature Society 

S. H. Wainright 271 

4. The Bible Societies in Japan G. H. Vinall 275 

5. The National Christian Educational Association 

T. Miyoshi 281 

6. The School of Japanese Language and Culture 

Darley Downs 283 

7. The Missionaries Mutual Aid Association of 

Japan F. W. Heckelman 291 

8. The Missions Mutual Fire Protective Association 

Herbert V. Nicholson 297 

9. The Japan Christian News Agency M. S. Murao 299 



X CONTENTS 

Page 
Part IV Missionary Obituaries 

Obituaries for 1935-1936 Albert Oltmans 309 

Part V Directories and Statistics 

1. English Speaking Congregations The Editor .... 337 

2. German Speaking Congregations Egon Hessell 341 

3. Christian Educational Institutions M. Takumi 343 

4. Christian Social Work Institutions 

Paul V. Oltman 357 

5. Headquarters of Religious and Social Work 

Organizations Paul V. Oltman 379 

6. Statistics Mrs. F. W. Heckelman & The Editor 385 

7. Missionary Directory Elma R. Tharp .. 399 



PART I 



PART I 
JAPAN TO-DAY 

Chapter I 
A SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SURVEY, 1935 

The Editor 

As is customary in Japan, the new year of 1935 
was auspiciously opened with greetings from high 
officials. And while such formal expressions are 
commonly floridly grandiloquent, sharing in the 
festive gayety of the season, yet they indicate the 
temper of the times and reveal interesting aspects 
of Japanese psychology. "Conditions have been 
favorable for Japan," said Premier Okada. "Her 
national power has steadily increased. Because 
of our expansion, difficult situations have arisen at 
home and abroad. There is nothing strange in 
these difficulties. An expanding country must 
take troubles in its stride, and must always con 
sider itself as facing a critical period. . . . There 
is a mountain of problems, political, economic, 
and social, in domestic affairs and foreign rela 
tions. But we face that mountain courageously, 
and will climb and cross it. The course we are to 
pursue as a nation was fixed 3,000 years ago, and 
it has undergone no change in the interval. The 
task before us is to unite, taking to heart the great 
teachings of our unbroken line of sovereigns, and 



e JAPAN TO-DAY 

With the advent of the first anniversary of the 
Cabinet, July 8, it was rather grudingly recog 
nized that the Okada group had gained somewhat 
in strength during; the year; and while it had not 
been able to give much reality to its promises pre 
viously made, yet it had at least been able to 
maintain a moderately smooth and successful 
government. In May the Premier organized a 
National Policy Investigation Council, which was 
to be a semi-permanent institution not sharing the 
fate of cabinets. It was expected to formulate 
immutable national policies that would survive all 
changes of cabinet. The organization was to be 
a purely advisory body without any authority of 
its own, to give advice on important matters of 
State when asked by the Premier. Actually, how 
ever, this Council seems to have come to nothing, 
and as 1936 was to show, really disappeared with 
the Okada cabinet. At the time, however, it gave 
strength to the Okada cabinet by lining up repre 
sentative and influential interests with the govern 
ment. 

In the international realm, the Okada cabinet 
directed during its first year the participation of 
Japan in the preliminary naval conversations at 
London, abrogation of the Washington naval 
treaty, and the transfer to Manchukuo by the 
Soviet Union of the Chinese Eastern Railway. 
Of course, the Okada Cabinet itself can hardly be 
held responsible for the fact that these events took 
place. 

One of the chief sources of strength in the Cab 
inet was the presence of Mr. Takahashi, one of 
the ablest financiers Japan has ever had. But as 
1936 was to show, the fight he was carrying was 



A SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SURVEY, 1935 

to be a losing one. The wild horses which the 
cabinet was riding were eventually to succeed in 
throwing their mounts. This in itself is evidence 
that the Cabinet was in favor with the statesmen 
surrounding the Throne and together with them 
was trying to hold the military in check, and also 
that the cabinet rapprochement with the Minseito 
was feared as a step towards the rehabilitation of 
party government. 

It is well to recall that on the 22nd of December, 
1935, there was observed the fiftieth anniversary 
of the introduction of cabinet government in 
Japan. 

The Political Parties and the Diet 

The most conspicuous fact in government in 
Japan today is the ineffectiveness of the political 
parties. The last general election took place four 
years ago. And throughout this time there has 
been no parliamentary basis of government. The 
Saito and the Okada Cabinets, though described 
as abnormal, are super-party or national govern 
ments, and it is now beginning to look as if the 
powers that be are intent on making this type of 
government normal. For various reasons the 
political parties and their parliamentary basis 
have been discredited, and it must be admitted 
that in spite of the fact that Japan is a constitu 
tional government committed to the party system, 
there is strong Opposition to this form of admin 
istration and a determined effort in some quarters 
to keep the political parties discredited and to 
prevent them from becoming of any dominant im 
portance in the affairs of state. The army and the 



8 JAPAN TO-DAY 

political parties are really rivals, and since the 
time of the Manchurian incident there is no doubt 
but that the military has the power, and for a 
considerable time to come, can force the parties 
into a position of impotence, and cause the estab 
lishment of national governments. 

In the meantime, the parties play a sparring 
game as best they can. And although the political 
situation has been called stagnant, yet there have 
been taking place certain interesting realignments. 
For some two years there had been nominal co 
operation between the Seiyukai and the Minseito, 
the two leading parties. The cooperation, how 
ever, was not really sincere, and had little purpose 
other than to strengthen the parties as against the 
government. And when the attitudes of the 
parties towards the Cabinet came to diverge, the 
Seiyukai growing more hostile, and the Minseito 
becoming more sympathetic, the cooperation be 
tween the two came to anj end. This relationship 
was terminated in May. 

Since the induction of the Okada Cabinet the 
Seiyukai had lost seven of its most influential 
members: Finance Minister Takahashi, Commun 
ications Minister Takejiro Tokonami, Railway 
Minister Shinya Uchida, Agricultural Minister T. 
Yamazaki, Mr. Mochizuki, Dr. Mizuno, and Mr. 
Kiyoshi Akita. These were all expelled from the 
party because they defied its wishes and joined 
either the Cabinet or the Council organized by the 
Premier. Furthermore, the party has been divided 
within itself. One faction, led by Dr. Kisaburo 
Suzuki, the party president, and Mr. Fusanosuke 
Kuhara advocates relentless opposition to the 
Okada government. A section faction has been 



A SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SURVEY, 1935 

more friendly towards the expelled group than 
towards those directing the party politics. And 
yet a third group, led by Mr. Keisuke Mochizuki, 
while dissatisfied with the present leadership of 
the party, was unwilling to make a disturbance 
within the party and preferred to watch the situ 
ation calmly. 

For some time the Minseito party had been in 
partial support of the cabinet, and with the^ as 
sumption of its presidency by Chuji Machida, 
Commerce Minister, it became essentially a gov 
ernment party. This mutual rapprochement of 
Premier Okada and the Cabinet with the Minsei 
to indicated the desire of the Premier to seek 
cordial cooperation with the political parties, and 
suggests that the Premiers at least have been 
sincere in wishing for party government. As a 
result of this alignment, it was prophesied in 
January that the national government was now 
discarding its super-party attitude, and that the 
Minseito, if its numbers could be increased by the 
addition of the disgruntled members of the Koku- 
min Domei, might hope to become the majority 
party at the next general election. And it appears 
probable that the party sympathies of Premier 
Okada was one of the causes of the fascist out 
bursts against the Cabinet to take place in 1936. 

The third party, the Kokumin Domei, led by 
Mr. Kenzo Adachi, was also divided against itself. 
One group openly advocated merger with the 
Minseito, while another group was committed to 
the formation of a new party. But all talk of a 
new party s being organized came to naught. The 
variety of dissenters from the older parties found 
no common basis of union, nor did anyone dis- 



10 JAPAN TO-DAY 

cover a platform which was of sufficient im 
portance to induce an adequate following. 

The strange situation of political parties in 
Japan has been well interpreted by Dr. Washio: 
"The parliamentary practice in this country is 
upside down, the reversal of such practice in 
other countries. The power of government is not 
obtained as the result of elections, but a majority 
in election is obtained as the result of having the 
power of government. The dispenser of govern 
ment power is the Genro and the influences sur 
rounding him. The minority party of non-party 
influence is appointed to government power by 
the recommendation of the Genro and becomes 
the majority party or comes to obtain majority 
support in the succeeding election. Almost an 
invariable rula of elections has been that the gov 
ernment party wins."* And a frank statement of 
the present situation, as well as of a deep desire 
for the maintenance of parliamentary politics., 
appeared in the editorial column of the Kokumin 
Shimbun of August 3 : "Political parties have been 
made an object of public hatred since the May 
15th incident. Nationalism has carried everything 
before it and the political parties have fallen into 
the background. The military has been predom 
inant in Japan since the May 15 incident. When 
parliamentary politics asserted themselves, the 
military remained under pressure of partymen for 
a long time. Reduction of divisions had to be en 
forced against the will of the army. In reaction 
to the long depression, the army has lifted its 
head again taking advantage of the May 15th in- 

* The Japan Advertiser, August 6, 1935. 



A SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SURVEY, 1935 11 

cident. However, there is one strong factor in the 
mind of the Japanese people which cannot be re 
moved. In spite of their lack of confidence in 
parliamentary politics, they still adhere to par 
liamentary government." 

The 67th session of the Diet was held between 
December 26 and March 26. At an extraordinary 
session, November 27-December 10, 1934, the 
Seiyukai had hurled its "bomb-shell" motion ask 
ing for 180,000,000 for relief of the Tohoku and 
the typhoon-stricken districts. Premier Okada 
stalled off dissolution by a vague promise of 15,- 
000,000, and the Seiyukai attack was only parti 
ally successful. Yet little was actually accom 
plished. As the Hochi Shimbun remarked, "The 
Diet has become more of an institution for the ex 
posure of irregularities than a legislative organ."* 
Of many bills proposed, only few were passed. 
All the important political measures introduced 
by the Cabinet, including those having to do with 
rice, silk, iron and steel, the Kamchatka fisheries, 
peace preservation and punishment of reaction 
aries, were shelved. The opposition of the Seiyu 
kai was in part responsible for the stalemate. The 
three months of the session were largely spent in 
discussion of violation of personal rights by the 
judiciary, of the so-called scandal according to 
which Minister Tokonami was accused of having 
received 500,000 yuan from Chang Hsueh-liang 
some years ago, and of the Minobe theory. The 
parties were rather generally discredited in the 
Diet session, and party government seemed to 
have become even more remote. According to Dr. 
Washio s able account, the Diet session revealed 

* Editorial, March 1, 1935. 



12 JAPAN TO-DAY 

that (1) the military expenditure for the future 
is not going to be reduced. In last year s session 
of the Diet a gradual reduction of army expendi 
ture was at least demanded by the political parties 
and promised by the army, though indefinitely. 
In the present session, however, the War and 
Navy Ministers stated that both army and navy 
expenditures are going to increase in the future. 
The army does not anticipate reduction in Man- 
churian expenditure, armament improvement is 
still far from complete, and the navy has a third 
supplementary building program. (2) The prob 
lem of rural relief will continue to be neglected. 
The Seiyukai program was not seriously meant. 
And even if the funds demanded had been appro 
priated they would not benefit the average small 
farmer and tenant. They would merely promote 
improvement works, from which the average 
farmer would not even get the wage of a coolie. 
(3) The issue of controlled economy versus the 
old laissez faire, particularly as it relates to rural 
relief, has led to a sharp difference of interests 
regardless of party cleavage in and outside of the 
Diet. Both the rice control and cocoon control 
bills introduced by the Cabinet were intended to 
encourage cooperative marketing by farmers. But 
both bills were shelved. And for this the urban 
interests were responsible. (4) The denunciation 
of Dr. Minobe s functional theory of the Emperor 
by the Diet itself amounted to the self-limitation 
by the political parties of their own power. "Poli 
tical democracy," writes Washio,~"has been dis 
credited by the denunciation of the Minobe 
theory. His theory was the product of an age 
when party government was flourishing. It is 



A SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SURVEY, 1935 13 

ironical that the parties themselves chose to re 
present this reactionary sign of the times. The 
parties thereby renounced the power to which 
they might have aspired and were thought to be 
aspiring before the Manchurian incident. Last 
year s session of the Diet began at least with a 
defense of parliamentarianism by Mr. Tokonami 
representing the Seiyukai and seconded by Mr. 
Machida representing the Minseito, but the ses 
sion just closed ended with such self-renunciation 
of parliamentary power."* 

And yet there is no need here or elsewhere for 
pessimism to have the last word. The Tokyo 
Nichi Nichi editorial of April 10 showed insight 
in saying that perhaps the only important achieve 
ment of the Diet session was the demonstration of 
the fact that still no major national move can be 
undertaken in Japan without approval of the 
Imperial Diet. "In other words the session served 
to show that the parties lacked importance but 
constitutional government and party politics con 
tinue to be supreme." 

Atj the end of the 67th session of the Diet, the 
parties were represented as follows: 

Seiyukai 260 seats 

Minseito 118 

Kokumin Domei 30 

Proletarians and others 25 

Independent _ 3 

The Army in Politics 

The struggle of the army to maintain itself 
dominant in the affairs of government continues 



* The Japan Advertiser, April 6, 1935. 



14 JAPAN TO-DAY 

unabated, or perhaps it would be more accurate 
to say certain aggressive groups in the army. For 
the army is not a unity. "The public seems to be 
working under the belief that all army leaders 
maintain a very vigorous policy. This is wrong. 
The army leaders include radical, relatively 
liberal, conservative and progressive elements. 
However, they are all strong, as far as Japan s 
external policy is concerned, but differ on internal 
policy. Why does the Army lead Japan at 
present? It is because Japan s important national 
policies are working on the axle of Manchukuo. 
It is the Army that created Manchukuo as it is. 
As regards internal policy, the army leaders are 
always disputing among themselves."* 

For purposes of instructing the public in army 
ideals, the military has resorted to pamphleteer 
ing. Two important pamphlets were published in 
1935, the first on February 26, on the first anni 
versary of which, in 1936, the most significant out 
burst of violence on the part of the "young- 
officers" was to take place in Tokyo. The army is 
severe in rejecting all western or democratic 
ideology as incompatible with the institutions of 
Japan, and the February 26 pamphlet was espe 
cially concerned with "spiritual" education of the 
people. The Japanese people, it pointed out, 
have lived in peace and maintained their original 
nature since time immemorial. The Japanese na- 
tion retains the natural and unspoiled virtues of 
the human being, which it has elevated to a very 
high degree of refinment. The national virtues 
cannot be compared with the morality of those 
nations given to fighting among themselves on the 

* The Nagoya Shinaichi, Editorial, August 3, 1935. 



A SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SURVEY, 1935 15 

continents, and whose souls have been tyrannized 
and deformed. The morality of these nations is 
composed of individualism, egotism, and materi 
alism. The Japanese sense of "self" is not the 
"ego." The "self" is to them a member of the 
State, of which the Emperor is the nucleus. It goes 
back to the ancestors and descends to the genera 
tions to come. In other words, "self" is inseparable 
from the State. From this conception spring filial 
piety and loyalty to the Emperor. It also gives 
Japanese their ideas of life and the world. If it 
could be extended to all human beings their 
eventual welfare would be assured. It is the army 
which in season and out of season insists upon the 
idea of "national morals," maintaining the unique 
ness of Japan and its institutions, and strenuously 
denying that foreign conceptions of the state can 
have any significance for Japan. Especially is the 
army concerned to prevent the breakdown of the 
most intense form of what might be called a pre- 
rational unity of loyalty. The idea of individual 
ism in any form is therefore bitterly resisted as 
egotism or selfishness. 

On the fourth of September, a second pamphlet 
was distributed to the number of 100,000 copies. 
It was concerned with the international situation, 
and with the justification of Japan s present activ 
ities in relation thereto. The pamphlet contained 
an important statement of the modern situation as 
it is widely understood by the majority in Japan, 
and its contents therefore deserve to be stated and 
given careful consideration. According to a sum 
marized account, the pamphlet said : 

"International relations in the past have been, 
in brief, marked by the merciless law of the sur- 



13 JAPAN TO-DAY 

vival of the fittest and the struggle for existence 
and by endless conflicts among self-interested 
states. This circumstance has naturally given rise 
to such chaotic conditions as are now being wit 
nessed, the weak or the dissatisfied trying to 
break the existing state of affairs and to open 
brighter prospects for themselves. 

"From this it may be surmised that no peace 
can be brought about upon the earth by the estab 
lishment of a hundred Leagues of Nations or the 
conclusion of a thousand non-aggression pacts, as 
long as this injustice or irrationality among na 
tions, the fundamental cause of international 
disputes, remains unredressed. Rational distribu 
tion of territories, natural resources and popula 
tion, restraint of passion for power in strong 
states, this should be the keynote .of international 
peace. The human race is now confronted with 
an extensive deadlock which has resulted from 
the cultivation of free competition in the past. 

"Now, what is the position of Japan at this 
moment and what is the situation in the Far East? 
The population of Japan ranks 170 per square 
kilometer in density. The scarcity of important 
products compels Japanese to import the greater 
part of their daily necessities, iron, oil, cotton, 
wool, etc., though they may get their food in their 
own dominion. If this situation continues, the 
Japanese nation will be exposed to starvation. 
Hence the only way open to the Japanese is emig 
ration, which might solve the population question 
to some extent, and the encouragement of indus 
try and commerce, which might supplement the 
paucity of natural resources. Now Japanese emi 
gration has been more or less shut out in America, 



A SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SURVEY, 1935 17 

Australia, Canada, and Brazil, while Japanese 
goods are being checked in their advance by the 
imposition of high tariffs or import quotas. On 
the other hand, the Asiatic continent, which nur 
tures half the population of the world, has become 
the prey of the powers in their contest for the 
acquisition of territories, so that all Asia except 
Japan, China, and Siam have been turned into 
colonies of the European and American states, 
and the only Asiatic state which is playing a lead 
ing role is Japan. Asia is the life-line for the 
Asaitic race but possesses only secondary import 
ance for the European race. 

"The birth of Manchukuo and Japan-Manchu- 
kuo cooperation has a deep significance in cor 
recting the world policy of the Powers and as a 
foundation stone for the realization of moral 
peace which aims at universal prosperity. It may 
also give the power of self-regeneration to the Far 
East and signify a step forward for the material 
ization of the lofty ideal just referred to. Some 
westerners resident in the Far East are afraid that 
the influence of the white man might be expelled 
from the Far East by Japan, and say that England 
and America must cooperate to resist Japan s 
advance. But all the people of the earth are 
brothers. They should love and assist one another. 
Ugly ambitions of hegemony should be eschewed 
so that a paradise of justice and virtue may be 
realized on earth." 

These pamphlets both, indicate the army sense 
of responsibility for guiding the mind and the 
policies of the nation. From time to time how 
ever, there bursts into overt expression the smoul 
dering opposition to army control. In its editorial 



18 JAPAN TO-DAY 

column of August 3, the Nagoya Shinaichi frankly 
stated: "For a long time the Army has been made 
a subject of public criticisms because of reckless 
political activities resorted to by some 1 : officers. . . 
Since the Manchurian incident, the army has been 
in the saddle and really exercises ai guiding influ 
ence on politics. Almost all important national 
policies at present are formulated by the Army. 
The Government blindly follows the Army. No 
important policy of the Government is allowed to 
be practised without the understanding of the 
Army. The Army is also led by a few influential 
persons. This arbitrary attitude of the Army has 
placed it in a false position) in the public eye. If 
the popular discontent with the Army lasts, a 
serious situation will develop eventually. Even 
though the Army continues in power for years to 
come, the people will not respect it." 

An even more vigorous outburst appeared in the 
Fukuoka Nichi Nichi of January 11, 1936: "The 
glory of the military continues to dominate Japa 
nese politics. It cannot be denied that the voice 
of the military has carried much weight in matters 
of great national importance since the Manchu 
rian and the May 15th incidents. The Manchurian 
incident had the appearance of happening sud 
denly, but it had far-reaching political, economic, 
and international significance. Historically it 
rounded off the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese 
wars. Socially, it marked a new epoch in politics 
and economy in Japan. The statesmen had little 
to do with the incident; it was the outcome of 
moves by the military. As the statesmen were 
ignored in what happened, the military were 
placed in a position to meddle in every subsequent 



A SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SURVEY, 1935 19 

State affair of importance Following the 

Manchurian incident, Japan withdrew from the 
League of Nations and demanded naval equality, 
showing that national leaders were being led by 
the military and unable to show their courage and 
take the helm. They thus lost their political back 
ground. It is only natural, therefore, that the 
public believes mistakenly that the military are 
the controlling element. The military may domi 
nate the nation for a time, but their influence is 
certain to sink rapidly unless they cooperate with 
the statesmen in accordance with the will of the 
Emperor Meiji. In this connection we urge the 
restoration of freer speech." 

It is further clear that there exists a deep cleav 
age between the statesmen that surround the 
Throne and the more radical group within the 
Army. Such leaders as Saito, Makino, Takahashi, 
and 1 Prince Saionji are more sympathetic with the 
constitutionalism of the Meiji Period than is the 
case with many of those influential in army circles. 
It has been revealed that those responsible for the 
May 15th (1932) incident were intent on accom 
plishing certain radical reforms in government, 
such as the abolition of the political parties and the 
Diet system, state ownership of land, etc. The 
attempt was to establish an "Imperial Way" form 
of government, a sort of utopia such as was be 
lieved to exist before the establishment of the 
constitution. In reply, apologists for the constitu 
tion urged that while in form the constitution did 
not exist before 1889, when it was promulgated, 
yet the spirit of a constitutional regime has existed 
since the founding of the Empire. "The Empire 
regime of Japan in ancient times was not like that 



2ft JAPAN TO-DAY 

of the despotic rule witnessed in Europe of the 
medieval age, but was based on the support of the 
people. The Imperial Constitution, therefore, is 
the reflection of this spirit that has existed since 
the founding of the Empire. Viewed in this light, 
the change of this Constitutional regime means the 
overthrow of the Emperor regime. Such an idea 
is absolutely unpardonable. To change our ex 
pression, the Constitution reveals the general 
principle of the Emperor regime and codified let 
ter of the Imperial Way. The Imperial Diet is an 
organization ofi the people to support the Emper 
or regime. To make the function of the Diet per 
fect means to glorify the Imperial Way all the 
more. The theory to the effect that the Imperial 
Way exists outside the provisions of the Consti 
tution is a terrible idea that destroys the glory of 
Japan s national construction."* 

To what extent the army leaders share these 
radical anticonstitutional ideas is not clear, but it 
is safe to say that it is the army which is the chief 
foe of the development of parliamentary politics 
in Japan today. "A Retired Naval Officer" is frank 
to say that the political party system "has proved 
itself alien in both theory and practice to the policy 
of Japan."** 

The Minobe Incident 

One of the most important political events of 
the year, and one of the most difficult to handle 
was the famous Minobe Incident. Dr. Tatsukichi 
Minobe is professor-emeritus of Tokyo Imperial 

* The Osaka Asahi, Editorial, September 18, 1935. 
** Contemporary Japan, December, 1935, p. 341. 



A SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SURVEY, 1935 21 

University, and was a member of the House of 
Peers under Imperial appointment in recognition 
of his legal scholarship. For thirty years he had 
been giving lectures on the constitution of Japan, 
and had published his interpretation of it in well- 
known writings. Dr. Minobe s theory is called 
the "organ-theory," according to which the status 
of the Emperor under the Constitution is de 
scribed in legal terms as the head of a juridical 
person. For some thirty yearsi this theory has 
been under debate in Japan, so that in itself the 
idea is not new. And during the time when Pro 
fessor Minobe was lecturing, and even when he 
was appointed a member of the House; of Peers it 
was well understood how he interpreted the con 
stitution in reference to the status of the Emperor. 
His theory had not in any sense been taught 
sub rosa. And that it should have been chal 
lenged now indicates simply the temper of the 
times. 

On February 18 Baron T. Kikuchi attacked the 
Minobe theory in the House of Peers, thus open 
ing a dispute which did not come to a settlement 
in 1935, and which indeed in certain of its aspects 
is insoluble. The "organ-theory" became a stick 
with which to beat all western or "secular" con 
ceptions of government. It was rightly observed 
that there are but two types of governmental 
theory: democracy and theocracy. And it was 
at this point that the discussion raged. Dr. Mino 
be was described as guilty of lese majeste, as a 
mutineer, a rebel, a bandit scholar. The Great 
Japan Patriotic Federation in session at Gifu in 
March said: "Alas! where is the fundamental 
spirit of the Empire? The Japanese Empire. 



22 JAPAN TO-DAY 

pure without parallel of all the world s countries, 
has been spoiled by this ignoble scholar. It is time 
for Japan to do away with such an undesirable 
person." 

It was pointed out by the military that the 
fundamental basis of the Minobe theory of the 
State is individualism. To suggest that the State 
is a legal person, and the Emperor something like 
the managing director leads to the conclusion 
that sovereign rights rest with the people. This 
theory would be acceptable to those educated in 
liberalism and individualism, but would be ruin 
ous to the national structure of Japan. The 
Japanese state is an extension of the family, and 
the question of relationship of rights and obliga 
tions between Sovereign and people does not 
exist. It should therefore be made clear that the 
Diet is only an organ to assist the Emperor; it is 
not an organ coordinate with the supreme com 
mand or one to contend with it. The Emperor and 
the State form "one perfect body." The foreign 
idea of sovereign rights belonging to the State 
alone is alien to Japan. When on March 13, Mr. 
Teijiro Yamamoto, of the Seiyukai, attacked the 
theory from the floor of the Diet, he said it made 
him shudder to think that such a theory had been 
given circulation among the colonies of Japan. 

In a pamphlet, Mr. Ryohei Uchida, president of 
the Black Dragon Society, stated : "Dr. Minobe 
looks at it from the democratic standpoint of 
Europe and America. . . Japan was not founded, 
it was created by Ame no Minakanushi no Mikoto, 
who handed to his direct descendants the rights 
of sovereignty. The Emperor is of a line unbroken 
for ages eternal. The Emperor is the nation, and 



A SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SURVEY, 1935 23 

therefore His Majesty s sovereign rights are ab 
solutely limitless, sacred and inviolable. To inter 
pret the status of the Emperor of Japan in a legal 
way is wrong, for the Emperor is a deified charac 
ter above all laws. . . The Constitution is a code 
for the guidance of subjects in serving the Em 
peror and not a definition or regulation of the 
Emperor s powers."* And it would appear that 
all that remained to be said was the statement of 
a retired naval officer to the effect that "The 
Emperor is the personal incarnation of Divinity 
and therefore free from all evils and errors, re 
presenting all that is good and perfect."** 

In relation 1 to the dispute Premier Okada found 
himself in a very difficult situation, for his attitude 
showed that he was sympathetic with Dr. Minobe 
and did not wish to push the case. The Minobe 
theory, moreover, had sympathizers in high circles. 
Baron Ikki s connection with the theory had had 
a long history. Years ago when the theory came 
up for discussion in the Privy Council, Prince 
Yamagata and Count Ito asked the government to 
dismiss Minobej from the University. The dismis 
sal did not materialize, however, because of the 
intervention of Marquis Okuma and Baron Ikki. 
Baron Ikki had himself supported the theory 
while lecturing at the University. Baron K ikuchi 
of course was aware of these facts, and therefore 
catechised the members of the Cabinet requesting 
a frank statement of attitude. Premier Okada 
hedged. "Personally I do not understand the 
theory thoroughly," he said to the lower house. 
"I do not believe, however, that Dr. Minobe s 



The Japan Advertiser, April 1, 1935. 
Contemporary Japan, December 1935, p. 341. 



24 JAPAN TO-DAY 

theory has ever caused people to err in their con 
ception of the status) of the nation, or to have 
made anyone less loyal to the Throne." And 
again more frankly, "Dr. Minobe s idea of the 
fundamental principle of the Empire is right, and 
I agree with it in general. There are, however, 
some questionable expresssions in his explanation 
of the status of the Emperor under the Constitu 
tion." To Baron Kikuchi, the Premier replied 
that the fundamental character of the Empire was 
a subject so sacred that he did not think it proper 
to argue about it. Admiral Mineo Osumi, Navy 
Minister replied with fine and full orthodoxy: "I 
believe in the nationality of the Empire which 
shines like the sun and moon, unequalled in the 
world." 

The most interesting attempt to> combine the 
sacred and secular points of view was that which 
appeared in the Fukuoka Nichi Nichi editorial of 
March 8 : "Dr. Minobe s legal interpretation of 
the Emperor as the head of the State may be cor 
rect, but there is some impropriety in the words 
used by him to explain it in his book and in his 
speech in the Diet. The Japanese people have 
been very careful in discussing the status of the 
Emperor. Chikafusa Kitabatake, a loyal noble 
of some 600 years ago, wrote that the status of 
the Emperor is so exalted that it is near to God/ 
Extreme respect has been and should be paid to 

the Emperor by the whole nation. The 

Emperor is the center of our respect and worship. 
Westerners often think that there is something 
mystic in the views of the Japanese people about 

their sacred Sovereign. Article III of the 

Constitution states that the Emperor is sacred 



A SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SURVEY, 1935 25 

and inviolable. Dr. Minobe would have it read: 
The Emperor exercises all the, rights of the State 
as the highest organ. This may be legally cor 
rect, but it does not meet thei requirements of the 
people or please them. Their feelings are out 
raged by the expression. Were one to say that 
cherry blossoms are organs for reproduction to 
someone who is admiring their beauty, his plea 
sure would be spoiled. Dr. Minobe s expression 
is akin to this." 

Although, as we have seen, Dr. Minobe had 
friends, yet the Hokkai Times of April 17, in an 
editorial advocating freedom of speech, com 
plained that nobody in Japan had yet come for 
ward to defend him. "Dr. Minobe during his uni 
versity career of the thirty years has taught a 
great many students in his theory. Scores of thou 
sands of men must have read his commentaries on 
the constitution. There must be a great number 
of men who support his theory. Yet, so far, not 
a single Japanese) has had the courage to come 
forward and defend Dr. Minobe in his isolation at 
the risk of personal peril from armed extremists 

and so-called militant patriots. It is 

clearly indicated that the Japanese people are 
losing their regard for freedom of speech as an 
essential ideal, or otherwise individuals of the na 
tion have lost the courage credited to them once 
by tradition and history." 

There were two problems which arose out of 
the discussion, one how to deal with Dr. Minobe, 
and the other how to clarify the national polity. 
Prosecution of Dr. Minobe was urged by various 
.croups. Tolerance of the professor was urged 
by the Tokyo Asahi and the Fukuoka Nichi Nichi. 



26 JAPAN TO-DAY 

Minobe agreed to withdraw "voluntarily" the of 
fensive writings, at the same time refusing to re 
cant. In April his three books were suppressed. 
And officials decided therefore not to take action 
against him. However various groups kept push 
ing for prosecution, and as a result of much ma- 
nceuvering, it was finally decided only in Septem 
ber that he would not be indicted. Ha resigned his 
lectureships in three 1 universities "of his own free 
will," and his seat in the House of Peers. Re 
peated pressure was brought to secure his recan 
tation, but without success. The Cabinet was 
criticised as apathetic, and from it was demanded 
a statement clarifying the national polity. This 
appeared on August 4, as follows: "The national 
polity of our nation was elucidated in the com 
mand given to the Imperial Grandson sent to 
earth by the Sun Goddess Amaterasu-O-Mikami, 
that the land shall be reigned over and governed 
by an unbroken line of Emperors for ages eter 
nal Thus it is clear that the sovereignty 

absolutely lies in the Emperor. If there are the 
ories which state that the sovereignty does not 
belong to the Emperor, and that the Emperor is to 
be regarded as an organ for the purpose of exer 
cising this power, they are absolutely counter to 
the basic principle of the national structure."* 
The statement would seem to be sufficiently clear, 
but) it evidently intends to shield Dr. Minobe, and 
was regarded as insincere by the army. And 
there is no doubt but that this dispute was a res 
ponsible element in creating the background out 
of which the Tokyo revolt of 1936 was to arise. 
In September, some 30 reactionaries met to dis- 



* Japan Advertiser, August 4, 1935. 



A SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SURVEY, 1935 27 

cuss the situation and agreed that Premier Okada 
was "ready for the spears of righteousness." They 
were not quite ready to adopt the point of view of 
some mediators that "the conception of the Jap 
anese nation on its polity will never be affected by 
a mere academic theory." 

Right and Left 

According to all appearances, the rights had it 
in 1935. In May, the well-known publicist, Mr. 
Washio, summarized the situation as follws: 
"Since the Manchurian incident it has been evi 
dent that liberalism in this country has been in 
retreat. Party government has been suspended 
since the tragic end of the Inukai Cabinet. In 
business, against the old capitalist laissez faire 
there has been a growing advocacy of State con 
trolled economy. Half encouraged by the State 
and half spontaneously in the spirit of self-help, 
the cooperative movement has grown among the 
farmers and there has developed a conflict of in 
terests with urban business influences. In the 
realm of ideas a Fascist vogue spread early in the 
days of the Manchurian affair, later superseded 
by the more indigenous voice of Nipponism. The 
unchallenged denunciation of Dr. Minobe s func 
tional theory definitely marked the retreat of lib 
eralism. 

"The decline of liberalism is a world tendency 
but its manifestation in this country has been 
made particularly vivid by the reassertion of the 
military influence in the w r ake of the Manchurian 
incident, on the one hand, and on the other, by 
the universal dispute of the political parties which 
even confirmed liberalists in principle will not dis- 



28 JAPAN TO-DAY 

pute. In three years the parties have done nothing 
to rehabilitate themselves. The internal division 
of the Seiyukai has been the most glaring illustra 
tion of its condemning itself. The party cooper 
ation movement, in which neither party has ever 
acted in sincerity is now definitely abandoned by 
the Minseito, which is in a position of profiting by 
the impending split of the rival party. 

"So far the retreat of liberalism has been defin 
ite and obvious. The confirmed liberals in prin 
ciple can do nothing but groan and look vaguely 
at the passing of the reactionary waves which 
they feel helpless to control. . . The retreat of 
liberalism is definite and irrevocable for some 
years at least,) but at the same time a further ad 
vance of reactionary influence is not to be looked 
for, barring the occurrence of some catastro 
phe."* 

Likewise the Hokkai Times of May 13 com 
mented editorially, "Conservatism and reaction 
are supreme in Japan today, and the trend is 
away from individualism to nationalism, from 
freedom to interference, from civilian to military 
notions and from worship of foreign countries to 
worship of Japan itself." And the end of the year, 
the Nagoya Shinaichi made its own protest: "In 
no other age has Japanism been more emphasized 
than at present. Throughout the country, nation 
alism is supreme. Its outstanding character 
istic is that it tends more toward materialism than 
toward spiritual qualities. The true spirit of 
Japan respects such spiritual matters as philan 
thropy, sympathy for the weak and generosity to 
ward those who do not resist. The present nation- 

* The Japan Advertiser, May 22, 1935. 



A SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SURVEY, 1935 29 

alism appears to be different from that of the past 
and contrary to the inner traits of the people. It 
has no bright side. In the vigorous nationalistic 
propaganda, the people have the impression that 
pressure is being brought to bear on them. Why 
is this? The answer is that the activities of the 

people are being restricted In the strict 

sense, the so-called Japanese Principle means pro 
pagation in the world of the true aspects of right 
eous Japan, not the taking of territories and mar 
kets belonging to others. Japan must re 
consider the situation and remedy the present 
form of its nationalism."* 

One of the commonest official justifications of 
Japanese activity on the continent of Asia is the 
statement that Japan is protecting the capitalistic 
world against Communism. The following state 
ment; is typical : "Japan s current attitude toward 
the independence of North China is nothing but 
righteous, since it is based exclusively on an 
unselfish consideration for the welfare of the 
Chinese populace. It is world knowledge that 
the people of the five northern provinces aro 
in need of protection from the growing Com 
munist menace."** The local authorities are 
likewise zealous to eradicate the communist idea 
root and branch from the Empire. The diffi 
culty of its accomplishment is enormously in 
creased by that fact that there are close points of 
contact between fascism, which has a powerful 
following in the army, and communism, which is 
espoused, one judges, by only small groups. In 
their economic ideals, fascism and communism re- 

* The Japan Advertiser, November 29, 1935. 
** The Osaka Asahi, November 30, 1935. 



30 JAPAN TO-DAY 

present two extremes which almost meet. Both 
are opposed to the concentration of wealth in the 
hands of the merchant and industrial class. The 
farmers constitute the backbone of the Japanese 
army : therefore the dominance of ; the farm point 
of view in the army, and the tragic economic 
plight of farmers, tends to drive the military away 
from the industrialists and into the bosom of the 
left-wing groups, economically. The result is 
that industrialists may hurl the "red" epithet at 
the fascists, although of course the army would 
violently disavow any espousal of features of Rus 
sian Communism other than its opposition to lais- 
sez faire capitalist economy. 

It was reported in July that a cadet in a regi 
ment of the Imperial Bodyguard Division was dis 
covered to be spreading communist doctrines 
among the soldiers. But the details of what goes 
on in the army are almost impossible of knowing. 
Such facts are not permitted to be published. Po 
litically, however, whatever radicalism exists in 
the army is along the fascist trend rather than 
the communist. Press bans also prevent one 
from knowing the situation among civilians. 
On March 2, a censorship order (in force since 
September of 1934) was lifted revealing a pre 
vious arrest of 48 communist suspects, chiefly 
students, in Sendai and Miyagi-ken, eight of 
whom were women. And on August 6 the 
lifting of another police ban (in force since 
April 2) made known the arrest of 61 reds in 
Kwansai in the spring and early summer. To in 
dicate the length to which the police bans may be 
extended, it may be mentioned that on August 24 
there was removed a press ban imposed October 



A SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SURVEY, 1335 31 

24, 1933, concerning a Korean roundup in which 
170 reds were arrested, and in which the recon 
struction of the Korean Communist movement 
was again thought to be smashed. In November 
of 1935 there were arrested in Tokyo and Osaka 
88 supposed members of the Japan Anarchistic 
Communist Party, thought to have originated in 
1933, and reported to have the following plat 
form : emancipation from the power of the gov 
ernment; formation of autonomous communes; 
abolition of the system of private ownership ; com 
munal ownership of land and the means of pro 
duction; abolition of the wage system; manage 
ment of production by workers and farmers; pub 
lic ownership of educational and cultural facili 
ties; abolition of artificial national frontiers. 

One of the strangest events of 1935 had to do 
with the suppression in December of Omotokyo, a 
semi-religious foundation. This mysterious cult is 
reported to have a membership of about 400,000 
believers, scattered throughout Japan, Korea, 
Manchukuo, and China. Its doctrines have been 
condemned as running counter to the national 
policy, and its leaders were jailed for lese majeste. 
The "Grand Master" of the cult, Mr. Onisaburo 
Deguchi, had been previously arrested, in 1921, 
for the same reason. The chief temple of the cult 
is at Ayabe, Kyoto Prefecture. Omotokyo repres 
ents a strange blend of religion and economic 
theory, a sort of mystical Internationale which is 
yet opposed to internationalism, of a sort which 
could only originate in Japan. The cult was 
founded in 1902 by a woman, one Nao Deguchi, 
who wrote down her teachings in a trance in the 
dark, according to the faith of the believers. 



32 JAPAN TO-DAY 

These form the scripture of the society. "Omoto" 
means "the great basis" or "foundation" of the 
universe. The teachings are that complete har 
mony among men must be the condition for attain 
ing peace and happiness. This world union should 
be brought about by spiritual means and not by 
political or military. Therefore all earnest be 
lievers in Christ, Buddha and God the Father 
should gather together under the holy banner of 
peace. To this end the Grand Master proposes a 
new world organization believing in God, the 
Heavenly Truth, the Common Way of heaven and 
earth. In recent years, it is said, the sect has 
taken on an extremely fascist tinge, spreading the 
gospel of "enhancement of the unparalleled policy 
of Japan, thereby consolidating the Imperial Way 
economy and the Imperial Way foreign policy." 
It is said also to disavow private property, and 
thus to be tinged with communism. The desire is 
to restore a primitive State such as is believed to 
have existed in the dim past in primitive ages. It 
has therefore engaged in encouragement of plots 
to destroy important statesmen near the Throne, 
and also to combat internationalism. The exact 
nature of the lese majeste charge has not been re 
vealed, but it appears to have to do with the belief 
that all secular rulers should be guided by one 
Ushitora-no-Konjin, the god of the universe. Ten 
truck loads of documentary evidence have been 
confiscated by the police in raids on the head 
quarters of the cult, and there should be no diffi 
culty in securing a conviction. 

Perhaps the chief significance of Omotokyo is 
that it represents but one bizarre expression of 
the Japanese inability to be satisfied with a 



A SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SURVEY, 1935 

national religion, and an attempt to combine the 
local with the universal. 

How the Wind Blows 

The reconstruction of the Higashi Hongan 
Temple in Asakusa, destroyed more than ten 
years ago, has begun. It will be constructed after 
the model of the Amida-do, a famous temple in 
Kyoto, and will be the first typical Buddhist tem 
ple of great size done in iron and concrete. The 
cost will be more than 1,000,000. An image 
dedicated to Kwannon, the Goddess of Mercy, for 
the spirits of the 13,000 cats and 22,000 dogs 
whose skins are used annually in the manufacture 
of samisen, was dedicated December 14 at the 
Ekoin temple in Ryogoku. Some 5,000 musicians, 
geisha and others who use the samisen raised the 
fund of 3,000. Three thousand Buddhist 
priests representing thirteen sects) gathered at the 
Hongan Temple in Tsukiji, November 4, to open 
the sixth national congress of Buddhism. In pro 
cession the priests marched to the plaza in front 
of the Imperial Palace where they shouted three 
banzai for the Emperor and the Empress. The 
main object of the congress was to unify all Bud 
dhist doctrines as taught and practiced in the 
Empire. Loudspeakers were used to relay the 
speeches, and a medical corps was on hand in case 
of accidents and illness. "Most of the intelli 
gentsia are non-religious. Most of the Buddhist 
believers are outside this class. They are being 
forced by the sects to contribute funds to the tem 
ples, and it is no exaggeration to say that our 
Buddhist temples are kept up by the people that 
do little thinking. Spiritual salvation, the para- 



34 JAPAN TO-DAY 

mount object of Buddhism, is utterly lost by the 
priests, whose energies are absorbed in prevailing 
on innocent believers to contribute money. Some 
of the priests are so indiscreet that they live in 
luxury on the money thus obtained. They com 
pete among themselves for the positions of head 
priests of well-known temples or Lord Abbots. . . 
There would seem to be some truth to the state 
ment that religion is an opiate . The Education 
Ministry has decided to work for religious purific 
ation. Religious circles should feel ashamed that 
this is considered necessary."* "There are high 
Buddhist priests whose sayings are affecting the 
mind of many people favorably, but such persons 
are very few. Most of the Buddhist priests in 
Japan make religion a means of their living. Their 
behavior is inferior to that of laymen. . . . The 
Japanese nation at large is inclined to despise 
Buddhist priests. People are liable to pay no 
respect at all to Buddhist priests. The Japanese 
believe superstition is the life of any religion. 
This is a deplorable tendency. The elevation of 
the character of Buddhist priests is essential in 
connection with the improvement of the status of 
Buddhist religion in Japan."** 

"The existence of heretical religions and un 
desirable cults is a great humiliation to a civilized 
country. In Japan, they are especially ram 
pant."*** "Of late, there has been an increase 
in quasi-religious bodies in this country. For this, 
social unrest is responsible. When a community 
is not sure what to believe, there is room for the 



Chugai, editorial, April 20, 1935. 

Hokkai Times, editorial, September 22, 1935. 

Nagoya Shinaichi, editorial, December 12, 1935. 



A SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SURVEY, 1935 35 

activity of quasi-religionists. . . What astounds 
us is that there are few new religions which 
arouse any amount of enthusiasm unless they are 
objectionable, appeal to the sexual impulse and 

foster superstitions The authorities have 

shown themselves indifferent to quasi-religions in 
the past. They control Shintoism, Buddhism and 
Christianity which are legitimate religions, but 
somehow they have failed to scrutinize other 
religions, including the new ones."* 

For thirty-six years there has been a separation 
between religion and education in Japan, and the 
result, it is said, has been the eradication of reli 
gious sentiment. "In our eagerness to protect 
education from religion, we have nipped the 
religious spirit in the bud. So in our eagerness to 
protect education from politics, we have neglected 
civic education."** Therefore the authorities of 
the Education Ministry, noting the tendency to 
wards materialism, have created a Religious Edu 
cation Investigation Commission. "It would seem 
that the officials are pinning hope in religion as a 
means of saving the situation arising out of the 
increase among students of Marxism and other 
ideas which are inimical to the traditional cus 
toms of the country."** It is prophesied that the 
instructions to be issued to the schools as a result 
of the recommendations of this Commission will 
be the most important ones issued since religions 
were banished from the schools in the 32nd year 
of Meiji. In comment, however, the Nichi Nichi 
of October 7, states : "We are apt to forget the fact 
that there is no meaning in speaking of religion 



Asahi, Editorial, December 9, 1935. 
Asahi, Editorial, October 7, 1935. 



36 JAPAN TO-DAY 

unless we are referring to this or that established 
religion. Ordinarily, when we speak of religion, 
we mean Christianity, Buddhism, Tenrikyo, or 
some other old-established cult. It would be as 
futile to attempt to teach religion without teach 
ing any of the established cults as to attempt to 
teach how drink tastes, without giving Japanese 
sake, beer, or grape wine. And to teach pupils 
any specified religion will be like forcing it on 
them, which is contrary to the Constitution, which 
guarantees freedom of belief." 

"Barbarous is a country where prostitution is 
legalized and where a contract involving immoral 
ity can be enforced. Of late, public opinion in 
Japan has been overwhelmingly in favor of abo 
lition of the system of licensed houses, which is a 
disgrace to a civilized nation. . . We want Home 
Minister Goto to make a firm resolve to end legal 
ized vice at once."* It was reported recently 
that, in 1500 villages in Japan there were no 
medical facilities whatever. There are roughly 
seven licensed practicioners per 10,000 inhabit 
ants throughout the whole of Japan, but while the 
proportion in towns is 12 per 10,000, that in the 
country is 5 per 10,000. The people of Japan 
smoked 36,631,198,000 cigarettes and 49,079,959 
pounds of cut tobacco in the 1934-35 fiscal year, 
"The Formosan earthquake (of April 21) was 
very severe, and many lives were taken, and great 
damage done to property. Formosa is in the earth 
quake belt and has had frequent earthquakes. 
Yet the streets and the buildings are not quake- 
proof. Thus, the damages were serious. That 
humanity continues to do so little to resist acts of 



* Jiji, Editorial, April 30, 1935. 



A SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SURVEY, 1935 37 

God, especially when it knows how to, is really 
strange. Oriental people ought to be ashamed of 
the low level of their application of the results of 
studies in natural science. The people of Japan 
are strong in war, but they have contributed litle 
to the welfare of humanity in the realm of natural 
science."* 

Japan s population is nearing 100,000,000. The 
major figures revealed by the October census are: 

Total-1935 Total-1930 

Japan Proper 69,251,265 64,450,005 

Korea _ 22,898,685 21,058,305 

Formosa 5,212,719 4,592,537 

Saghalien 331,949 295,196 

Kwantung 1,134,074 955,741 

S.M.R. Zone 522,689 372,270 

Mandates 102,238 69,626 



Totals _ 99,453,629 91,793,680 

There has been a continuation of the movement 
of the population toward the cities. The Empire s 
127 cities have an aggregate of 22,665,920 people. 
Greater Tokyo claims 5,875,388; Osaka, 2,989,- 
866 ; and Nagoya 1,082,814, with Kyoto and Kobe 
next in size. However, the number of births in 
Japan proper in 1934 was the smallest since 1924, 
and the proportion per 1,000 of population was 
the lowest since 1906. There were 2,043,783 
births, or 29.97 per 1,000 of population, and 
1,234,684 deaths, or 18.1 per 1,000 population. 
The natural increase of population was the differ 
ence between them, 809,099, or 11.86 per 1,000 
population. The number of births in 1934 repre 
sents a decrease of 3.6 percent over 1933. 



* Nagoya Shinaichi, Editorial, April 25, 1935. 



38 JAPAN TO-DAY 



Statistics show that the average Japanese boy 
of 16 years of age is nearly 2 inches taller than in 
1900. This is believed to be due to the changed 
habits of living, the introduction of sports and the 
rise in the standard of living. 

Tokyo has 2,211 concrete buildings of 3 stories 
or more in height. There are 10 buildings with 9 
stories, 26 with 8, 42 with 7, and 94 with 6 stories. 

During the summer an American negro came to 
Japan and inquired whether negroes visiting this 
country could expect a welcome. "He said that 
there were many negroes in America wishing to 
visit Japan because of the fact that there is no 
racial prejudice in this country- He took occasion 
to point out that there are 12,000,000 negroes in 
the United States, active in various fields, and 
against them there is so much prejudice that it is 
impossible for them to travel in the country with 
any pleasantness. . . . He was assured that the 
Japanese are free from racial prejudice, and that 
any negro visiting this country may go about, 
without fear of being looked down upon or dis 
criminated against. . . It is a matter of universal 
knowledge that there is discrimination in the 
United States against colored people. The negroes 
in America are debarred from membership in the 
white men s clubs. They are, made to keep aloof 
from fashionable hotels and restaurants. The 
schools for white children do not admit colored 
children. Even the door of churches where the 
teachings of Christ, who enjoined universal love, 
are preached, is closed to the colored element. But 
this is not all the discrimination 1 to which negroes 
are subjected in the United States. There is the 
lynching, and whites think that they have a right 



A SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SURVEY, 1935 39 

to assault negroes who happen to be suspected of 
having committed serious offences. The negroes in 
America have produced great men, including Mr. 
Booker Washington, the famous colored educa 
tor. There are plenty of negroes who are prom 
inent theologians, journalists, businessmen, and 
men of letters. Yet this does not make any differ 
ence to the whites, who think that the colored 
people are inferior and have no claim for equal 
treatment with them. . . . Race prejudice is not 
confined to the Americans. It exists among whites, 
irrespective of their nationality. Indeed, it is an 
evil common to all whites. . The whites honestly 
believe that, they are the elite, and that they are 
destined to rule the other races. . . The Japanese 
people are not prejudiced racially. This is not to 
say that they have been innocent of racial pre 
judice in the past. During the Tokugawa shogun- 
ate the Japanese were prejudiced against foreign 
ers, and there was a violent prejudice shown by 
the people against aliens before and after the 
Meiji Restoration. But that state was abnormal. 
The Japanese have since got over their prejudice. 
Today there are few Japanese who have biased 
views regarding other races, including the whites. 
This is a state in which the Japanese may well 
take pride. This is one reason why this; country 
is superior to others. There is something in this 
which should make the whites believing Chris 
tianity die of shame."* 

"Western civilization has its merits as well as 
its demeiits, and a sweeping denunciation of it 
because of the latter would be sheer stupidity."* 



Hokkai Times, Editorial, September 10, 1935. 
S. Uenoda, The Japan Advertiser, June 16, 1935. 



Chapter II 
AN ECONOMIC SURVEY OF JAPAN, 1935 

H. Vere Redman 

1935 has seen a distinct moderation in the 
tempo of Japan s "Manchurian" prosperity which 
had lasted from the latter part of 1932. The term 
"Manchurian" prosperity has been deliberately 
chosen, for the special kind of economic activity 
witnessed in Japan during the past three years has 
had a direct connection with the Manchurian In 
cident and its consequences. The Incident was 
one of the contributory causes of the replacement 
of the gold embargo in December, 1931, which 
ushered in the era of controlled monetary inflation. 
It was the chief contributory factor in the sharp 
fall in the exchange value of the yen, which per 
mitted the sudden advance in exports. It inevi 
tably led to the increase in expenditure on arma 
ments, which in turn led to the device of meeting 
budgetary deficits by the issuance of bonds. This 
increasedi expenditure, on the other hand, gave a 
stimulus to manufacturing production as a whole, 
and thus brought with it a measure of industrial 
prosperity. Not only were increased armaments 
required to preserve Manchoukuo, but also much 
had to be done to reconstruct it. This reconstruc 
tion meant on the one hand further derangement 
of the budgetary equilibrium only to be reestab 
lished by further bond issues, but at the same 
time it meant increased industrial prosperity. 
We had an industrial activity arising out of em 
pire preserving, accentuated by exchange depre- 



42 JAPAN TO-DAY 

elation, and financed out of accumulated domestic 
capital. In 1935 indications have appeared on 
all sides that this process cannot continue in pre 
cisely the same way as before. 

As this process depends basically on public 
finance, it would be well to examine developments 
in this field first. The system of meeting deficits by 
loans was successful for the following reasons: 
1) Funds had been accumulated during the 1929- 
1931 period of retrenchment, so that these were 
readily available for investment in bonds, parti 
cularly after the enactment of the Capital Flight 
Prevention Law of July, 1932 and the Foreign 
Exchange Control Law of May, 1933. 2) While 
bank deposits showed a fairly steady increase 
(they amounted to 10,653,000 on March 31, 
1932, and 12,587,000 on the same date in 1935) 
there was a contraction of discounts and ad 
vances, the total for which for the same dates 
were 11,195,000 and 10,202,000 respectively. 
This lack of need by industry for financial accom 
modation is due to the fact that the leading ex 
port industries had a large unused productive 
capacity during the period of retrenchment, and 
that industries dependent on Government expen 
diture for naval, military and construction enter 
prises could expand on a basis of actual cash pay 
ment. In simpler terms, it can be said that the 
main holders of the bonds, i.e. the banks, had re 
serves to start with, a fairly steady supply of new 
money, no great demands from industry, no op 
portunities for foreign investment (i.e. outside 
the Japan-Manchoukuo bloc), and, so to say, no 
temptations in the home investment market to 
prompt them to place their money elsewhere. 



AN ECONOMIC SURVEY OF JAPAN, 1935 43 

1935 has seen the apparent drying up of re 
serves, new demands for accommodation from in 
dustry, a growth of competitors with the Govern 
ment in the bond market, all indications of a low 
ered power of absorption. This has led to con 
stant warnings from the Treasury and the Bank 
of Japan that it might be necessary to suspend the 
open market operations of the Bank in govern 
ment bonds. Obviously, such suspension would 
be the first step towards real inflation. To pre 
vent this real inflation has been the aim of the 
Finance Minister. The methods chosen have 
been first the obvious one of discouraging rival in 
vestments and second decreasing the amount of 
bond issues. The main rival investments field is 
clearly Manchuria, and Mr. Takahashi early in 
the year declared that "indiscriminate" invest 
ment there was to be deplored, both from the 
point of view of the investor and that of the na 
tion. The same principle was applied to North 
China, when after the May-June affair Japan 
assumed additional responsibilities there, and 
there was a desire among certain sections of the 
public to follow up this acquirement of political 
influence by economic development, financed from 
this end. The assumption of the presidency of the 
South Manchurian Railway by Mr. Yosuke Matsu- 
oka in August was thought by many to be the 
prelude to such a further displacement of Japan 
ese capital, but the view of the Treasury seems, on 
the whole, to have prevailed, and such develop 
ments as have taken place in North China have 
been financed out of the Company s existing 
funds 

As to the further issue of bonds, it is clear that 



46 JAPAN TO-DAY 

domestic budget throughout the country. It still 
remains true that rice acreage is too extensive, that 
too many people must live out of a crop ; at prices 
which must be kept low, first because of their ef 
fect on production costs throughout the whole in 
dustrial field, and second because cheaper rice 
(i.e. from Korea and Formosa) is always availa 
ble to replace the home product when once the 
pinch is felt. We thus see that the year s deve 
lopments have subscribed nothing to the ultimate 
solution of the rice problem. That solution would 
seem to lie in the long run in reduction of rice 
acreage and greater reliance on colonial rice, but 
for this obviously the farmers would have com 
pletely to reorganize their farming to make it 
more diversified, a reorganization requiring capi 
tal which is not available on any economic terms, 
while there would have to be a corresponding pro 
motion of a more varied diet among consumers, a 
movement which, despite the efforts of the Impe 
rial Nutrition Institute, goes very slowly indeed. 

The year s farming statistics, however, indi 
cate that this movement makes some progress. 
Under the Government scheme for encouraging 
home wheat production, the crop this year was 
the largest on record, amounting to 9,420,000 
koku. This was disposed of at an average price 
of roughly 15 per koku, the highest price since 
1929, when a crop of only 6,200,000 koku sold at 
an average price of 15.30. Imports of rice drop 
ped 9 per cent in value as from 1934, while a 3 pel- 
cent increase in domestic crops produced a 19 per 
cent increase in revenue therefrom, arguing 
clearly for an increased domestic demand. 

Cocoon production reached its lowest point 



AN ECONOMIC SURVEY OF JAPAN, 1935 47 

since 1929, that of 80,000,000 kamme* in round 
figures, but the price, in response to the reviving 
American demand, moved from 2.34 per kamme 
in 1934 to 4. This price advance has meant 
that the actual producers right through the pro 
cess, that is, mulberry-growers, cocoon-raisers and 
raw silk manufacturers, have reaped a reasonable 
profit. But the decline in production has meant 
that many potential producers have just stayed 
out of the market without transferring their labor 
to any other productive enterprise. The fluctua 
tions in the American market for silk, substitution 
of rayon and even cotton fabrics for purposes for 
which silk was formerly used, have imposed on 
silk producers in Japan a lower level of produc 
tion and the need to keep their costs low in order 
to pay their way. The need for this adaptation has 
been fully realized, while in recent years techni 
cal advances in production have been made which 
have enabled silk to compete more effectively 
with other fibres. But both adaptation of the 
volume of production and technical advances in 
the extraction of fibres from a given amount of 
cocoons have had the same fundamental effect on. 
the raw silk industry as an absorbent of agricul 
tural labor, and as a subsidiary to farming eco 
nomy. These factors have combined to give back 
to the farmers leisure which they can put to no 
other productive purpose. 

"Probably nowhere in the world today does such 
a great contrast exist between the fortunes of agri 
culture and those of industry," writes a famous En 
glish economist** with long Japanese experience. 

* 1 kamme 8.27 Ib. (avoir). 
** Professor E. F. Pennye. 



48 JAPAN TO-DAY 

The conditions shown above in the three major 
branches of Japanese agriculture are representa 
tive of those throughout the whole agricultural 
community, and while it is arguable that 1935 has 
seen no aggravation of these distressing condi 
tions it has as obviously seen no real improvement. 
Side by side with this, we have witnessed an ex 
tension of the boom in industry which, as yet, 
shows no sign of abating. We will deal first with 
industries catering to the domestic market, and 
then with those producing mainly for export. It 
has to be stressed at the outset that Japan s in 
dustrial boom has had throughout this dual char 
acter. In view of her widespread and disquiet 
ing competition with the other industrial nations, 
Japan s industrial boom is associated abroad al 
most entirely with export expansion. In fact, 
however, the boom is to a substantial extent ac 
counted for by increased home consumption, par 
ticularly if we consider that consumption in Man- 
choukuo comes within that category. 

The home providing industries which, have had 
the greatest expansion in production in 1935 are 
iron and steel, wool and cloth, machinery and 
tools, and vessels, cement, builders materials and 
sundries. It is clear that these advantages have 
been brought about largely by government- 
encouraged expenditure. They represent an ex 
pansion of armaments, an extensive construction 
program in Manchoukuo, and to a lesser extent an 
expansion of public works in Japan proper, un 
dertaken primarily as a| measure of rural relief. 
Their most satisfactory feature lies in their diffus 
ion of purchasing power among industrial workers 
arid operators which reflects favorably on agricul- 



AN ECONOMIC SURVEY OF JAPAN, 1935 49 

tural prices as has been noted above. Their least 
satisfying feature lies in the fact that in the main 
they have been financed out of accumulated capi 
tal and that they clearly can yield no profit to 
their primary instigators for many years to come, 
while some of them can yield no profit at all but 
simply constitute that elevated premium for mili 
tary security which is in essence an expansive and 
expensive armament establishment. 

Accumulated capital comes to an end. As we 
have noted, the liquid nature of such accumula 
tions has shown in the past year serious signs of 
decreasing. But Japan s domestic consumption 
boom has been maintained at the level referred to 
not only by forced lending through the open mar 
ket operations of the Bank of Japan but also 
through a concurrent boom in those branches of 
industry catering to the export market. Profits 
here registered have renewed capital reserves, 
wages here paid have again increased purchasing 
power, to sustain domestically directed industries 
as well as prices of agricultural products. Without 
this concurrent boom, the domestic boom must 
obviously subside, for in the main the former has 
capitalized and in part has created the latter. 
There have been substantial advances in produc 
tion of cotton yarn and textiles, silk textiles, flour, 
porcelain, canned goods and sundries, while the 
production of rayon yarn reached 224,042,000 lb., 
the largest in the world. The extent of this boom 
in export trading is shown in the following table : 

Article Value of Exports 

1934 1935 

Cotton Yarn and 
Textiles 592,832,000 609,966,000 



48 JAPAN TO-DAY 

The conditions shown above in the three major 
branches of Japanese agriculture are representa 
tive of those throughout the whole agricultural 
community, and while it is arguable that 1935 has 
seen no aggravation of these distressing condi 
tions it has as obviously seen no real improvement. 
Side by side 1 with this, we have witnessed an ex 
tension of the boom in industry which, as yet, 
shows no sign of abating. We will deal first with 
industries catering to the domestic market, and 
then with those producing mainly for export. It 
has to be stressed at the outset that Japan s in 
dustrial boom has had throughout this dual char 
acter. In view of her widespread and disquiet 
ing competition with the other industrial nations, 
Japan s industrial boom is associated abroad al 
most entirely with export expansion. In fact, 
however, the boom is to a substantial extent ac 
counted for by increased home consumption, par 
ticularly if we consider that consumption in Man- 
choukuo comes within that category. 

The home providing industries which have had 
the greatest expansion in production in 1935 are 
iron and steel, wool and cloth, machinery and 
tools, and vessels, cement, builders materials and 
sundries. It is clear that these advantages have 
been brought about largely by government- 
encouraged expenditure. They represent an ex 
pansion of armaments, an extensive construction 
program in Manchoukuo, and to a lesser extent an 
expansion of public works in Japan proper, un 
dertaken primarily as a| measure of rural relief. 
Their most satisfactory feature lies in their diffus 
ion of purchasing power among industrial workers 
arid operators which reflects favorably on agricul- 



AN ECONOMIC SURVEY OF JAPAN, 1935 49 

tural prices as has been noted above. Their least 
satisfying feature lies in the fact that in the main 
they have been financed out of accumulated capi 
tal and that they dearly can yield no profit to 
their primary instigators for many years to come, 
while some of them can yield no profit at all but 
simply constitute that elevated premium for mili 
tary security which is in essence an expansive and 
expensive armament establishment. 

Accumulated capital comes to an end. As we 
have noted, the liquid nature of such accumula 
tions has shown in the past year serious signs of 
decreasing. But Japan s domestic consumption 
boom has been maintained at the level referred to 
not only by forced lending through the open mar 
ket operations of the Bank of Japan but also 
through a concurrent boom in those branches of 
industry catering 1 to the export market. Profits 
here registered have renewed capital reserves, 
wages here paid have again increased purchasing 
power, to sustain domestically directed industries 
as well as prices of agricultural products. Without 
this concurrent boom, the domestic boom must 
obviously subside, for in the main the former has 
capitalized and in part has created the latter. 
There have been substantial advances in produc 
tion of cotton yarn and textiles, silk textiles, flour, 
porcelain, canned goods and sundries, while the 
production of rayon yarn reached 224,042,000 lb., 
the largest in the world. The extent of this boom 
in export trading is shown in the following table : 

Article Value of Exports 

1934 1935 

Cotton Yarn and 
Textiles 592,832,000 609,966,000 



50 JAPAN TO-DAY 

Rayon Yarn and 

Textiles 136,643,000 151,093,000 

Silk Textiles 77,488,000 77,444,000 

Flour 28,452,000 33,700,000 

Porcelain 41,877,000 42,735,000 

Canned Provisions 50,304,000 57,130,000 
Sundry Manufactured 

Goods 333,360,000 398,039,000 

There are one or! two general tendencies worth 
noticing in connection with industrial and trade 
expansion. In the first place, the predominantly 
export industries have tended increasingly to sup 
ply the domestic market, this particularly 4 in in 
dustries where there has been no control of pro 
duction. It is to be noted also that even the ratio 
of expansion in production in such exporting in 
dustries is still higher than the ratio of expansion 
in export trade, and that the ratio of expansion In 
industries catering mainly to the domestic market 
and Manchukuo is higher than either. i 

No discussion of the export trade is complete 
without reference to the outside restrictions plac 
ed upon it and the disputes which threaten to re 
sult in still further restrictions. It is to be noted 
in connection with all these disputes that the re 
strictive actions have been taken by predominant 
ly raw material producing countries with nascent 
industries, and/or an established economic rela 
tion with other industrial countries purchasing 
their raw materials. The aim of such restrictions 
has been to protect the local industry against the 
competition of cheap Japanese imports, and/or to 
ensure that other raw material purchasers shall 
not be forced to reduce their purchases as the re 
sult of too great a reduction of their market for 



AN ECONOMIC SURVEY OF JAPAN, 1935 51 

manufactured goods. It has to be noted that it 
is not essentially the expansion of Japan s trade 
that is encountering resistance, but the nature of 
that expansion. Japan s exports are composed of 
an increasing proportion of manufactured goods 
(partially or totally) to raw material. That ten 
dency has not abated in the current year, and it 
reflects as we have seen, increasing industrial 
prosperity side by side with an increasing agrarian 
depression. The fact that up till 1929 Japan was 
increasingly establishing predominance in the raw 
silk market in the United States at the expense of 
Chinese and European silks, and indeed that this 
predominance continued even subsequently when 
the demand shrunk, aroused no active resistance 
in other countries. By so doing she was compet 
ing with no local industry, and the foreign raw 
silk producers concerned were not in a position to 
bring such indirect pressure in favor of their own 
goods by refusal to purchase the products of 
American industry as would enforce an artificial 
readjustment of the situation. Where, however, 
Japanese exports have been of manufactured ar 
ticles in a more or 1 less advanced stage, there the 
rub has come, and as they are increasingly so, the 
rub is increasingly acute. The resentment in 
brief is due to the fact not that Japan s exports 
are large, but that they are increasingly indus 
trial. And the adjustments have been consequent 
ly more difficult with countries where local indus 
tries were most strongly affected by the Japanese 
competition, and there was no important raw 
material interest, than in those where a strong 
raw material interest saw in the expansion of 
Japan s industry benefit to itself. 



52 JAPAN TO-DAY 

The Simla-Delhi agreements of 1933 restricted 
Japan s maximum export of cotton fabrics to 
India to 400,000,000 yards. This restriction re 
mained operative in 1935, as did the restrictions 
on exports to the Dutch East Indies and the quota 
restrictions in the British Crown colonies, first ap 
plied in 1934. During 1935, certain Central and 
South American countries placed import restric 
tions on Japanese cotton textiles, while Egypt ab 
rogated its commercial treaty with Japan and 
established an exchange compensation tax. De 
spite these restrictions, yarn production increased 
by nearly* 4 per cent as compared with 1934, and 
by nearly 18 per cent on 1933. Piece-goods ex 
ports increased by 8 per cent on the preceding 
year, a monthly rate of 200,000,000 square yards 
being maintained. Since production was main 
tained at high levels, thanks to the increase of 
spindlage (some 900,000 spindles were added in 
the first ten months of the year), prices tended to 
drop and therefore profits to decrease. But this 
falling off hardly sustains the Japanese claim 
that trade restrictions are crippling the industry. 
The industry is expanding in both production and 
sales, despite these restrictions. They are mere 
ly limiting this expansion to a rate which seems 
not unreasonable in comparison with rate of con 
traction recorded in, say, the British textile indus 
try, which arranged to scrap 100,000,000 spindles 
during the year. 

The restrictions imposed on Japanese goods by 
the Dominion of Canada were of a different na 
ture. Japanese exports to that country consist 
mostly of cotton and silk tissues, porcelain, toys 
and sundries accounting for only 0.7 percent of 



AN ECONOMIC SURVEY OP JAPAN, 1935 53 

the Dominion s total import. These goods, apart 
from tissues, involving exchange compensation 
duties, a definition of "fair market value," and 
the placing of goods in "competition categories" 
are of such a nature as to require no large-scale 
industrial organization to produce them. Local 
industry can be set up almost at any time to en 
gage in their production, and the price difference 
between the imported and home-produced article 
can be kept sufficiently low for) a tariff adjust 
ment not to be stoutly resisted by the consumer. 
It is for this reason that effective pressure could be 
brought on the former Conservative Canadian 
Government to protect industries which apparent 
ly had only been brought into existence in order 
to enjoy such protection. The ground on which 
the complicated tariff adjustment was made was 
simply that of depreciated exchange, a ground on 
which similar adjustments had been made earlier 
in the tariff on British goods. Abortive attempts 
to secure revision of new scales were made by the 
Japanese representatives in Ottawa and as the re 
sult of this failure, the Japanese Government de 
cided on retaliatory measures in the form of ap 
plication of the Trade Protection Law to Canadian 
imports into Japan, which meant an increase of 
50 per cent in the duties imposed on Canadian 
goods. This had the effect of virtually shutting 
out Canadian goods. For example, in September 
and October no Canadian pulp entered Japan at 
all. In the meantime, however, the Conservative 
Bennett Government was replaced by the Liberal 
Government of Mr. MacKenzie King which took 
a more sympathetic view of the Japanese case. 
The exchange differential tariff was substantially 



54 JAPAN TO-DAY 

reduced and the table of "fair, market values" 
was revised. As a result the application of the 
Trade Protection Law to Canadian goods was 
withdrawn as from January 1, 1936. 

In July the Egyptian Government served notice 
of the Japan-Egypt commercial agreement. In 
September, an exchange indemnity duty of an ad 
ditional 40 per cent ad valorem was imposed on 
imports into Egypt of Japanese cotton and rayon 
piece-goods, with the declared object of checking 
speculative imports of these articles. The greater 
part of Japan s imports from Egypt consists of 
raw cotton, so that the nature of the dispute is es 
sentially the same as that between Japan and 
British India, except that in this case the recent 
balance of visible trade has been in favor of Egypt. 
As in the Indian case, the strongest threat on the 
Japanese side was that of a boycott of Egyptian 
cotton, but this threat has not been carried out. 
Negotiations proceed for a new agreement with 
the Egyptians insisting on the barter principle as 
embodied in the Simla-Delhi agreement, and the 
Japanese maintaining the desirability of a re 
newal of the old agreement at least in principle, 
even if the scale of duties has to be revised. 

Taken all in all, 1935 can be described as a year 
of economic prosperity for Japan. But this has 
been prosperity tempered on the one hand by the 
now all too familiar agrarian distress, and on the 
other by anxiety arising from the growing burden 
of debt. That debt is not large in comparison 
with that of other countries, as military econo 
mists have constantly pointed out; nor is the 
wealth of the country, as the same economists 
have even more constantly pointed out. Poverty 



AN ECONOMIC SURVEY OP JAPAN, 1935 CS 

may conceivably be a moral justification for a 
policy of political expansion. It is clearly not an 
economic justification for the expenditure that 
such expansion involves. Hence the anxiety and 
the need for balanced judgment. In its elements, 
the economic problem of Japan does not reside in 
a choice between expansion and contraction, but 
simply in determining the precise tempo of expan 
sion commensurate with safety. The problem 
has certainly become clear in 1935, but that Is 
about all that has happened about it. 



*** 



Chapter III 

STATE SHINTO DURING 1935 

D. C. Holtom 

At no previous time in modern history has Shin 
to manifested a greater vigor and aggressiveness, 
and at no other time in its recent development 
has it involved more difficult problems both for it 
self and for other religions in the Japanese em 
pire than during the year 1935. In proportion as 
the ebb and flow of fortune in international affairs 
has led the Japanese government to seek security 
in the independently controlled resources of the 
totalitarian state, the national spirit has been f or- 
.tified, the tendency towards a stricter domestic 
regimentation has stiffened, and to these ends the 
ideals symbolized in the ceremonies of the shrines 
of State Shinto have been magnified and the spiri 
tual and moral unification of the nation sought in 
the strengthening of beliefs and practices lying in 
the characteristic Shinto tradition. It is probably 
safe to say that no other religious force in the 
Orient calls for more careful consideration on the 
part of serious minded people in the West than 
does Shinto. 

In its institutional aspects State Shinto was 
stronger in 1935 than at any other period of its 
entire modern history. The truth of this asser 
tion may be verified by reference to the fact of a 
steady increase in the number of large shrines. 
The latest report that has come to hand gives a 



58 JAPAN TO-DAY 

total of 111,154 officially recognized shrines of 
all grades. Serving them are 15,375 priests.* 

It is true that the grand total for all shirines as 
reported by the government from year to year 
reveals a steady decrease since 1900, the year in 
which the figures reached the highest point shown 
in the records, namely, 196,357 shrines. Thus, 
on their face, the statistics show a decrease dur 
ing the twentieth century by something over 85,- 
000 institutions. This marked tendency toward a 
yearly reduction in the total number of reported 
shrines has sometimes been taken to indicate a de 
cline in the fortunes .of State Shinto. Nothing 
could be farther from the truth. In appraising the 
bearing of the statistical reports for the shrines 
of State Shinto we should make careful note of the 
fact that the remarkable shrinkage just pointed 
out has occured entirely within the fields of rela 
tively small and unimportant village and un 
graded shrines. For all other shrines there has 
been a steady increase since 1900. The total for 
shrines above the village and ungraded classes 
stood in 1900 at 4,026. In the figures suppli 
ed by the Asahi Yearbook for 1936 it stands at 
4,794, an increase during the. twentieth century 
of more than seven hundred and fifty large 
shrines, thus indicating clearly the degree of at 
tention which the government has given in recent 
decades to the expansion of State Shinto by the 
augmentation of its larger and more representa 
tive institutions. Reduction in the lower grades 
has been effected partly by the elimination of cer 
tain unimportant shrines but more commonly by 



* From the Asahi Yearbook (Asahi Nenkan), 1936, p. 261. 



STATE SHINTO DURING 1935 69 

an administrative reorganization which counts 
several small rural shrines as a single unit. 

The fact that the latest statistics show only 
15,375 priests as compared with 111,154 shrines 
has its explanation in the practice of assigning a 
number of small shrines, grouped in an administ 
rative unit to the oversight of a single priest. 
Thousands of small rural shrines have no resident 
priests. Over against this, a large shrine calls for 
the services of a relatively large staff. For exam 
ple, the latest available report for the Grand 
Imperial Shrine of Ise shows a corps of sixty-eight 
priests in residence. 

The institutional expansion just pointed out is 
merely the outward expression of the growing 
tendency of the rulers of the Japanese people to 
attempt to reinforce the inner spirit of the nation 
by falling back on the resources of Shinto. This 
is only to sa^ that the national consciousness has 
heightened in direct response to the increase of 
tension in the rivalries of world-wide struggle, 
and as a compensation for stress and strain and 
apprehension, within and without, there has oc 
curred an inevitable strengthening of the disposi 
tion to find the basis of national satisfaction in 
the assurance of a great and independent tradi 
tion, in a unique and self-sufficient culture, in a 
sacred and unbroken continuity and a beneficient 
destiny guaranteed under the aspect of eternity. 
This is the Shinto tradition. 

One heard much during the year about the 
necessity of the clarification of the national policy 
and the better identification of the national) char 
acteristics, along with the need of giving moral 
education precedence over mere intellectual train- 



60 JAPAN TO-DAY 

ing and the necessity of a more thoroughgoing 
recognition of the unique features of the state 
organization of Japan. All this has gone hand in 
hand with a special enhancement of the cere 
monies of the shrines and an unusual reaffirmation 
of some of the underlying ideas of Old Shinto. For 
example, "A Retired Naval Officer," writing in 
the December issue of Contemporary Japan, the 
quarterly review published by the Foreign Affairs 
Association of Japan, says: 

"There are some who hold that the principle of not in 
volving the Emperor in politics makes it better to regard 
his Majesty as an institution instead of a person respon 
sible for the administration of the State. There is not 
the slightest ground for fear on this point. The Emperor 
is the personal incarnation of Divinity and therefore free 
from all evils and errors, representing all that is good 
and perfect. The State Ministers take complete respon 
sibility for administrative mistakes. In consequence, 
there is no possibility whatever of the Emperor being in 
volved in politics." 

Again, the same writer says : 

"Any academic theory which finds sovereignty in the 
State and regards the Emperor as an institution for the 
exercise of such sovereignty cannot exist by side with the 
traditional conception of the polity of the Empire. This 
conception is based on the distinction between ruler and 
subjects, which has been clearly defined from remote 
times. It regards the Emperor as a descendant of the 
Sun Goddess, who was a divinity in human form. With 
such a ruler government ought to mean, administration 
in accordance with the divine virtues." 

"The ex-service men and their associates believe that 
there is need for a fresh interpretation of the Imperial 
Constitution, but what is more important is an institu 
tion of governmental administration in keeping with tra 
ditional Japanese thought. It is to its lack that the 



STATE SHINTO DURING 1935 61 

younger officers in both the army and the navy have been 
calling attention since the conclusion of the London naval 
agreements. If this is done, they feel, all other domestic 
difficulties will automatically meet with solution. The 
question is how this movement for clarification of the 
national policy will attain its objective. Until it is an 
swered, it will constitute a matter of the greatest im 
portance in Japanese politics."* 

The heightened self-awareness of the intensi 
fied "Japan Spirit" has sought expression in 
divers propaganda phamplets and books, design 
ed, some of them at least, not simply to make the 
real Japan better known to the West, but, more 
than this, to bring the West more aggressively 
under the influence of Japanese culture and thus 
make possible a wider sharing on the part of 
Japan of her divinely established heritage. 

We may take as an example here a series of 
phamplets dealing with the Japanese national 
Etihos(kokutaf), written by Mr. Chigaku Tanaka, 
president of the Meijikai ("Meiji Society") and 
circulated in the English language to non-Japan 
ese residents in the Empire, with the hope that 
they will be "perused and studied for the sake of 
the world s peace," and "in the interests of the 
world s human race." These phamplets are full 
of the evangel of beneficent destiny that has al 
ready been mentioned as strongly marking the 
vivid national consciousness of the present. The 
writer says : 

"Our urgent business at present is to know well why 
Nippon is so sacred, why Nippon has so heavy a mission, 
how Nippon was founded, why the world should take 
Nippon as a model, why the gods of Nippon are worthy, 



* Japan Advertiser, November 19, 1935. 



62 JAPAN TO-DAY 

and why the Emperor, the nation, and the people of 
Nippon have a world-wide significance." (Pamphlet No. 

1, p. 16) 

Dealing with the theme of "The Japanese Na 
tional Principles" as a Moral Way, involving the 
practice of truth, the cultivation of righteousness, 
the unification of all goodness and the achieve 
ment of wisdom, Mr. Tanaka says, "Japan alone 
is the pioneer to transmit it to posterity." (Ibid., 
p. 6). Continuing, he says, "The keeping of a 
perfect union of the material and the spiritual, 
the path of Sovereign and Subjects/ which is the 
outcome of the Japanese National Principles, 
alone can endow mankind with eternal life." 
(Ibid., p. 8). "If," says the author, "the world as 
well as Nippon does not awake to the fact that 
Nippon has a task to look after the world, and 
stands in a position so important and unavoidable, 
both the world and the establishment of Nippon 
will be meaningless." (No. 2, pp. 27-8). 

The subsequent discussion leaves no room for 
doubt as to the means to be utilized by Nippon in 
fulfilling her foreordained mission "to look after 
the world." The program contemplates a world 
wide "unity of morality" achieved through the 
two-fold operation of cultural assimilation and 
military control. 

The student of contemporary history may 
find, in the course of events in the Far East during 
the past few years, abundant data from which to 
draw conclusions as to whether the imperial 
messianism expounded by Mr. Tanaka represents 
merely the viewpoint of a single individual or 
whether it is shared by wider and more powerful 
circles. 



STATE SHINTO DURING 1935 60 

"The paramount mission of Nippon lies in realizing 
perfect universal peace by drawing the whole world to 
one goodness and one Way and by seeking for a unity of 
morality. The motive power of this is the great prin 
ciple of Kokutai. In other words, the object is univer 
sal peace, the method is the spreading of our Way of the 
Prince, the means, the righteous advancement of both 
letters and arms, and the order, first to assimilate those 
who are rather similar and nearer to us and then gradu 
ally to go to farther and more different countries." (No. 
5, p. 121) * 

The fact that the interests of Shinto occupy a 
position of special importance in this program of 
moral unification may be verified by reference to 
the problem of thq participation of the schools of 
the empire in the ceremonies of the state shrines. 
Compulsory attendance at the shrines on the part 
of the pupils and students of the schools and their 
teachers appears as a phase of a systematic, 
empire-wide program on the part of the authorities 
to utilize the schools as agencies for inculcating 
in the minds of the young definite ideas concern 
ing the nature of Shinto deities and human obliga 
tions to them. 

In 1911 Mr. Komatsubara Eitaro, the Minister 
of Education under the second Kiatsura cabinet, 
issued instructions that on certain occasions school 
teachers should conduct their students in a body 
to local shrines and there do obeisance before the 
altars. In translations the order reads: 

"Concerning Attendance at Local Shrines on the Oc 
casion of Festivals. The sentiment of reverence (kei- 
shin) is correlative with the feeing of respect for ances- 

* Tanaka Chigaku, "What is Nippon Kokutai? An Introduction 
to Nipponese National Principles." Pamphlets 1 to 6 Tokyo, 
1935-6. Published by The Shishio Bunko. 



64 JAPAN TO-DAY 

tors and is most important in establishing the founda 
tions of national morality. Accordingly, on the occasion 
of the festivals of the local shrines of the districts in 
which the schools are situated the teachers must con 
duct the pupils to the shrines and give expression to the 
true spirit of reverence. Also, either before or after the 
visit to the shrines the teachers should give instructions 
to the children regarding reverence in order that they 
may be made to lay it deeply to heart. This is an 
nounced by government order."* 

The above order cannot be found on the records 
of the national Department of Education, at least 
in so far as they are open to public examination. 
It does appear, however, in the published ordi 
nances of many of the prefectures, a fact that 
cannot be accounted for apart from uniform 
instructions from the central Department of Edu 
cation. Enforcement depends largely on the atti 
tude of the local prefectural authorities and tends 
to be particularly rigid in territorial areas where 
the presence of populations not thoroughly as 
similated to the characteristic ideals of Japanese 
state education heightens the caution and con 
servatism of the ruling classes. 

The situation which Christian education in 
Korea confronted in the year under review is a 
clear case in point. The following statement is 
condensed from an account of the "Shrine Prob 
lem" in Korea received from a missionary of the 
Chosen Mission of the Presbyterian Church in the 
U.S.A., one of the organizations most directly 
involved in the issue. The point of view set forth 
in the statement is shared by the great majority of 



* Mombusho Kunrei Fureiki no Bu ("Regulations of the Department 
of Education, Section on Prefectural Ordinances"), Chapter 
3, Ordinary Education, Primary Schools, pp. 32(2). 



STATE SHINTO DURING 1935 65 

the members of this mission. At the time of writ 
ing this article the issue had not yet become acute 
in the Methodist church of Korea, except for 
special local incidents. 

Beginning with the early autumn of 1935 the shrine 
problem in Korea, at least as far as the Korean Church 
and the missions . were concerned, entered on a new 
phase of development, and while this had been expected 
for some time, it nevertheless, in many ways, raised ques 
tions more serious and difficult than those previously 
confronted. Heavy and steady pressure was now brought 
to bear on Christian schools to secure conformity to gov 
ernment requirements in the matter of attendance at 
shrine ceremonies. 

In the earlier stages of the problem the main difficulty 
centered about ceremonies in memory of soldiers who 
had lost their lives in the Manchurian and Shanghai in 
cidents, which were held as a rule before memorial 
stones commemorating the dead. These services were 
conducted, sometimes in large open areas before the 
shrines, sometimes in the military barracks, sometimes 
directly before the shrines themselves. They conformed 
to Shinto ritual and were under military control. It has 
been the general practice to commemorate September 
eighteenth in this way. 

In a number of conferences with the Government- 
general and with local officials also, representatives of 
the Christian organizations concerned explained the 
great difficulty involved in requiring students of Chris 
tian schools to bow even in reverence only, before the 
spirits of the deceased which were declared to be present 
by the officiating Shinto ritualists and which were later 
dismissed as part of the ceremony. Up to the autumn 
of 1935 there seemed to exist in official circles more or 
less of a recognition of this reservation. For example, 
in Pyengyang, at the September ceremony, the only bow 
ing that was required was at the completion of the pro 
gram, after the spirits had been dismissed, and was made 
to the officials and relatives of the soldiers who were pre 
sent. 



66 JAPAN TO-DAY 

The month of October, however, saw the beginning 
of a new phase of the situation. During this month 
elaborate celebrations commemorating the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of the annexation of Chosen were held and 
on the first of the month the students and teachers of the 
Chungsin Girls School in Seoul were ordered out to the 
Chosen Shrine (Chosen Jingu) to bow in reverence before 
the spirits of Meiji Tenno and Amaterasu-Omikami, en 
shrined there. Later, on the fifteenth and sixteenth of 
the same month all schools were ordered to participate in 
ceremonies held at the Chosen Shrine in commemoration 
of the tenth anniversary of the founding of the shrine. 
This was the first time that the Christian schools had been 
given such definite orders for participating in shrine 
ceremonies and was regarded by many Christians as 
the beginning of a new regime on the part of the Gov 
ernment-general looking toward a stricter conformity on 
the part of all Christian schools and possibly of churches 
as well.. For two years previously almost all of the gov 
ernment lower schools throughout the country have been 
regularly participating in shrine ceremonies on the first 
of each month but prior to the cases just cited no Church 
schools had received orders calling for such action. All 
told there are about fifteen thousand Shintd shrines in 
Korea. 

In a recent conversation with two of the highest offi 
cials of one of the provinces, both of whom are graduates 
of the Imperial University of TokyS, the question, was 
asked them if Amaterasu-Omikami was a spirit and 
whether she really resided in each of the state shrines 
which have been erected in every town and many of the 
larger villages of Korea. They replied, "Yes, we believe 
so, although we cannot be sure that she does." 

The special seriousness of the situation for the Korean 
Church is indicated by the fact that the great majority 
of the Christians have had to give up ancestor worship at 
the cost of much persecution at the hands of non-Chris 
tian Koreans in order to join the church, and now the 
Church schools are being obliged to take part in ceremo 
nies, the essential character of which is regarded as iden 
tical with those that have been given up, namely, vener- 



STATE SHINTO DURING 1935 67 

ation of the spirits of ancestors of the Japanese Empire 
that are supposed to reside in the state shrines. 

The position held by the; leaders of the Korean 
Church and missions who have experienced diffi 
culty in complying with orders to participate in 
Shinto ceremonies) may be summarized by the 
statement that, since these ceremonies involve the 
calling and dismissal of spirits, the presence of 
sacrificial offerings, and the reading of prayers 
( norito ) addressed to the enshrined spirits re 
garded as actually existent superhuman beings 
towards whom the worshippers 1 feel responsibility 
and dependence, such ceremonies as are usually 
held at the state shrines must be regarded as 
genuinely religious and that they are so regarded 
by other large bodies of the population. 

By the close of the year the situation just out 
lined) had increased greatly in complication, espe 
cially in the South Heian Province, centering in 
the city of Heijo, where the principals of certain 
of the mission schools came to an open break with 
the authorities over the Shinto issue. In January, 
1936, Dr. G. S. McCune, principal of the Soong 
Sill College and of the Soong Sill Academy was 
deprived of his position by the action of Governor 
Yasutake for refusing either himself to worship or 
to permit the students of his schools to worship at 1 
the Shinto shrines in accordance with the orders 
of the educational authorities. 

In justice to the government it must be said that 
there has been no alteration of its recognition of 
the liberty of Christian teaching in the schools or 
churches. The issue is over the interpretation of 
the significance of the State Shinto ceremonies. 
The authorities of the central government declare 



68 JAPAN TO-DAY 

that they are not religious, but commemorative, 
patriotic and nationalistic in meaning. Those who 
have resisted school participation in shrine cere 
monies on the part of Christian institutions have 
declared that while the Shinto ceremonies may 
have these meanings, they are nevertheless funda 
mentally religious. The difficulties confronting 
Korean Christianity at this point are increased by 
the requirement made by the churches that be 
lievers renounce ancestor worship as a condition 
of membership and that a reversion to ancestor 
worship shall constitute grounds for dismissal. 
Further complications exist in two directions: on 
the one hand, in the presence of a large non- 
Christian Korean environment that tends to re 
gard the shrine issue more or less as a test of the 
integrity of the Korean Christians, and on the 
other hand, in the fact that any refusal to acqui 
esce with the government orders runs the risk of 
being interpreted as due, not to conscientious and 
religious scruples, but to political and anti-Japan 
ese feelings. At the time of the writing of this 
account the situation presents possibilities of 
serious development. 

The position to which the missions concerned 
have had to adjust themselves is set forth explicit 
ly in a document drawn up by the Home Office of 
the South Heian Province, from which the follow 
ing translations have been made. 

As a matter of fact the shrines are public instrument 
alities where the ancestors of the Imperial Family and of 
people who have rendered distinguished; service to the 
state are enshrined, and where the citizens of the nation 
may offer true reverence and commemorate their meri 
torious deeds forever. Thus the (fundamental) idea dif 
fers from that of religion. That is to say, from most 



STATE SHINTO DURING 1935 



ancient times down to the present, the shrines have been 
national institutions expressive of the very center and 
essence of our national structure. Thus they have an 
existence totally distinct from religion, and worship 
(sampai) at the shrines is an expression of patriotism 
and loyalty, the basic moral virtues of our nation. 

The schools, regardless of whether or not they are pub 
licly or privately founded, and regardless of whether or 
not they are supported by religious groups, all alike have 
their fundamental significance in the cultivation of na 
tional character. It is, accordingly, entirely proper that 
educational agencies, which are committed with the im 
portant mission of developing Japanese citizens, should 
perform worship (sampai) at the shrines for educational 
reasons. It is by no means permissible that school prin 
cipals and teachers who unite their educational functions 
with those of religious propagandists, should confuse re 
ligion and education and be deficient in an understand 
ing of the system of laws and ordinances which the na 
tion has established because of the needs of national 
education, and oppose educational orders and fail to 
carry out worship at the shrines. 

In the matters of the national interpretation of the 
shrines and of national necessity, all people, both from 
the standpoint of citizenship in the Empire and from 
that of the education of the people of the Empire, should 
yield obedience. Such things as the advocacy of indi 
vidualistic and arbitrary interpretations that the shrines 
are religious and, especially, the opposition to orders con 
cerning educational administration are not to be permit 
ted."* 

We return to Japan proper. For an example of 
complications arising out the tendency to seek to 
reinforce the national spirit by the utilization of 
the resources of Shinto, we may refer to the so- 
called "god-shelf (Kami-dana) incident" of Doshi- 
sha University. 

* Jinja Fusatnpai Mondai ni Tsuite ("On the Refusal to Participate 
in Worship at the Shrines"), Chief of the Home Office, South 
Heian Province. 



70 JAPAN TO-DAY 



On the campus of the Doshisha College of Commerce 
there stands a large building in Japanese style which was 
received from the government authorities after the en 
thronement ceremonies for the present Emperor, in 
which it had served as one of the auxiliary buildings. 
The typhoon of September, 1934, injured this as well as 
many other buildings on the campus, including the gym 
nasium. As part of the plain for reconstruction, this 
large building was set apart for the Judo and Kendo 
hall. It was repaired and divided. At the end of each 
division a sort of alcove was constructed. 

The repairs were completed and the builder handed 
over the keys at nine o clock of an evening late in June, 
1935. The next morning the leader of the Kendo (fenc 
ing) sports discovered that during the night a kamidana 
(god-shelf) had been set up in the alcove, in a place 
where the principal had intended to place a portrait of 
President Niishima. Who had done this was not known, 
but it was considered the work of some student. The prin 
cipal at once ordered it removed. (It should be said 
that such a kamidana with a tablet of Hachiman, sym 
bol of the war spirit of Japan, is the conventional thing 
in such a hall.) This removal greatly incensed the army 
officers in charge of the military training in the school, 
and they insisted upon its return. 

The incident was at once given great publicity in the 
press. The trustees of Doshisha met and discussed what 
action to take. The military authorities were ready to 
make an issue of the matter, and threatened to with 
draw all military instruction from the school. Indeed 
the chief officer did leave and went back to his regiment. 
Had they carried out their intention, it would have 
meant that the students would have been greatly handi 
capped when they came to undergo the regular conscrip 
tion training later on. The contention of the officers 
was that the removal of the tablet was an insult to the 
national ancestors. 

The trustees took the position that since the school 
holds its character from the Department of Education, 
and that since this Department has pronounced that 
such Shinto practices are not religious, the religious lib- 



STATE SHINTO DURING 1935 7l 

erty of the school had not been interfered with. So no 
matter how the army authorities interpreted the affair 
it should be regarded as an incident of little significance 
and allowed to blow over. The kamidana was left in the 
building, and case made for the tablet, which reads "Ise 
Daibyo" or "The Great Ancestral Tomb of Ise." 

The President of Doshisha felt that the affair did not 
justify a head-on collision with the military, which would 
have resulted not only in the school s losing the case, but 
in great detriment in other directions as well. He took 
the position that the cause of Christianity would best be 
served, not negatively by refusing the kamidana, but 
positively, by each and every teacher doing his best by 
teaching and living to make our religion a vital affair."* 

The official conclusion that State Shinto is not a 
religion is far from having the unanimous support 
of that section of Japanese scholarship which is 
best qualified to speak on the subject. In the field 
of Shinto literature during 1935, undoubtedly the 
most importnat event was the publication in Octo 
ber of this year of Dr. Gench! Kato s monumental 
work of nearly fourteen hundred pages, entitled 
Shinto no Shukyo -Hattatsu Shi teki Kenkyu ("A 
Study of the History of Religious Development in 
Shinto"). This represents the ripened fruit of a 
life time of specialized study on the part of the 
most widely known of contemporary Japanese 
Shinto scholars, and should go a long way toward 
closing the argument as to whether State Shinto is 
or is not a religion. 

In the preliminary stages of his study Dr. Kato 
sets out to establish a definition of religion within 
which the Shinto data may be arranged, analyzed, 
tested and accounted for. In this connection he 
enumerates the primary characteristics of religion 



* Statement by Dr. E. S. Cobb of Doshisha, Kyoto. 



72 JAPAN TO-DAY 

under fourteen different forms of classification, 
such, for example, as theocratic or deocentric re 
ligion as over against theanthropic or homocentric 
religion, tribal or national religion as over against 
universal religion, and proselytizing religion 
versus non-proselytizing religion. In these terms 
Shinto is nationalistic, theanthropic (in the sense 
of merging the human with the divine to the ex 
tent that man may become god) and non-prose 
lytizing, except in the case of the modern sects. 
Various definitions of religion are given, all find 
ing a common basis in the postulation of the essen 
tial nature of religion as man s consciousness of 
special relationship with the Divine and the ideas 
and practices that emerge from this conscious 
ness. The Divine is explained as an object, or 
group of objects, on which special dependence is 
felt, as evoking loyalty, feelings of mystery, in 
comprehensibility, or the transcendence of the 
immediately human in some sense or other. This 
gives a definition of religion sufficiently compre 
hensive to include; a range of data as wide apart 
as the fetishism of the savage and the "Common 
Faith" of John Dewey. 

The chief significance of Dr. Kato s study lies 
in the detailed inclusiveness of his comparative, 
historical study of the ideas and practices that 
underlie all Shinto, on the basis of which he main 
tains that an impartial scientific investigation of 
the actual historical facts can do no other than 
conclude that Shinto, in whatever form, is genuine 
religion. The author calls attention 1 to the manner 
in which the institutional life of modern Shinto 
flows in two great streams, namely, National 
Shinto (Kokka teki Shinto) and Sectarian Shinto 



STATE SHINTO DURING 1935 73 

(Shuha teki Shinto). The affairs of the former 
are administered by the Bureau of Shrines in the 
Department of Home Affairs and under the law of 
the land, are treated as lying outside of the ordi 
nary religious classification. High officials of the 
government have repeatedly declared that Na 
tional Shinto is not a religion, and, as pointed out 
earlier in the discussion, never more emphatically 
than in the year 1935. Sectarian Shinto consists 
of thirteen recognized sects, in addition to various 
sub-sects, and is managed by the Bureau of Reli 
gions in the Department of Education. Its reli 
gious nature is freely admitted by government 
officials and scholars alike. 

It is a matter for special observation that in 
spite of the vigor of official assertions to the effect 
that National or State Shinto is not a religion, a 
Japanese scholar who is qualified to speak as 
chief expert on the subject, after an investigation 
of extraordinary thoroughness, comes to conclu 
sions diametrically opposed to those maintained 
in governmental circles. In making his position 
clear, Dr. Kato subdivides National Shinto into 
two phases, namely, Kokutai Shinto and Jinja 
Shinto. The latter, or "Shrine Shinto," refers to 
that aspect of the national life that is fostered in 
the shrines and their ceremonies. The former, 
Kokutai Shinto that is, "National-structure Shin 
to," signifies the moral theory and practice, the 
sentiments, attitudes and national habits that are 
nourished in the Shinto tradition and regarded as 
indispensable to the maintenance of the charac 
teristic national structure of Japan. Kokutai 
Shinto finds its chief manifestation in the Shinto- 
istic education imparted in the schools of the 



74 JAPAN TO-DAY 

nation. According to Dr. Kato, this form of Shinto 
furnishes the fundamental principles and the in 
ner spirit of the Japanese national education. 
He says, "All the education of the schools is con 
ducted in conformity with the spirit of Kokutai 
Shinto." 

Dr. Kato insists that all these forms of Shinto, 
without exception, must be viewed as genuine 
religion. He says, "Just as the writer regards 
Sectarian Shintd as a variety of religion, so also, 
he regards National Shinto as a variety of reli 
gion." Again, he says, "Along with Sectarian 
Shinto, I regard National Shinto, embracing both 
Kokutai Shinto and Jinja Shinto, as a variety of 
religion a religion with aspects differing from 
those of Buddhism and Christianity, to be sure, 
but nevertheless always a religion."* 

Dr. K ato s position is widely shared by influ 
ential individuals and groups in the nation. In 
1929 a national commission, made up of thirty- 
one distinguished scholars and government offic 
ials, was appointed for the investigation of the 
Shinto shrines and their practices. The commis 
sion was still in existence throughout 1935, hold 
ing monthly meetings but unable to bring in any 
report of significance owing mainly to differences 
of opinion within the ranks of the commission it- 
selfi relative to the religious status of the shrines. 

With the bringing forward of a new religions 



* Kato, Genchi.S/zz ttto no Shukyo Hattatsu Shi teki Kenkyu ("A Study 
of the History of Religious Development in Shinto"). Published 
by the Chubunkwan, Tokyo, October, 1935. 

The attention of the reader is called to an English article, 
"The Shinto World in 1934" in the 1935 edition of the Year 
Book, v/ritten by Dr. Kato. Editor. 



STATE SHINTO DURING 1935 75 

bill in 1935, this question of the religious nature 
of State Shinto has come up for renewed discus 
sion in the secular press. The following important 
statement is from the well-known Tokyo daily, 
the Yomiuri Shimbun. 

Regarding the religions bill, a member of the commis 
sion on religious affairs in the Education Ministery asked 
secretly whether the government intends to control 
shrines from the standpoint of their religious activities. 
A government official replied that it has no such inten 
tion, for shrines are not regarded as religious centers. In 
other words, the government is evading the issue and 
does not mean to settle it. The inquirer recognized that 
shrines do engage in religious activities. Yet the gov 
ernment takes the stand that they are not religious in 
nature. The point at issue is whether there is anything 
religious about shrines. It is undeniable that there is. 
The government simply adheres to the policy of drawing 
a line between shrines and other religious institutions. It 
has the Shrines Bureau in the Home Ministry and the 
Religious Bureau in the Education Ministry. This is a 
mere administrative distinction. The government offi 
cial s reply to the question was based on the govern 
ment s traditional policy. As an official, he could pro 
bably have given no other answer, but it is beyond ques 
tion that the shrines do involve religious elements. For 
the government to make an unnatural distinction be 
tween them and other religious institutions only con 
fuses the public. 

Though the officials of the government probably real 
ize that shrines are religious, they are inclined to evade 
the issue. There must be some reason for this. They 
declare that sleeping dogs should be left alone. In theory, 
all religious elements should be removed from the shrines 
if they are not religious, thereby making clear to the 
public their nature. This would be rational and advan 
tageous. We advise the government to take this course 
as quickly as possible. 

Japanese shrines vary widely in their nature. An 
ancient poet, known lor his shrine worship, once said 



76 JAPAN TO-DAY 

that the public may think that all Shinto deities are 
of equal rank but that it is mistaken, for birds, beasts 
and even insects are deified. This shows that many 
questionable objects are deified in the nation s shrines. 
The government should strip them of all religious ele 
ments and questionable objects. It is its duty to do this 
if it wants to encourage shrine worship. Something 
must also be done about questionable shrines in order to 
enhance the prestige of the rest. The conceptions of 
immortality and super-human power take first place in 
the shrines, making them absolutely incomparable with 
materialistic thought. For the government to encourage 
shrine worship among materialists is gross error. The 
whole question of shrines, with special reference to their 
religious bearing, should recieve serious attention in all 
quarters."* 

The above has dealt exclusively with National 
or State Shinto. The wide field of the activities 
of Sectarian Shinto during 1935 cannot be entered 
here. The latest available statistics of adherents 
in the Shinto sects follow : 

Shinto Honkyoku 1,206,778 

Kurozumi Kyo 551,236 

Shusei Ha 411,801 

Taisha Kyo 3,343,477 

Fuso Kyo _ , 486,906 

Jikko Kyo 403,519 

Taisei Kyo 1 728,373 

Shinshu Kyo _ 739,381 

Mitake Kyo 2,038,647 

Shinri Kyo 1,412,332 

Misogi Kyo _ 337,283 

Konko Kyo 747,869 

Tenri Kyo 4,118,238 

16,525,840 

* Yomiuri Shimbun, trans, in The Japan Advertiser, Jan. 24, 
1936. 



Chapter IV 
PROBLEMS OF PRESENT-DAY BUDDHISM 

Beatrice Lane Suzuki 
1. The Work of the Temples 

From the earliest times Buddhism has been as 
sociated with temples as Christianity is associated 
with the church. In recent days there has been 
a tendency to socialize the church and to make 
social service to a great extent take the place of 
church ceremonies, but when it goes too far in this 
direction it becomes philanthrophy rather than 
religion, and this is felt by some Buddhists. Many 
modern Buddhist leaders are trying to socialize 
Buddhism, and urge that the supremacy of the 
temple influence is not good ; but, on the other 
hand, there are other Buddhists, by no means the 
oldest, who maintain that the temple life is the 
heart of Buddhism and that religion must centre 
about it. 

The temples started as places for the venera 
tion of the Buddha. As long as Buddhism exists 
the temples with their life must remain. Prima 
rily they are places for the worship of the Bud 
dha, secondarily they are places for helping their 
congregations and devotees. This help takes the 
form of so-called masses for the dead and other 
services, prayers offered for special purposes, and 
so on. While this is deplored by some modern 
Buddhists who think that it is a relic of the feudal 
period, the majority of the Buddhists whom I 
have consulted think that all this helps to promote 



78 JAPAN TO-DAY 

religious faith and to comfort believers and in so 
doing it must and should be continued and consid 
ered an active and important part of a priest s 
duties. No doubt many priests perform these 
works perfunctorily and without enthusiasm, but 
almost all agree that they are an essential aspect 
of Buddhist life. 

There are many activities for temple priests. 
Social work for others is not a new modern pheno 
menon. In the olden days, the temple was the 
centre for social work ; here sons of laymen were 
taught as well as priests, sermons were preached, 
the sick and dying were visited and instruction 
given on religion. The latter included the< Giving 
Precepts Ceremony which has an important bear 
ing upon Buddhist ethics. 

The temple was also often used as a home for 
political refugees and divorced women. It also 
took the place of a bank and was moreover the 
centre of culture where Tea Ceremony, Flower 
Arrangement, Calligraphy, and the composition 
of Poetry were taught, for the teachers of these 
accomplishments were almost invariably priests. 

Masses for the dead were prominent but not the 
only form of work. No temple can possibly give up 
the stressing of masses forj the dead while Bud 
dhist laymen consider their dead in the way they 
still do after hundreds of years. The masses for 
the dead are the expression of religious faith ; the 
need for them lies deeply in the religious faith of 
the Japanese. 

Masses for the dead are not just for the dead 
themselves to further their life on the other shore, 
but they are remembrance observances; for our 
own encouragement; for when remembering the 



PROBLEMS OF PRESENT-DAY BUDDHISM 79 

virtues of the dead we are made ambitious to emu 
late them, and in this way a mass for the dead may 
become the inspiration for ethical living. Person 
ally, I have observed the salutary influence upon 
lay people after attending masses for the dead. 
So these very masses serve a double purpose, one 
as important as the other. Lay people are more 
over comforted by these masses for they make it 
easier for the sorrowful to go on with their daily 
lives. Pilgrimages are still undertaken by all 
classes of Buddhists and the temples must be 
ready to receive these and minister to them both 
physically and spiritually. 

As one Buddhist priest has expressed it, "to 
produce true men" is the aim of the temple and 
different sects have a different way of approach 
ing this problem. To accomplish it priests them 
selves should be true men of faith and knowledge 
which is not always the case but is nevertheless 
the ideal. The Zen sect makes a special effort to 
train priests for their work. To be a temple mas 
ter, a qualified priest, it is necessary for a man to 
spend at least three years in the Zendo engaged 
in a life of meditation and manual work. There 
he learns the lesson of selflessness, silence and ef 
fort. 

Japanese Buddhism is often accused of still liv 
ing in the feudal age. Although thte criticism is 
true to a certain extent, yet Buddhism is noted for 
its adaptability and tolerance and has in many 
cases shown itself favourable to modern move 
ments ; and in any case, by its very being it must 
remain true to its basic teachings and activities 
whether these seem feudal or modern. 



80 JAPAN TO-DAY 

2. Is Buddhism Too Worldly? 

Some feel too that Buddhism is becoming too 
worldly. We can however look upon this in both 
a good and a bad sense. There are indeed many 
cases of temple abuse, of immorality among 
priests and of a want of idealism. But from 
another point of view, it must be remembered 
that Mahayana Buddhism since ancient times has 
been a religion for laymen, and laymen demand 
from their religion a certain amount of worldly 
encouragement. Most prominent Buddhists agree 
with this. Idealism should not be vulgarized, yet 
the temple through the priests should take a cer 
tain amount of concern with the ordinary lives of 
its followers and serve their interests whether it 
be a recitation for the dead, a prayer for good for 
tune or sensible instruction. 

Many laymen are Buddhists and some have 
come from priestly homes. Although their pro 
fessions are worldly yet they keep the Buddhist 
spirit. Yet on account of this, necessarily worldly 
interests are mixed with their religion and this 
brings about a so-called worldly aspect to their 
Buddhist life. Christians also pray for worldly 
benefits for themselves and others. The latter 
called Intercession is in some sects made a strong 
point. So is it in popular Buddhism, benefits for 
self and others are prayed for to the Buddha and 
Bodhisattvas. The Shin sect alone is against this 
practice. But not all are intent upon worldly 
prayers, many are seeking the true spiritual life. 
Much fault is found with the priests but a promi 
nent leader asserts that if Buddhist priests were 



PROBLEMS OP PRESENT-DAY BUDDHISM 81 

removed from Japan, spiritual culture would be 
much lessened, in fact, almost empty. 

3. Reforming the Temples 

There is much talk nowadays of reforming the 
temples. Just how they are to be reformed is a 
matter of different opinion among Buddhists. It 
should be taken up from within, competent and 
moral priests are needed with complete confi 
dence between them and their heads and those 
they serve. A reform of the temples means a re 
form of the priests and this is felt to be true by the 
best priests. It is a pity that the priesthood is too 
largely a means of earning a living. Living con 
ditions are such that they cause many priests to 
work in other fields such as( ordinary teachers, 
writers, farmers, etc. The government ought to 
see that worthy temple priests are properly sup 
ported. The government should by its own man 
agement raise the status of Buddhist teachers and 
institute other reforms to improve the temples and 
their priests. Most of the corruption in Buddhist 
temples comes from greed, for human nature is as 
it is, whether in or out of a temple. The heredi 
tary system also while in some respects of advan 
tage, sometimes conduces to corruption in this 
respect. Help from the government in the form 
of regulation and recognition is needed and a 
strong public opinion, with no laissez faire atti 
tude on the parts of either priests or laymen. 

The professors and alumni of Buddhist schools 
should consider this deeply. So far perhaps Bud 
dhist schools and colleges are too self-engrossed 
with their scholarly studies. That they must en 
deavor to raise the prestige of the temples is 



82 JAPAN TO-DAY 

the view of many enlightened Buddhists today. 
The general organization should be considered 
and reformed. 

4. Sectarianism 

In regard to sectarianism, undoubtedly sectari 
an views are overemphasized. Yet there is an 
effort at rapprochement, harmonious rather than 
inharmonious, at working together in many ways 
especially in colleges, meetings, etc. The Young 
Men s Buddhist Association (Bukkyo Seinen Rem- 
mei) movement makes for harmony and co-oper 
ation. In 1933, it managed the Pan-Pacific Bud 
dhist Conference, which had much to do with the 
bringing of harmony and interest to different 
groups of Buddhists. An Intercollegiate Buddhist 
Association for Buddhist students has been organ 
ized, and also the Buddhist International Associa 
tion (Kokusai Bukkyo Rengo Kai), the Bukkyo 
Taikai (the Mass Meeting of Buddhists), the 
Hanamatsuri (Flower Festival for Buddha s Birth 
day), and other associations. Moreover, a fine 
example of cooperation is the Taisho Daigaku 
which unites the sects of Jodo, Tendai and Shingi 
Shingon for college study. 

There is also much friendly intercourse be 
tween the priests of different sects. Yet no doubt 
much remains to be done in the work of uniting 
the Buddhists of the various sects. Buddhists 
differ as to the view of sectarianism. Some as 
sert that financial conditions work against har 
mony and promote sectarianism. Of course the 
difference in doctrine between the so-called Pure 
Land sects and Self-Power sects is great and this 



PROBLEMS OP PRESENT-DAY BUDDHISM 83 

difference is sometimes difficult to overcome even 
with the greatest tolerance; however, a true un 
derstanding will minimize the sense of separate- 
ness. Each sect has something of its own to offer 
to Buddhism, as a whole ; for instance, Zen offers 
its self-control in discipline and simplicity; Shin 
its gratitude and brotherhood of life ; Nichiren its 
nationalistic viewpoint and sacrifice; Shingon its 
symbolism, rich ritualism and art. The ideal 
sect strives to harmonize tradition with the pro 
gressive spirit. My observation and talk with 
others would lead me to believe that on the whole 
there is general harmony. 

5. The Temples and the Scholars 

Buddhist priests seem to fall into two classes, 
those who are scholars and those who are en 
gaged in so-called temple work. Many of the 
priests connected with some of the larger temples 
are themselves scholars and consequently their 
scholarship is much appreciated. But in many 
cases it would seem as if the temples are more in 
terested in other things than in scholarship, such 
as the erection of costly edifices, images, etc. Yet 
when they are condemned for this, it must not be 
forgotten that a religion flourishes most when it is 
objectified among the people and the fact that 
these people are still interested in the building of 
edifices and images shows that the religion is still 
living. After all, to the ordinary believer a stately 
temple housing a beautiful statue of the Buddha 
is of more meaning than a volume of sermons 
or translations from the Sanskrit or Pali. 
Some leading Buddhists are of the opinion that 



84 JAPAN TO-DAY 

the scholars are greatly appreciated, others think 
they are not, and some frankly assert that practi 
cal men are more needed. Often the fact is de 
plored that there is not more harmony between 
scholars and temple authorities, while on the 
other hand, it is asserted that the scholars meekly 
follow the authorities. There are other critics 
who contend that if the temples are indifferent to 
the scholars, the scholars take little interest in 
the temples. However, never before have scholars 
been so busy in the writing of books and articles 
and delivering lectures and sermons. 

6. Revival of Interest in Buddhism 

Some of these scholars uphold the conventional 
teaching of the temples while others deny it and 
branch into new fields of thought. One ten 
dency in a scholarly direction is that of turning 
back to primitive Buddhism under the inspiration 
of European scholars, but the majority headed by 
the Buddhist colleges remain faithful to Japanese 
medieval Buddhism. To be true to the spirit of 
Shinran or to; Kobo Daishi as the case may be, is 
their ideal. 

During the past years there has seemed to be a 
revival of interest in Buddhism. An overflow of 
books, magazine articles, sermons, lectures, the 
drama and even the radio have taken their part in 
it . This seems to be due to a reaction against 
materialism. Young men are turning their minds 
more and more to religion and Buddhism has its 
share in their interest. The government has fos 
tered this tendency as a corrective of dangerous 
thoughts and encouraged Buddhist as well as 



PROBLEMS OF PRESENT-DAY BUDDHISM 85 

other religious activities. In regard to the influ 
ence of Marxism upon Buddhist leaders while it 
may have affected many in the large cities, the 
majority of those in the temples as well as in the 
colleges; do not seem to be so deeply influenced. 

The new interest in Buddhism comes partly be 
cause of the fact that people are more and more 
realising the worth and truth of Buddhism after a 
period of neglect since the begining of Meiji. The 
study of science, modern philosophy and Chris 
tianity has been the cause of greater study of Bud 
dhism with the result that many are suprised to 
find in this neglected religion what they need to 
guide them through the difficulties of life. Of 
late, the government is encouraging Buddhist ef 
forts by allowing general talks on religion in 
schools. 

Other religious movements owe much to Bud 
dhist principles. Many of the new Shinto societies 
such as Hito-no-Michi, Tenrikyo, and others take 
from Buddhist philosophy and ethics, adding to 
their own tenets. 

The Restoration of Meiji was hard upon Bud 
dhism, but Buddhists were not discouraged and 
for these decades have been working hard to ad 
vance their religion. This indicates that Bud 
dhism has deep roots in the mentality and emotio 
nal life of the people generally. The government 
sanction of priests living like laymen to a great 
extent destroyed the old Bhikku ideal. 

But there are many Buddhists who feel that 
this is no real revival and are urging their 
confreres to work harder than ever to turn this 
seeming or temporary revival into a true one. 



86 JAPAN TO-DAY 

How to do it is the subject of their thought and 

care. "lv~\ 

All believe that Buddhism has much influence 
on the moral life of the Japanese in spite of the 
fact that many Buddhists have not themselves 
lived up to their high moral ideals; nevertheless 
the social work of Buddhist sects can be seen to 
be many and varied. 

7. Social Movements 

Of late years, Buddhism has taken much inter 
est in social movements. The social service side 
may have been greatly stimulated by Christian 
example. Yet ancient and medieval Buddhism 
was not without activities of this kind although 
managed in different ways. When, however, 
social service is carried too far by religion, it en 
croaches upon the duties of government activity. 
Here is where Buddhism may act rather as in 
structor than as active social worker. Yet that 
it does both is easily to be seen when one considers 
the institutions it supports: schools, societies, 
old age homes, hospitals, kindergartens, Sunday 
Schools, work for prisoners. It is to be regretted 
that attention has not yet been given to animal 
welfare work although the Japanese Buddhists 
have the example in this respect of many fine 
Buddhists in the past such as the Emperor Asoka, 
Prince Shotoku Taishi and the priest Ryokwan of 
Kamakura who not only helped human beings but 
animals as well. 

Buddhism like all religions is concerned first of 
all with the individual because it is only by lifting 
the individual to a higher life that society can be 



PROBLEMS OF PRESENT-DAY BUDDHISM 87 

helped. But Mahayana Buddhism is also con 
cerned with society for it is a religion based upon 
altruism and the Bodhisattvayana its foundation. 
The Bodhisattva is a being who works to save 
others and as all true Mahayana Buddhists aim 
to be Bodhisattvas, we may say that Mahayana 
Buddhism is a religion which essentially lives for 
others, i. e. society. Therefore it considers both 
the individual and society. 

The National Truth Movement recently formed 
as the ideal of combining social movements with 
Buddhist faith is working for that end. The In 
ternational Buddhist Association is also working 
as much for social improvements as for Buddhist 
teaching. In fact, a new flow of life seems to have 
entered into present Buddhism, enriching it and 
reaching out to embrace many forms and activities 
of life which were formerly closed to it or to 
which it itself was indifferent. 

8. Strong and Weak Points 

The strongest points in the Buddhism of today 
is, as always in its past history, its compassionate 
spirit, its ideal self-lessness, and also its emphasis 
upon wisdom, i. e. enlightenment. In spite of all 
corruption and degeneracy in many quarters of 
Buddhist life these ideals are as prominent today 
as they ever were. Secondly, its tolerance and 
adaptability must be noted even though some of 
its critics believe that this very tolerance and 
adaptability is sometimes carried too far. The 
weakest point of Buddhism indeed may be said to 
lie in this too tolerant attitude, overlooking faults 
and neglecting to remedy these faults in the lives 



88 , J| JAPAN TO-DAY 

of self and others. This may account to some ex 
tent in the turning of some Buddhists of the pre 
sent to Primitive Buddhism, which emphasizes the 
Vinaya (Moral Discipline) which; has become lax 
in some Buddhist quarters. 

What Buddhism most needs today according to 
Buddhists themselves and their best friends is 
effective teaching and right living by its priests 
and followers. Buddhism should be a living ex 
perience and not formal study or ritualism. As it 
is, it has penetrated deeply into national thought 
and culture and the feeling of the people. 

In Mahayana Buddhism are all the elements 
which make for perfection of character and en 
hancement of true religious feeling. But to bring 
them to fruition, endeavor and struggle both in 
dividual and social are necessary. Buddhists 
themselves realise this even when weak human 
nature makes it difficult for for them to achieve 
the results they desire. 

Buddhists today however have not given up 
their ideals and while many of them are stagnant 
mentally and indifferent morally there are many 
sincere workers among them striving^ really "to 
produce true men" and lead them on the road to 
Buddhahood. 



Chapter V 

THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN JAPAN AT 
THE PRESENT TIME 

Yoshigoro Taguchi 

I. Outline of the Modern Reestablishment 
of the Church in Japan 

In 1873 the Law against Christianity was re 
voked. Prior to this time, the Roman Congrega 
tion of Propaganda entrusted the propagation of 
the Catholic Religion in Japan to the Foreign 
Mission Society in Paris. 

The first Bishop assigned to Japan was Msgr. 
Focard, but he failed to obtain his long-cherished 
desire to enter the country. His successor was 
Msgr. Petitjean who upon entering Nagasaki was 
permitted to preach the Gospel to the foreign re 
sidents only. However in a short while some 
three thousand descendants of the early Catholics 
made themselves known to him as followers of 
the true religion. The first descendants were 
found in the village of Urakami near Nagasaki. 
This discovery is known throughout the world as 
one of the brightest pages in Christian History. 
The people of Urakami recognized the religion of 
their forefathers because of the devotion which 
they had to the Blessed Virgin and because this 
same devotion was taught by the new missionaries. 
They also asked whether the missionaries were 
married since they knew that the early mission- 



90 JAPAN TO-DAY 

aries did not marry and recognized in this another 
indication of their religion. The third point which 
they inquired about to ascertain the truth of the 
present religion concerned the Pope whom they 
knew to be the head of the Catholic Church. After 
the missionaries satisfactorily answered their 
queries the people of Urakami knew that they 
had again found the teachers of the religion which 
their forefathers had died for. 

In 1876 all Japan was divided into two Vicari- 
ates. Bishop Petitjean was appointed Vicar of 
South Japan while Bishop Osouf was put in 
charge of North Japan. In 1891 these two Vi- 
cariates were further divided into the Dioceses 
of Tokyo, Osaka, Nagasaki, and Hakodate. The 
Archibishopric or Metropolitan See was located in 
Tokyo, and thus was established for the first time 
an eccelesiastical heirarchy in Japan. 

II. Present Status of the Catholic Church 
in Japan 

Until 1876 only missionaries of the Foreign 
Mission Society of Paris taught the Catholic doc 
trine in Japan. Subsequently many different So 
cieties and Congregations were given parts in 
which to preach Catholicism. All these Societies 
work for the same end, teach exactly the same- 
doctrine, and are integral parts of the organiza 
tion of the Church. They all work under the su 
preme authority of the Pope in Rome. 

The Dioceses of Tokyo, Osaka, and Fukuoka 
are still in charge of French missionaries. The 
first Japanese Diocese was Nagasaki and its 
Bishop, Msgr. J. Hayasaka, is the first Japanese 



PROBLEM OF PRESENT-DAY BUDDHISM 91 

Bishop in the history of the Church. He was con 
secrated in Rome by the Pope on October 30th, 
1927. The Diocese of Hakodate is in charge of 
Dominican Fathers from Canada but for the pre 
sent no Bishop has; been appointed. 

In the ecclesiastical organization the next in 
order after a Diocese is a Vicariate Apostolic. At 
present there are three such Vicariates in Japan. 
That of Hiroshima is in charge of German Jesuits ; 
that of Sapporo, German Franciscans; and Nanyo, 
Spanish Jesuits. 

After Vicariates Apostolic come Prefectures 
Apostolic. There are six Prefectures in Japan; 
Shikoku, Miyazaki, Niigata, Nagoya, Taiwan, and 
Kagoshima. The lowest ecclesiastical unit is 
that of an Independent Mission, of which rank is 
Karafuto. At the present time, within the limits 
of Osaka Diocese, the territory known as Shiga- 
ken has been given over to the American Mary- 
knoll Fathers, who for many years in the past 
have been working among the Japanese in Amer 
ica, Chosen, and Manchukuo. 
Ecclesiastical Heirarchy: 
Archdiocese of Tokyo: Archbishop A. Cham- 

bon. 

Diocese of Nagasaki: Bishop J. Hayasaka. 
Diocese of Osaka : Bishop J. Castanier. 
Diocese of Hakodate: Msgr. A. Dumas. 
Diocese of Fukuoka: Bishop A. Breton. 
Vicariate Apostolic Hiroshima: Bishop J. 
Ross, S. J. 
Vicariate Apostolic of Sapporo: Bishop W. 

Kinold, O. F. M. 

Vicariate Apostolic of Nanyo: Bishop de la 
Rego, S. J. 



&2 JAPAN TO-DAY 

Prefecture Apostolic of Shikoku: Msgr. M. 

Perez, O. P. 
Prefecture Apostolic of Niigata: Msgr. A 

Ceska, S. V. D. 
Prefecture Apostolic of Nagoya: Msgr. Jos. 

Reiners, S. V. D. 
Prefecture Apostolic of Kagoshima: Msgr. 

E. Roy, O. F. M. 
Prefecture Apostolic of Taiwan: Msgr. 

Thomas de la Hoz, O. P. 
Prefecture Apostolic of Miyazaki: Msgr. V. 

Cimatti, S. D. B. 

To countries which have diplomatic relations 
with the Vatican an .Apostolic Nuntio is sent by 
the Pope. To others, is sent an Apostolic Dele 
gate. The first Apostolic Delegate was sent to 
Japan by Pope Benedict XVth in 1919. The First 
Delegate was Archbishop P. Fumasoni-Biondi 
who is now Cardinal Prefect of the Sacred Con 
gregation of Propaganda in Rome. His succes 
sor was Archbishop M. Girdini who later was ap 
pointed Archbishop of Ancona in Italy. The 
next Delegate was Archbishop E. Mooney who 
later was placed in charge of the Diocese of 
Rochester in the United States. The present 
Apostolic Delegate is Archbishop Paul Marella, 
who arrived in Japan in 1933. 

His Excellency Archbishop Paul Marella, the 
present Apostolic Delegate was born in Rome in 
1895. He studied philosophy, theology, and 
canon law in the Roman Seminary. Later he 
studied civil law in the Roman State University, 
After becoming a priest he was appointed a Sec 
retary in the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda. 
Later he was sent to the United States where he 



CATHOLIC CHURCH IN JAPAN AT THE PRESENT TIME 93 

was Auditor at the Apostolic Delegation. After 
eleven years in America he was made Apostolic 
Delegate to Japan. 

III. Catholic Educational Work 

It has always been the policy of the Catholic 
church to train native Catholics to become priests 
Hence there are established Seminaries in which 
the necessary course of studies can be followed. 
The first Seminary was established in Nagasaki 
soon, after the missionaries returned to Japan. 
The Seminary in Tokyo was established by the 
present Archbishop of Tokyo in 1929. Three 
years later this Seminary was made into a Natio 
nal Seminary to which the Bishops in all parts of 
Japan could send their students. The present 
Rector of this Seminary is the Very Rev. S. Can- 
dau of the Paris Foreign Mission Society. The 
number of students at the present time is 95. 
After three years of philosophy they must study 
four years of Theology before Ordination to the 
Priesthood. This Seminary is recognized by the 
Educational Ministry as a special institute. 

Students in the National Seminary come from 
the various Preparatory Seminaries listed below : 

No. of students Director 

Tokyo 45 Rev. R. Dossier 

Nagasaki 70 Rev. W. Urakawa 

Fukuoka 77 Rev. F. Bois 

Miyazaki 38 Rev. R. Caro 

Sapporo 6 Rev. J. Okubo 

At such a time when the number of Japanese 
clergy is sufficient to minister to the needs of the 
Japanese Catholics, the foreign missionaries are 



94 JAPAN TO-DAY 

prepared to leave for other lands. This has al 
ways been the policy of the Catholic Church. 

The following Schools are conducted by various 
Catholic Religious Societies in absolute conformity 
with the rules and regulations stipulated by the 
National Board of Education. 

Name No. of Students In charge of: 

Catholic University 

in Tokyo .._ 500 Society of Jesus 

The Rector of the University is Rev. Dr. H. 
Hoffmann, S.J. Ths University has a two years 
preparatory course and a three years university 
course. (Literature, Philosophy, Commerce, Eco 
nomics.) The Jochi Semmon-gakko has a three 
years course including Journalism, Law, and 
Commerce. The Jochi Gaikoku-Senshu-gakko has 
also a two years course. 

Morning Star School 

(Gyosei) 1324 Brothers of Mary. 

This school was established in the year 1888 
when the first Brothers came to Japan from Bel 
gium. In addition to the above mentioned school 
in Tokyo they also have a school in Yokohama 
(St. Joseph s College) which numbers 150 stu 
dents. Another school in Nagasaki (Kaisei Gak- 
ko) having 750 students and a Commercial School 
in Osaka (Meisei) with 860 pupils. 

Nanzan Chugakko .. 230 Society of Divine Word 

(Nagoya) 

This school was founded by Msgr. Jos. Reiners 
in 1932. 

The Brothers of the Christian schools who are 
famous throughout the world as leaders in educa- 



CATHOLIC CHURCH IN JAPAN AT THE PRESENT TIME 95 

tion of young men are planning the establishment 
of a school in Hakodate ini the near future. 

Various Catholic Sisterhoods have been active 
ly engaged in the direction of Girls schools in 
various parts of the Empire. The first Catholic 
Sisters to start work in Japan came to Tokyo in 
1872. This Sisterhood, the Dames of St. Maur 
now have schools for girls in many large cities in 
Japan. 

In Tokyo: Futaba Jo Gakko pupils: 528 

Primary School 308 

Kindergarten 138 

Futaba-Kai 468 

Sumire Gakuin 44 

In Yokohama: Koran Jo Gakko 507 

InShizuoka: Fukuoka Commercial 

School for girls 172 

Seikazoku Gakko .... 109 

In Kobe: Kambayashi Gakko 146 

Commercial _ 338 

The Dames of the Sacred Heart came to Japan 

in 1908 and specialize in teaching the children of 

the higher classes. 

In Tokyo: Seishin Gakuin: 

High School pupils 200 

Primary School pupils 240 

Special High School pupils 255 

InObayashi: Seishin Gakuin pupils 420 

The Sisters of St. Paul de Chartres have a large 
school in Tokyo (Shirayuri) with more than one 
thousand pupils. In addition to the above men 
tioned Societies there are several others engaged 
in educational and social work in different parts 



93 JAPAN TO-DAY 

of Japan. Among them are two distinctly Japa 
nese Sisterhoods, namely, the Sisters of the Visita 
tion (Homon-Kai) and the Seishin Aishi-KaL 
These latter Japanese Societies are in charge of 
hospitals, schools, and sanatoria. 

IV. The Catholic Press 

Up to a comparatively recent time the activities 
of the Catholic Press were comparatively limited 
since the missionaries were primarily engaged in 
the establishment of mission centers. Among the 
pioneer foreign missionaries engaged in the work 
of the Press we find Rev. Father Liguel of the 
Paris Foreign Mission Society who published many 
books and tracts, the most famous being: "Prin 
ciples of Scholastic Philosophy," "Outline of Ca 
tholic Theology," and "Ideals of Youth." The 
Rev. Fr. Steichen was editor of the Catholic maga 
zine "Koe" which was founded about forty years 
ago in Kyoto. His famous work "Christian Dai- 
myds" has been translated into French, English 
and Japanese and enjoys great popularity. Rev. 
Father Raguet has also contributed very much to 
Catholic press work. His translation of the New 
Testament from the original Greek is noted for 
its accuracy and his French-Japanese Dictionary 
is used widely. 

In 1931 the first National Press Conference was 
convened in Tokyo. Before this time the follow 
ing Catholic periodicals were published: "Koe," a 
Catholic monthly, by the Kyoto-Sha in charge of 
Rev. Fr. Steichen. At the same place was pub 
lished the "Oshie no Sono". In 1924 these two 
magazines were combined into one. In the Diocese 
of Osaka there was published monthly the 



CATHOLIC CHURCH IN JAPAN AT THE PRESENT TIME 97 

"Kokyo Katei no Tomo" ; the Kobe Catholic 
Young Men published the "Catholic News". The 
Komyosha of Sapporo published each month the 
"Komyo". In Tokyo the Catholic Young Men s 
Association under the Presidency of Admiral Ya- 
mamoto published the weekly "Catholic Times". 
In 1931 after the Press Conference the Catholic 
"Chuo Shuppanbu" was established with the 
Apostolic Delegate as Honorary President, the 
Archbishop of Tokyo, the President, and Rev. Dr. 
Paul Taguchi as; Director. Thus all Catholic Press 
activities were united. This Central Publishing 
House now publishes a weekly newspaper, several 
periodicals, books, and pamphlets. The national 
organ of the Catholic Church in Japan is the 
weekly newspaper "Kattoriku Shimbun". The 
"Koe" is still published monthly and numbers 
3,000 subscribers. The monthly "Catholic" is 
published for the intellectual class and has 1,000 
subscribers. For sick people there is published 
each month the "Fukkatsu" and for children 
"Umi no Hoshi". 

The Catholic publishing house in Tokyo pub 
lishes books in Japanese and other languages. 
Among the more important Catholic publications 
of the past year we find the Pastoral Letter of the 
Bishops concerning the patriotic duties of Catho 
lics in Japan, and the "The Manchoukuo Empire 
and the Catholic Church" by Rev. Dr. P. Taguchi. 
The former book speaks of the obligations of 
Catholics concerning patriotism while the latter 
makes known the present status of the Catholic 
Church in the Manchoukuo Empire. 

The Kyohosha in Nagasaki publishes a weekly 
newspaper for the Catholics in that Diocese. The 



98 JAPAN TO-DAY 

Director, Rev. Fr. Urakawa also published recent 
ly two volumes concerning the "Discovery of 
Catholic Japanese after the Meiji Restration". 
He is known as one of the most famous scholars of 
Catholic History in Japan. Also in Nagasaki 
there is a publishing House in charge of the Fran 
ciscan Conventual Brothers which publishes "Mu- 
genzai no Kishi" which has more than 5,000 cir 
culation. In Tokyo the Salesian Fathers have a 
publishing house where the monthly "Don Bosco" 
is edited and printed. The Catholic Institute for 
Philosophy and Science in Okayama publishes the 
monthly "Biblica" (Seisho-Shiso) . The Director, 
Rev. Father Shibutani, is preparing a large work 
concerning Catholic Principles several volumes of 
which have already appeared. 

Several outstanding leaders in Catholic press 
work are : Rev. Fr. F. X. Iwashita, who has pub 
lished several books, among the most recent being 
a translation of "The City of God," by St. Augus 
tine. Rev. Dr. Totsuka has also been actively en 
gaged in writing for the Catholic Press many ar 
ticles in addition to several books. 

Last year the National Commission for the 
Press and Catholic Action was organized. Mem 
bers of this Commission have been taken from 
both the Japanese and foreign clergy in Japan. 
The Apostolic Delegate is the Protector, the Arch 
bishop of Tokyo the President and Rev. Fr. H. 
Noll, O.F.M. the Secretary. This Commission 
publishes the quarterly magazine for missionaries 
called "Actio Missionaria". 

V. Charitable Work 

Charity has always been the queen of Christian 



CATHOLIC CHURCH IN JAPAN AT THE PRESENT TIME 99 

virtues. The Catholic church throughout her 
long history has always been engaged in works of 
this nature. In Japan too this activity has played 
an important role in the Catholic Church. 

In 1888, a Leper Asylum was founded in Koya- 
ma, which is now directed by a Japanese priest. 
There are about 130 patients here at the present 
time. A second Leper Asylum has been estab 
lished in Biwazaki in 1898. There are 51 patients 
there. This Asylum is in charge of the Francis 
can Sisters of Mary who also manage the Catholic 
Hospital, Seibo Byoin in Tokyo and the Interna 
tional Hospital in Yokohama. This Congregation 
also directs an Old Women s Home in Tokyo. 

The Very Rev. Jos. Flaujac, Vicar General of 
the Archdiocese of Tokyo, founded two large 
sanatoria known as Bethania no le and Bethle 
hem. He is also in charge of Nazareth House 
which takes care of the children of the patients. 
At Bethlehem, which lins in the outskirts of To 
kyo, he also has a Primary School which is recog 
nized by the Government. 

Settlement work among the poor is being done 
by the Society of Jesus and the Society of St. John 
Don Bosco (popularly called the Salesian Socie 
ty). These settlements dedicate all their efforts 
to alleviating the conditions found among the 
poor in the slums. 

The Sisters of Charity, who are internationally 
famous for their work among the poor, are deve 
loping their activities in the cities of Osaka and 
Fukuoka. Practically each Religious Society of 
Sisters is engaged in some kind of charity work. 



100 JAPAN TO-DAY 

VI. Catholic Action 

Catholic Action consists in the cooperation of 
the Catholic laity in the propagation of the Faith 
and is strictly a religious movemennt under the 
leadership of the Bishops and priests. In prac 
tically every parish in Japan the lay people are 
united under ths leadership of the pastor for the 
purpose of making Catholic teaching known to 
their friends and fellow-citizens. 

The two leading Catholic Young Men s Asso 
ciations are those found in Tokyo and Sapporo. 
The one in Tokyo has its headquarters at the Cen 
tral Publishing House in Kojimachi-ku. Monthly 
meetings are held so as to facilitate the realization 
of its program. The Association in Tokyo num 
bers three hundred members who are under the 
Presidency of Mr. K. Saito and the Vice-presi 
dency of Mr. K. Sagara. 

Among other associations promoting Catholic 
Action we find the Catholic Marriage Club, and 
the Study Clubs at the Imperial, Keio, Hosei, Wa- 
seda, and Jochi Universities. The members of 
these Catholic Study Clubs hear monthly lectures 
given by prominent Catholic priests or laymen. 

Another Catholic Action Association has been 
organized under the patronage of the Apostolic 
Delegate. The members of this Association are 
Catholic professors engaged at any, of the many 
Universities in Tokyo. Professor Kotaro Tanaka, 
of the Imperial University in Tokyo, is the Presi 
dent while Professor Yoshihiko Yoshimitsu is 
Secretary. 

There is also a Catholic Artists Guild with 
members from all parts of Japan. The central 



CATHOLIC CHURCH IN JAPAN AT THE PRESENT TIME 101 

office of this Guild is at the Jochi University. The 
Director is Rev. H. Heuvers, S.J. This Guild 
sponsors semi-annual exhibitions of the paintings 
of its members at some public Hall in Tokyo. The 
aim and purpose of this Guild is to foster the 
development of Catholic Art along traditional 
Japanese lines. Each year they prepare Christmas 
cards which have been enthusiastically received 
in many countries of the world. It is hoped that 
future books treating Catholic doctrine will be 
illustrated by these artists. 

A Catholic Young Men s Association holds a 
v/eekly meeting at which is given a! higher course 
of study in strictly religious subjects such as Scrip 
ture, Dogmatics, Moral Theology and History. 
These conferences are given by various Catholic 
priests and the meetings can be attended by Cath 
olics; as well as non-Catholics. 

Each Summer during the month of July there is 
given a week s seminar in Catholic Doctrine by 
leading priests of the country. Those attending 
this Seminar come from all parts of Japan, Korea, 
and Manchoukuo. A similar Seminar is held 
each year, at the Yamato Girls School, for women. 

Since many Japanese emigrants go each year to 
Brazil, which is a Catholic country, the Japanese 
Government several years ago asked that Japan 
ese Catholic priests be sent there not only to take 
care of the emigrants who are Catholic but also to 
further good relatioins between the Japanese 
emigrants and the Government of Brazil. As a 
result Rev. Shohachi Nakamura was sent to Bra 
zil. Likewise, the Rev. Yamanaka gives twice 
each month a lecture to the emigrants who are 
preparing to leave for Brazil. 



102 JAPAN TO-DAY 

In addition to Catholic Action organizations 
amongi men we find several prominent Associa 
tions among the women. The most prominent is 
the national organizatioin called the "Nippon Shi 
mai-Kai". This Shimai-Kai was founded, by Rev. 
H. Gemeinder, S.V.D. but a few years ago in Aki- 
ta and now numbers more than; 5,000 members in 
all parts of the Japanese Empire. The central 
office is in Tokyo. The prime end of this organi 
zation is to foster the spiritual and moral forma 
tion of Japanese young women. There are three 
distinct sections embracing elderly ladies, young 
women, and young girls. This Shimai-Kai has 
already accomplished much good and the future 
is very bright. 

VII. Religious Congregations in Japan 

In Catholic terminology, we call all those re 
ligious, or regulars (from regula, a rule) who are 
members of an order or congregation, which en 
joins) on its members the three vows of Poverty, 
Charity, and Obedience. However, there are sev 
eral kinds of religious congregations, according 
to the secondary end which they propose to real 
ize, the first and primary end being, always, the 
sanctification of the members themselves. Among 
these several kinds, there are two principal clas 
sifications, namely, the active religious life and 
ihe contemplative religious life. The distinction 
is well defined but it does not mean that those 
engaged in the active life never practice also the 
contemplative. They practice both, while the 
contemplative is engaged solely in his own work. 
The religious orders devoted to the contemplative 



CATHOLIC CHURCH IN JAPAN AT THE PRESENT TIME 103 

life which are now in Japan are the Trappist 
monks and sisters, the Carmelite sisters, and the 
Adoration sisters. These all live the contemplative 
life, devoting their time to prayer and mortifica 
tion within the monastery or convent enclosure, 
out of which they cannot come except by special 
permission obtainable in extraordinary cases. 

The Trappist monks arrived in Japan in 1894, 
and founded a great monastery in Tobetsu, near 
Hakodate city. Some years ago they also founded 
another monastery in Shindenbaru in Fukuoka 
Prefecture. The life of these monks is well known 
in Japan, not alone in the Catholic world, but also 
in the non-Catholic. There are now 7 foreign and 
56 Japanese monks in the Tobetsu monastery and 
1 foreign and 17 Japanese monks in the Shinden 
baru monastery. Their life (as visitors can see) 
is a hard one, devoted to prayer and mortification 
IP work, with the conversion of sinners and the 
salvation of mankind as their object. 

The Trappistine sisters arrived in Japan in 1897 
and erected their monastery or convent in Yuro- 
kawa, the opposite side of Hakodate. They open 
ed very recently a second convent near Kobe. 
There are now 96 Japanese and 20 foreign sisters 
in the Yurokawa monastery. 

The Carmelite sisters arriving in this country 
only three years ago, founded their convent in 
Shakuji in Tokyo, near the major Seminary. Al 
ready there are 11 Japanese and 3 foreign sisters 
living there. St. Therese of Liseaux, the Carmelite 
sister, commonly known as "The Little Flower", 
is famous throughout the world, and her simple, 
saintly life attracts people of goodwill in Japan. 

The Adoraton sisters have their central convent 



104 JAPAN TO-DAY 

in Kojimachi in Tokyo and are living" there the 
contemplative life. Last year the Spanish sisters 
called "The Servants of the Sacred Heart" came 
to Mikawa Dai Machi in Tokyo. Their lives center 
around the Blessed Sacrament of the Altar, to 
which they bind themselves by special promises. 

The Benedictine Fathers arrived in Japan four 
years ago. At present they are engaged in study 
ing the Japanese language and in acquiring some 
suitable territory on which to build their future 
monastery. The Benedictine order is contempla 
tive, one of the oldest in the Church. Their 
founder St. Benedict, belonging to the sixth cen 
tury, is called the Father of monasticism. These 
fathers came to Japan from the Abbey of Beuron, 
and doubless will introduce into this country the 
famous Beuron art. 

The Jesuit fathers are endeavourng to encour 
age development of science. The Dominican 
fathers, also, in the Hakodate and Shikoku mis 
sions have their special convents devoted to their 
special lines of work. The Franciscan fathers 
are conducting work among the poor in accord 
ance with the spirit of their order and that of 
their founder, St. Francis, "the poor man of 
Assisi." The Salesian fathers, also in accordance 
with the object of their order and their founder, 
St. John Bosco, are working for the education of 
young men in professional schools, printing offices, 
etc., and devote themselves generally to charita 
ble works. The Brothers of Mary devote their 
lives to the education of young men ; they now 
count more than 80 Japanese brothers among 
their members. 

These religious congregations generally send 



CATHOLIC CHURCH IN JAPAN AT THE PRESENT TIME 105 

some of their young aspirants or candidates to 
Catholic universities in Europe or America for the 
pupose of higher studies in Church subjects. The 
dioceses also send every year their most promising 
seminarists or candidates for the secular priest 
hood to foreign seminaries, especially to the Pro 
paganda College of Rome, for the superior courses 
in Theology, Philosophy, Holy Scripture, or Canon 
Law. 

Official Statistics of the Catholic Church 

in the Japanese Empire 

1934 1935 

TheArchdiocese of Tokyo Paris Foreign 
Mission Society 

Personnel : 

Archbishop 1 

/ Foreign 30 

Secular priests {j * ese ^ 



"""*> {ST 1 



^Brothers 



/Foreign 116 

Sisters I Native 109 

f Primary 34 

Mission stations \ secondary 65 



Establishments 

Schools: 

Major seminaries 1 Seminarists {JJ^J 41 



Universities 1 Students 500 



106 



JAPAN TO-DAY 



(For girls 



Secondary Schools 



Elementary Schools ( F , or 

I For girls 

Kindergartens 13 

Charitable works: 
Orphanages 3 

Hospital 8 

Press : 

Printing office 2 

Weekly publications 1 

Monthly publications 4 

Books published 30 

Total Catholic population, 1935 
Total Catholic population, 1934 



Students 
Students 
Students 
Students 
Children 



2691 
404 

1453 
785 



15,003 
14,288 



The Diocese of Osaka Paris Foreign 
Mission Society 



Personnel : 
Bishop 

Secular priests { Forei S n 
I Japanese 

Religious (foreign 
\ Japanese 

Lay brothers (Foreign 

(Japanese 
Sisters (foreign 
( Japanese 



Mission stations 



Establishments 



1 

22 
6 
3 

5 
7 

21 
13 

22 
34 

7 
23 



CATHOLIC CHURCH IN JAPAN AT THE PRESENT TIME 107 



Schools: 










Seminary 


Seminarists 


f Major 
I Minor 


16 
19 


Secondary Schools 


(For boys 
(For girls 


1 
7 


Students 
Students 


896 
1880 




| For boys 
I For girls 


2 
5 


Students 
Students 


404 
1453 



Kintergartens 13 Children 785 

Charitable works: 
Orphanages 2 

Total Catholic population, 1935 8,980 
Total Catholic population, 1934 8,002 

The Vicariate Apostolic of Hiroshima 
Society of Jesus (German Province) 

Personnel : 

Bishop 1 

Jesuit priests 13 

Secular priests 2 

Lay brothers, foreign 5 

Sisters /Foreign 
\Japanese 

..... ,. / Primary 11 

Mission stations \ secondai 



Secondary 6 

I Major 3 

Establishments \ Minor 8 



Schools: 

Seminarists {Major 2 

Secondary for girls 2 Students 360 

Kindergartens 8 Children 640 



108 JAPAN TO-DAY 



Charitable works: 

Orphanages 2 

Others 1 

Press : 

Monthly publications 2 

Books published 13 

Total Catholic population, 1935 1,739 
Total Catholic population, 1934 1,647 



The Apostolic Prefecture of Nagoya- 
Society of the Divine Word 

Personnel : 

Prefect Apostolic 1 

Priests (Religious 13 

I Secular 2 

Lay brothers (Foreign 6 

(Japanese 2 

Sisters (Foreign 23 

( Japanese 24 

Mission stations f Primary 12 

I Secondary 2 

Establishments ( Major 9 

I Minor 6 

Schools : 

Seminarists {^ior 3 

Secondary, boys 2 students 346 
Kindergartens 3 children 627 

Charitable works: 

Orphanages 1 

Hospitals 1 

Others 1 



CATHOLIC CHURCH IN JAPAN AT THE PRESENT TIME 109 

Press : 

Monthly magazines 2 

Total Catholic Population in 1935 1,384 

in 1934 1,249 



The Prefecture Apostolic of Niigata- 
Society of the Divine Word 

Personnel : 

Prefect Apostolic 1 
Missionary priests 17 

Sistprs foreign 8 

(Native 23 

Mission stations 

Establishments /Major 3 

\Mmor 12 

Schools: 

rMajor 4 

Seminarists { Minor 3 

Secondary, girls 1 students 495 
Kindergartens 13 children 951 

Charitable works: 

Orphanages 2 

Hospitals 2 

Others 1 

Press : 

Books published 2 

Total Catholic population in 1935 1,084 

in 1934 1,043 



110 



JAPAN TO-DAY 



The Diocese of Nagasaki Entrusted to 
the Japanese Priests 



Personnel : 



Bishop 



(Japanese) 



Priests (Foreign 
\Japanese 

Religious {Foreign 
(Japanese 

Lay brothers (Foreign 
I Japanese 

Sisters (foreign 
(Japanese 



Mission Stations / 

\ Secondary 



Establishments 



Schools : 

Seminarists (Major 
\Mmor 

Secondary, boys 2, 

girls 2, 

Kindergartens 6, 



26 

54 



students 830 

140 

children 501 



Charitable works: 
Orphanages 3 

Press : 

Monthly magazines 
Books published 



Total Catholic population, 1935 
Total Catholic population, 1934 



54,770 
54,940 



CATHOLIC CHURCH IN JAPAN AT THE PRESENT TIME 111 

The Diocese of Fukuoka Paris Foreign 
Missionary Society 

Personnel : 
Bishop 1 

Secular priests * { Foreign 27 

I Japanese 1 



Lay brothers, Japanese 12 

\Japanese 35 

Mission stations / Primary 19 

\ Secondary 4 

Establishments { Major . Jf 

I Minor 24 

The Apostolic Prefecture of Kagoshima 
Canadian Franciscan Fathers 

Press : 

Prefect Apostolic 1 

Franciscan priests 16 

Lay brothers, foreign 1 

Sisters, foreign 20 

Mission stations (Primary 13 

(Secondary 34 

Establishments / Major * 

\Mmor . 10 

Schools: 

OCITllilciiiwuS < _ _. no - * * 

( Minor 23 

Secondary, girls 1, students 60 
Kindergartens 2, children 110 



112 JAPAN TO-DAY 



Charitable works: 

Orphanages 3 

Others 4 

Total Catholic population, 1935 4,737 
Total Catholic population, 1934 4,758 



The Apostolic Prefecture of Miyazaki- 
Salesian Fathers. 

Personnel : 

Prefect Apostolic 1 

Salesian priests 9 

Foreign lay brothers 3 

Foreign sisters 10 



Mission stations / P rima 7 5 

\ Secondary 14 

Establishments 
Schools : 

Ma J r 



50 
Kindergartens 2, children 110 

Charitable works: 
Orphanages 3 

Press : 

Monthly magazines 2 
Books published 10 

Total Catholic population, 1935 1,246 
Total Catholic population, 1934 1,224 



CATHOLIC CHURCH IN JAPAN AT THE PRESENT TIME 113 

The Apostolic Prefecture of Shikoku 
Spanish Dominican Fathers 

Personnel : 

Prefect Apostolic 1 

Dominican foreign priests 10 
Dominican native priests 1 

I 



Mission Stations 
Establishments 

Schools : 
seminarists 



Secondary, girls 1, students 300 
Kindergartens 2, children 310 

Charitable works: 
Orphanage 1 

Press : 
Monthly magazine 1 

Total Catholic population, 1935 706 
Total Catholic population, 1934 702 

The Diocese of Hakodate 
Canadian Dominican Fathers 

Personnel : 

Administrator Apostolic 1 



114 JAPAN TO-DAY 

Canadian priests 21 

Japanese priests 6 

Religious foreign 

(.Japanese 5 

Lay brothers 

f Foreign 52 

\ Japanese 92 

Mission stations: 

Primary 18 

Secondary 5 

Establishments (Jff^ or 

(Minor 17 

Schools: 

Seminarists (^ ajor * 

(Minor ^ v ?ii ; ;; 14 

Secondary, girls 3, students 1,309 
Kindergarten 7, children 348 

Charitable works: 

Orphanages 2 

Hospitals 1 

Others 4 

Press : 
Monthly magazine 1 

Total Catholic population, 1935- 3,357 
Total Catholic .population, 1934 2,262 

The Apostolic Vicariate of Sapporo- 
German Franciscan Fathers 

Personnel : 



CATHOLIC CHURCH IN JAPAN AT THE PRESENT TIME 115 

Bishop 1 

Foreign priests 24 

Native priests /Secular 3 

\ Religious 3 

Lay brothers / For eign 7 

\Japanese 3 

Sisters /foreign 37 

I Native 19 

Mission stations {P rimar y 15 

I secondary 9 

Establishments 



The Independent Mission of Karafuto _ 
Polish Franciscan Fathers 

Personnel : 

Administrator 1 

Priests 4 

Lay foreign brothers 1 

Mission stations (P rima jy J 
I secondary 4 

Establishments 3 

Total Catholic population, 1935 495 
Total Catholic population, 1934 455 

The grand total Catholic population for all Japan 

in 1935 105,660 

in 1934 103,271 

(The detailed statistics for the colonies of Japan will 
not be given here, but the total Catholic population of 
all the colonies is given as 155,948 in 1935 and as 147,576 
in 1934. This makes a grand total of Catholics in the 
Japanese Empire in 1935 of 261,608.) 



PART II 
THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 



f 



PART II 
THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

Chapter VI 
THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN 1935 

Charles Wheeler Iglehart 

The year 1935 was one of mingled successes 
and reverses in the organized life of the church, 
of growth, but of relatively small growth, and 
for this the chief causes lay outside the churches 
altogether. Any appraisal of their work, there 
fore, must begin with a glance at 

I. Backgrounds 

During the past year in its relations to the 
western nations Japan has again unequivocally 
declared that it has come of age. Its declaration 
of independence has been aggressive, and real 
istic, and it has been supported by the rank and 
file of the people. Independent action, direct 
action and even force, to accomplish the national 
will wherever necessary throughout the world 
seems to be the adopted policy. 

In Eastern Asia the thrust of empire has gone 
on more swiftly than ever. A quarter century of 
colonial administration of Chosen is being cele 
brated, administrative direction of Manchuria is 
being consolidated ; relations with North China 
are inter-tangled ; rims are touching with the 



120 ) THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

Soviet Republics in Mongolia. Altogether Japan 
has assumed the position of tutelage oven Eastern 
Asia, with all the consequences which that may 
involve. 

At home the crisis psychology has continued un 
abated. But a certain elation has baen generally 
characteristic of the people. There has been fear 
for many years ; now that fear is being faced, and 
the mood of depression has given way to one of 
adventure. Expansion is in the air. Confidence 
in a cause and in the ability to promote it marks 
the spirit of the ordinary citizen. Americans who 
recall the Spanish War will recognize ths mood 
of satisfaction over easy victories gained at a dis 
tance and without the chastening effects of a full- 
sized war. 

A renaissance of native culture has taken plac2. 
The old literature, religions, historic personages, 
and even terminology and place names have come 
in for special attention. New techniques are be 
ing developed for introducing the ancient Japa 
nese culture to the western world, both in Japan 
and abroad. A sense of values in the old and of 
pride in them has resulted in something of a "re 
action away from Occidental things in general. 

The economic world is in confusion. Successful 
price competition in almost any Japanese product 
sold anywhere in the world has set industry and 
transportation booming. The activities on the 
mainland call for increased production in the 
heavy industries. Talk of depression continues, 
but it is in the face of actual prosperity. Amuse 
ment places are crowded. Luxuries multiply, 
though on a lower level than in western countries. 
The nation is sport conscious. 



121 



Yet all is far from well in the financial world. 
Many feel that the prosperity is illusory and tem 
porary. Wealth becomes ever more unevenly dis 
tributed. Wages are at a starvation level. Morale 
among workers has almost broken down. Further 
more, the accelerating tension between city and 
rural life-interests has attracted wide attention. 
Nothing avails to close the gap between urban and 
farming people. In the country poverty reigns, 
with its attendant debts, ill-health, privation and 
almost despair. Natural calamities this past year, 
of flood and cold and fire have immensely added 
to the burdens of the country communities. Land 
lord-tenant frictions, too, have continued. The 
widening control of land by banks, and the 
financier-direction of political policy has stirred 
the opposition of military circles, whose sympathy 
lies with the farmers, the source of conscript 
man-material. 

A basic nervousness has thus been a marked 
characteristic of the past year. The uncertainty 
of foundations has led to an added emphasis on 
controls of all sorts. The basic political philo 
sophy of the nation has had an overhauling. The 
orthodox school of interpretation of the Constitu 
tion has been replaced by 1 one more conservative, 
and all teaching is now to be brought to conform 
ity with it. Police supervision has! been heighten 
ed. All religious organizations are to be regulated 
by the proposed new religion s law. While the 
condition of a totalitarian state has not yet been 
reached a good distance on that road has been 
covered during the past year. 

Education reflects all these currents. There has 
been more unifying of teaching, and more control 



122 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

of thought than heretofore. Military drill has 
moved toward the center of the campus life, and 
variations from the orthodox patterns of political, 
economic, social and religious belief have not been 
encouraged. 

The religious effects of this general situation 
have been wide-spread. In a sincere desire to find 
a re-creating center of unity for the nation the 
authorities have turned to the ancient Shinto 
shrines that have been the primeval nuclei of the 
worship life of the people. Although the govern 
ment authorities have ruled that the attendance 
at the shrines is not an act of religious worship, 
but only of veneration of national heroes, these 
ancient fanes are nevertheless sites of religious 
ceremonies. When they are not in use for state or 
public occasions they are serving as the daily 
vehicle for the primitive religious life of the com 
mon people. The compulsory attendance of all 
students on national holidays has greatly aug 
mented the prestige of the shrinesi in the local 
community; and the imprimatur of the govern 
ment on these public aspects of the Shinto world 
has helped set this entire primitive religion again 
on the front-stage of the life of today. The system 
atic cultivation of the memory of the Emperor 
Meiji as a religious force has led to the recent 
multiplication of places of worship dedicated to 
him. 

With this increased morale of public Shinto 
there has gone a new burst of life and growth in 
the numerous sects of voluntary Shinto. Their 
ideology is much the same, and they use the same 
religious rites. Beside the thirteen registered sects 
with their membership of perhaps one-fourth the 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN 1935 123 

entire nation, no less than four hundred and forty 
separate cults were reported to the government 
in the census taken last year. Their number is still 
growing. Many of these, while giving lip 1 service 
to nationalistic slogans are really politically sub 
versive, and in the case of others the founder 
claims divinity. Thus they are coming into conflict 
with the political and theological implications of 
State-Shinto, and have become the objects of con 
trol by the authorities. Many of them are now 
being repressed or disbanded. 

In the Buddhist world much is being said of a 
religious revival. It is true that several popular 
Buddhist leaders have made an attractive present 
ation over the radio, and in lecture-rooms and 
magazines. But there is serious question as to how 
deeply religious this movement really is. It is 
largely humanist and social, or sometimes nation 
alistic in its emphasis, and in Christian circles it is 
usually discounted. Yet the temples are always 
busy and active with their services of worship and 
commemoration. 

Against this background, or rooted in this liv 
ing society are 

II. The Christian Churches 

Looked at from the outside, as a measurable 
physical entity in the life of Japan, we would note 
first of all, that they are well-nigh negligible in 
size, and numbers. We find it difficult to obtain 
facts regarding the Roman Catholic churches, but 
guessing that there may be six or seven hundred 
we scarcely reach a total of three thousand 
churches all told. The total membership probably 
does not exceed three hundred thousand. And 



124 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

when the non-resident, the inactive and the 
lost members are eliminated, it is a question 
whether altogether the churches number more 
than one hundred thousand active members. With 
but one active Christian individual for every Bud 
dhist priest or for every Shinto shrine, one Chris 
tian for every two hundred of population, it is a 
wonder that the members of this tiny sect are ever 
taken into account, at all. Those who come from 
countries where the church enrolls from one half 
to virtually all the population have to shift their 
perspective of judgment in viewing a Christian 
movement which constitutes so insignificant a 
minority in numbers as does the one in Japan. 

The churches show a wide diffusion of denomi 
national affiliation. With the exception of the 
work of, the Church of England and one or two 
missions from Northern Europe the denominations 
all stem from the United States and Canada. The 
Catholic Church, too, is transferring its work 
from French and German missions to the one from 
Canada. All of the main branches of Protestant 
ism are represented in the newer churches. Infra- 
denominational groupings account for the four 
largest ones: the Church of Christ (Presbyterian- 
Reformed), the Methodist Church, the Congrega 
tional Church, and the Holy Catholic Church 
(Episcopal-Anglican). Of these four each num 
bers fromi thirty to forty thousand members. Be 
side them there is the Holiness Church, an indige 
nous Japanese organization, now unfortunately 
split into two factions. The remaining twenty or 
more denominations total about the same number 
of members as any one of the above four. 

Attempts have been made at comity through 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN 1935 125 

delimitation of territory, but they have not been 
successful. Each major denomination has a na 
tional organization, reaching every part of the 
Empire. Church growth is much easier in the 
cities, and so naturally the churches cluster in the 
larger centers of population, with but sparse re 
presentation in the 1 rural regions. 

There seems to be, however, very little friction, 
and not much conscious competition. The church 
leaders are well known to one another. In most 
cities of any size local ministerial associations are 
functioning, and ready to sponsor joint church or 
evangelistic undertakings in a spirit of coopera 
tion. The technique of fellowship is quite gen 
eral across the denominational lines, and in all 
parts of Japan. 

Theological emphases, too, are as varied as in 
the West, but they do not carry with them the 
aggressive acrimony that has marred church life 
in the sending countries in ! recent decades. A re 
cent issue of a religious journal carries an analysis 
of the major emphases of the present churches 
and their leaders, and ten different types are 
classified. Liberal theology, Barthian theology, 
fundamentalism, and apocalypticism all have 
their representative voices in the current Chris 
tian chorus, but the Oriental mood of tolerance 
forbids any conscious discord. 

The message of the Protestant churches is pre 
vailingly evangelical. No major heresy has as yet 
appeared on the surface of the church life in 
Japan, and the traditional doctrines are widely 
held and propagated. A score of separate theolo 
gical seminaries provide the training? for the min 
istry, but for the most part there is no marked 



12G THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

difference in their teaching. 

Japanese Christianity is still young and still 
semi-foreign. The churches as a rule have not 
taken to the missionary s desire to hasten the slow 
process of blending with Oriental environment. 
Almost no use has been made of native music in 
the churches. The composition of lyric poetry, so 
common in Japan, has not been taken into the 
church life. Architecture still owes but little to 
Asiatic traditions, and Japanese Christian art has 
made only a bare beginning. The liturgy of wor 
ship and the forms of service in most of the de 
nominations are direct importations. The tradi 
tional church year of American Protestantism has 
been adopted, even to Mother s Day and Chil 
dren s Day, and but slight rapprochement has 
yet been made with the immemorial festivals of 
Japanese everyday life. 

In the cosmopolitan life of the cities all this 
escapes notice, and the Christian church is no 
more foreign than the public school or the office. 
But in the country things are different. The 
church is still largely unassimilated as a social 
organism. Its members are chiefly drawn from 
the educated, moving classes, officials, profes 
sional men and some merchants, and compara 
tively few come from the classes that are deeply 
rooted in the local community. This accounts for 
both its strength and its weakness. It is not a 
people s movement as yet. It is not a community 
movement, nor is it a popular religious move 
ment. But its members score very high as regards 
intelligence, capacity for leadership, and moral 
character. In a recent "Who s Who" check-up 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN 1935 127 

of famous persons in Japan the religious affilia 
tions showed that Christians registered fully ten 
times the average percentage of prominence in 
almost every field. 

Furthermore, the instinct of aloofness toward 
things Japanese on the part of the average Chris 
tian in Japan is probably a sound one. It is quite 
possible that any overtures of thought or practice 
made to an immemorial non-Christian culture and 
background for the first hundred years may be 
attended by danger to the life of the 1 new organ 
ism. At any rate, the Christian church, although 
plainly not belonging to the old Japan at all is 
nevertheless respected and highly rated by the 
thoughtful people at large. 

When we come to the local church, we find a 
large degree of uniformity in pattern and in work. 
Here again we notice that the individual church 
is very small in membership. By the law of aver 
ages there are less than one hundred members on 
the roll. The working nucleus numbers about 
fifty. Taking one denomination, the Japan 
Methodist Church, as a sample, there are in all 
45,000 members. Of these 10,000 are in prepara 
tory membership; another 10,000 are in suspend 
ed membership (non-effective), 5,000 are travel 
ling members, 5,000 unknown, and the working 
core and supporting nucleus is but 15,000 in num 
ber. On some such scale as that the average local 
pastor can count on hardly more than forty or 
fifty active members in residence. This is in 
marked contrast to the large membership of! local 
churches in other Eastern countries, and even in 
the other parts of the Japanese Empire, Korea 
and the South Sea Islands. 



128 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

As a result of its small size the average Japan 
ese church has a tightly-knit, somewhat clannish 
life. The members all know one another, and for 
the most part are united in common loyalty. There 
would seem to be comparatively few factions 
within the local church. On the other hand a pro 
gram of manifold activities is usually impossible. 

The pastor will be a man of education, with 
several years of theological training above middle 
school, and perhaps college. In about one church 
out of three there will be in addition a woman 
evangelist or deaconess. The number of mission 
aries is approximately the same, though many of 
them are engaged in school work. 

The routine program of the ordinary Japanese 
church includes the Sunday morning session of the 
Sunday School, with an average enrolment of four 
teachers and sixty-one pupils. About forty pupils 
will be in attendance. As a rule the work will be 
done in a single room, and with meagre equip 
ment. 

Morning worship calls together about twenty- 
five or thirty persons. The evening service is at 
tended by perhaps twenty. A mid-week prayer 
service numbers from ten to a dozen. Men pre 
dominate slightly, and students are well rep 
resented. The pastor may conduct a Bible Class 
for young people. There 1 may be a weekly or bi 
weekly Christian Endeavor meeting, and a month 
ly meeting of the Woman s Society. This latter 
group can be counted on to earn money in various 
ways for the needs of the church maintenance and 
property. 

In some of the larger denominations about one 
church in three conducts a daily kindergarten, 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN 1935 129 

with an average of forty children and two or three 
instructors. 

Pastoral duties are comparatively exacting. 
Members in good standing look for a visit from 
the pastor each week, and pastoral calls are not 
short. With a compact and elaborated family 
system, too, a minister who has the confidence of 
the households of the church members finds him 
self busy with conferences, go-between! work pre 
liminary to weddings, observance of anniversary 
celebrations, funerals and many other family 
problems. 

The gathering and training of inquirers is a 
painstaking task. One by one they are interested, 
drawn to the church services, then to the home of 
the pastor, and finally led to acceptance of the 
Christian faith. Each pastor, on an average brings 
to baptism about six; persons a year, or one every 
two months. This average seems to hold regard 
less of the size of the denomination, or of the de 
gree of training of the pastor. Of those who are 
baptized about one half become full sustaining 
members of the church. 

There are many other and wider activities 
woven into the total pattern of the Christian move 
ment, and threading their way out through the 
local churches. The National Christian Council 
with its headquarters in the Christian Building in 
Tokyo is the clearing house for a large range of 
church interests. The structural organization, too, 
of any one of the larger denominations will in 
dicate the wide span of work being carried on. 
Evangelism usually ranks first in emphasis. Al 
though the emotional element is held in abeyance, 
and the presentation of Christian truth is largely 



130 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

intellectual, yet there is an unceasing effort to pre 
sent Christianity to non-Christians. Scarcely a 
year goes by that some new effort is not under 
taken in the various denominations. 

Evangelism through the secular press, by paid 
space or advertisement, with follow-up corres 
pondence courses is being carried on all over 
Japan through many church agencies. In a num 
ber of centers the work is being done inter-deno 
minationally. In Japan, the land of the mimeo 
graph, church bulletins run into large editions, 
and local or district church papers flourish every 
where. There are over thirty in the Japan 
Methodist church alone. 

Overseas evangelism is organized and enlists 
the support of the local churches. This is a union 
enterprise for all the denominations. 

Rural evangelism is developing its technique, 
as the local churches in country communities are 
learning to conduct farmers Christian institutes, 
"Gospel schools" and classes for the training of 
rural leaders. These are increasing every year. 

Social welfare work in cities usually channels 
through institutions that are either churches them 
selves, or that include a church organization in 
their various phases of life. Conferences of Chris- 
tion employers, and training institutes for factory 
workers have been held. 

Moral and public reform goes on steadily. The 
Purity League, the National Temperance League, 
and the W.C.T.U. all lean for their support on the 
Christian churches. 

The National Sunday School Association serves 
all denominations, as does the Christian Endeavor 
Association. Organized Christian work among 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN 1935 131 

students of government schools under the aegis of 
local churches is being carried on in many centers. 
There are goodly numbers of Japanese pastors 
who exercise a deep influence upon students, even 
though their work is not scientifically organized 
with a view to student leadership. The Christian 
Literature Society and other Christian publishing 
agencies furnish the material used in the churches. 
The Bible Societies, also do the same. The Union 
Hymnal Committee keeps the churches supplied 
with fresh editions of this splendid manual of 
worship. 

Christian schools touch the life of the churches 
at many points. In previous years, of the annual 
increase of the entire Christian movement through 
baptisms it was estimated that one halfi came 
through the gateway of nurture in our Christian 
educational institutions. Although this is no longer 
the case yet the connection of schools and churches 
is very close. With the exception of the larger 
cities where churches prosper without other stim 
ulation, wherever the records show a large, 
strong church there is likely to be a Christian 
school in the community. A case in point is that 
of the Hirosaki church, in the city where the Hiro- 
saki Girls School and the To-O Gi-Juku are situ 
ated, a church from which one hundred and 
twenty full-time Christian workers have gone out 
in the sixty years of its history. 

Although medical work is not general among 
the institutions of the Japanese Christian move 
ment, yet throughout the churches there is a very 
large percentage of Christian medical men and of 
Christian women in the nursing and midwife pro- 



132 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

fessions. The total influence of the churches is 
toward better health conditions. 

III. The Past Year 

Comparative tabulations of certain facts re 
garding the churches give an indication of the 
direction and speed of their growth : 

1930 1935 1936 

Number of Churches 1,760 2,121 2,168 

Total Membership 170,000 194,800 200,322 

Baptisms during year 13,430 15,640 11,480 

Number of Sunday Schools .... 2,353 2,811 2,853 

Sunday School Pupils 162,000 172,905 176,351 

Contributions to 

Church Support 2,785,000 2,284,737 2,449,780 

The above figures refer only to the Protestant 
churches. They show a very small percentage of 
growth. Compared with the normal growth of 
previous years the slowing down is conspicuous, 
especially in the matter of baptisms. Infant bap 
tisms are comparatively few, about ten percent 
of) the total, so adult baptism constitutes the 
chief portal of entrance to the Christian church. 
The number of those baptized during any year, 
then, not only gives us the ultimate measure of the 
growth of the church, but is the most reliable in 
dex of its life and energy; as well as of its recog 
nized place in society. From this point of view the 
falling off of newly-received Christians by over 
one fourth is a cause of concern. The reasons no 
doubt are to be found in the general mood of so 
ciety in Japan and throughout the world. It is 
inevitable that the general atmosphere of the life 
in Japan today should communicate itself to some 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN 1935 133 

degree to the members of the churches, and to 
their pastoral leaders. It is a marvel that the 
Christian movement has done as well as it has. 
But still the fact remains that during the past year, 
and the actual statistics for all of 1935 not yet 
fully available will probably show this more 
clearly, the net percentage of increase in mem 
bership of all Protestant churches was the small 
est since the fateful "nineties," and if tha falling 
off were to continue for one more year with the 
same momentum there would be an actual de 
crease in total membership. 

Sunday School work, too, has had a grim strug 
gle to hold its own. With the general absorption 
of Sunday in the public school programs, and the 
open suspicion of Christianity on the part of many 
principals, attendance at the little local Sunday 
School entails a good deal of courage and convic 
tion on the part of parents and children. It is 
highly creditable that some small gain can be 
registered. 

On the financial side the total contributions 
show some increase and the per capita giving has 
been kept steady at about 12.00. If the Chris 
tian movement were a people s movement rooted 
in the rural life this could not have been so, but 
as it is largely supported by salaried-class people 
in the cities and towns, it has shared in the gen 
eral stimulation of manufactures and trade. Par 
allel to the increase in self-support has gone a 
sharp drop in the income from abroad, in mission 
grants of all sorts. Reliable statistics for all 
churches are not available, but the trend is pro 
nounced. In some cases sudden withdrawals of 
aid have thrown churches and schools back on 



134 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

their own resources with cruel abruptness, but 
they have responded with amazing self-sacrifice. 
In general we may say that the churches are 
bravely beating into a headwind, and are gaining, 
but with great effort for every inch ahead. 

During the past year visits from eminent Chris 
tian leaders from abroad gave sharper accent to 
some areas of the churches activities. Mr. Paton 
of the International Missionary Council, Dr. Ivan 
Lee Holt of the Federal Council of Churches in 
America, Dr. Temple of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society, Professor Jerome Davis, Dr. Poling 
of the World s Christian Endeavor Societies, and 
several board secretaries brought quickening to 
the churches and in conference with Japanese 
leaders strengthened foundations for cooperative 
activities. The visit of Dr. Mott, with his wide 
travel throughout the country and two national 
conferences with church and school leaders was 
the occasion for a re-survey of the problems and 
possible solutions in the life of the Christian move 
ment. 

From our side the fraternal visit of Dr. Axling 
and Mr. Tagawa to the China National Christian 
Council, of Messrs. Ebisawa, Yoshida and Phelps 
to the Northfield meeting of the International 
Missionary Council, of Dr. Kagawa to Australia 
and of Mrs. Kubushiro to North and South Amer 
ica all made their contribution to the progress of 
world-wide Christianity. 

Among the new developments of church work 
during the past year is the United Evangelistic 
Movement, set up under a special committee at 
the time of the National Christian Conference in 
the fall. The Kingdom of God Movement has 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN 1935 -135 

come to an end, but the churches are now being 
rallied again to common evangelistic efforts. 
Series of meetings in several city centers are being 
arranged, and wherever the movement goes it will 
enlist the cooperative activities of all the local 
churches. 

In the field of overseas evangelism the new 
phase has been the opening of work among the 
Chinese and Manchurians in Manchukuo, with 
four new men put into the field, two Japanese 
and two Manchurian pastors. Heretofore the work 
has been confined to Japanese overseas, in Brazil, 
the Philippines, and Manchuria. Now the work 
is moving out into genuine foreign missionary 
areas, with a corresponding widening of horizons 
on the part of the church members who support 
this undertaking. Undoubtedly this new interest 
is not unrelated to the general situation of nation 
al expansion, but it does register a step toward a 
sense of responsibility for world-wide evangelism. 

With the issuing of the new daily Christian 
Newspaper a long-cherished hope has now come 
to accomplishment. The gifted editor Rev. S. 
Murao, manages to find a continuous supply of 
fresh news from all the denominations. Although 
small in format and unpretentious in the expres 
sion of opinion it nevertheless fills an important 
place in the life of the ordinary pastor, and should 
come to exercise a unifying influence upon the 
entire Christian movement. 

The matter of more general church union has 
been to the fore this past year, and was one of the 
three major matters dealt with at the National 
Christian Conference. For several years the com 
mission on union has been busy with conferences, 



136 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

surveys, and the exploration of areas of possible 
union. They have now offered a plan, very simple 
in outline both as to creedal statement and church 
organization, and with a suggested name, the 
United Catholic Church, for the consideration of 
the various) denominations. Although no definite 
affirmative action has as yet been taken by any 
one denomiantion, the commission has been re 
constituted with instructions to continue its work. 
In the meantime a group of Tokyo laymen and 
ministers has been promoting periodic union serv 
ices of worship with good success. 

Questions of re-organization of the National 
Christian Council have also been before the Chris 
tian churches. One proposal is to make the Coun 
cil into a Federation with a council of churches, a 
council of other Christian work organizations, 
and possibly a council of missionaries as the three 
constituent nuclei for the varied activities of the 
present Council. No final plan has as yet been 
reached, but there is felt a need both for greater 
freedom of action in relation to Japanese society, 
and for the strength that comes from a church- 
centered organization. 

Simultaneously with this trend in the Japanese 
church organizations has 1 ! come the maturing of a 
plan to change the Federation of Christian Mis 
sions from a delegated body with somewhat offi 
cial functions to a Fellowship of Christian Mis 
sionaries. At the annual meeting unanimous ap 
proval was given the new plan, by which all pre 
sent organizational functions would be devolved 
upon the various Japanese agencies, while the 
missionary organization would continue as a vol 
untary association of individuals. The chief em- 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN 1935 137 

phasis would be as heretofore upon the summer 
meeting for mutual conference regarding mission 
ary work problems and upon spiritual fellowship. 
A confirmatory vote at the 1936 annual meeting is 
required to make tha change effective. Since 1904 
the Federation has been in continuous existence, 
and during that time has rendered noteworthy 
service to the Christian movemant in Japan. It is 
a testimony to the strength of that movement that 
the official Mission organization can so smoothly 
shift its load to the shoulders of the National 
Christian Council and! other representative organ 
izations and gently disappear as a separate organ 
of the church life. There are no representative 
church bodies on which missionaries are not in 
cluded, so the new plan is generally thought to be 
Quito normal, and suited to present conditions in 
the, Christian movement. 

A major matter before the churches is the pro 
posed Religious Bodies Law. The past year saw 
the renewal by the government of its determina 
tion to promulgate a law which should bring all 
religious bodies and their work under its super 
vision. Twice before this has been attempted, 
and on both occasions the opposition of tho Chris- 
tion churches, augmented by other influences ha 
resulted in a failure to carry the measure through 
the Diet. The weak place in the armor of the gov 
ernment has always been Article 28 of the Con 
stitution which guarantees to the individual citizen 
freedom of religious belief; and both the earlier 
proposed laws did threaten to violate that prin 
ciple in the severity of control over church organ 
ization, worship and religious practice. 

The new proposed law by its explicit applica- 



138 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

tion to religious bodies avoids this constitutional 
snag. The government, too, has learned that easy 
acquiescence may be expected, from the Buddhist 
authorities and hearty approval from the Shinto 
leaders who are hoping for the official elevation 
of Shinto to the religion of the state, but that the 
tiny group of Christians may again cause serious 
trouble, so it has gone out of its way to consult the 
wishes of the Christian representatives, both 
Catholic and Protestant, in framing a law that 
will actually become effective. 

The mushroom growth of primitive reKgious 
cults has given the government much concern, and 
has been the ostensible occasion for the proposal 
of the new law. But it is not only these sects that 
are making the authorities nervous. According to 
their view any religious body that carries on in 
struction or propagates ideas comes within the 
control of the state ; its organization, its teachings, 
its ritual and its ethical code of action being a 
vital concern of the government. This time the 
authorities set about their work with patience and 
thoroughness, and although the sudden dissolu 
tion of the Diet made impossible the completion 
of the bill, general understandings were reached 
which render almost certain the promulgation of 
the new law in the near future. 

The Christian leaders, too, in their attitudes 
and procedure reflect a changed mood in the 
churches. On the previous occasions sharp lines 
were drawn between those who offered almost 
blind resistance and the ones who virtually com 
promised the Christian position by acceptance of 
the government proposals. Now the representa 
tives of the entire Christian movement have been 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN 1935 139 

almost unanimous in their general attitude of 
statesmanlike scrutiny of the plan, in their speci 
fic requests for amendments, and in a readiness to 
accept it in its modified form. 

The present mood of the churches in Japan is 
one of deep soberness. There is everywhere a 
sense of impending change. Serious questions as 
to the wisdom or the safety of the present nation 
al policies are in the hearts and on the lips of the 
members and church leaders. No one knows what 
standing room the modern stats will leave the 
church. With all the intense loyalty of the rank 
and file in the churches, there is an enlightened 
and universal quality which may at any time be 
misinterpreted by the professional patriots. The 
matter of compulsory attendance at Shinto shrines 
for celebration of public anniversaries and na 
tional events is always a possible field of difficulty, 
and a basically sound solution has not yet been 
found. 

The steady withdrawal of support and person 
nel by the older churches abroad has tended to 
result in a feeling of isolation; and this has not 
been helped by the negative and critical tone of 
recent reports and of some negotiations with re 
presentatives of the mother churches. The recog 
nition that it must work out its own salvation and 
the readiness to? do so marks the present mood of 
Japanese Christianity. In their preoccupation 
with the heavy tasks of self-support and their 
sense of mission to their own people the churches 
more than once during the past year have seemed 
to forget the presence of missionaries and their 
eagerness to help. This however, must not be 
taken to indicate a lack of welcome. Wherever 



140 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

a foreign missionary sees a need and steps forward 
to meet it his services are gratefully recognized 
and his work is gladly taken into the church life. 
Amid the confusion of international misunder 
standings the personal tie still holds in joyous 
shoulder to shoulder service in the common task 
of the Christian church. 



Chapter VII 

CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN JAPAN 

Shigeharu Kimura 

The two ruling tendencies in force today in 
Japan are the growth of nationalism and a revival 
of religious faith. The tide of materialism and 
Marxism which once swept over the country with 
overwhelming force and propensity is gradually 
receding. And the Educational authorities have 
discovered that the cause of thought troubles and 
the decline of moral standards of young men to 
day is chiefly due to the fact that the cultivation 
of religious faith on the part of young people has 
hitherto been practically neglected in carrying 
out the national program of general education. 

The educational authorities now realize the 
importance of the cultivation of religious faith 
and are beginning to pay more attention to char 
acter building of young men along with the im 
portation and transmission of knowledge and in 
formation. During the Meiji period Western 
learning and science were introduced wholesale 
and indiscriminately, while (unintentionally of 
course) the mental and spiritual culture of the 
Christian religion which lies at the backbone of 
education in western lands was neglected. We 
adopted the external features of Western civiliz 
ation without digging deeply into its spiritual 
power and at the same time lost, or rather threw 
away, the valuable assets of Oriental cultures 
which have been handed down from generation 
to generation. 



142 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

Meanwhile, the Christian religion had been in 
troduced by Christian missionaries. As a means 
of propagating the Christian faith, they started 
classes of young boys and girls, teaching the Eng 
lish language and Bible. It might be said that 
naturally many were attracted at first by the 
English language rather than by the Bible teach 
ing. These classes gradually developed into re 
gular schools and have rendered a groat service 
to the nation by producing many of today s great 
Christian leaders and scholars, not only in re 
ligious circles but also in politics and business. 
They have also contributed much to the develop 
ment of the country through introduction of 
Western institutions and civilization and their 
meritorious service can never be forgotten or 
wiped out of the pages of the book of history of 
education in Japan. Christians suffered greatly 
from strong opposition and even persecution in 
the early periods of the Meiji era, but they had 
much to teach and to give as well as to attract the 
new and rising nation. 

In those early days, Mission schools had, in gen 
eral, better equipment and stronger groups of 
teachers. They offered the mora advanced courses 
of study and therefore, many of the best class of 
young men and women flocked to Mission schools, 
even though they were suspicious or even afraid 
of the religion. In these schools many young peo 
ple accepted Christianity and were baptized with 
real appreciation and true understanding of the 
religion. As all those who engaged in teaching 
in those early days were a select company of men 
both in their own faith and in scholarship, they 
were able to give a better education than those 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN JAPAN 143 

teaching in government schools. Soon, however, 
government schools began making wonderful pro 
gress, first adopting the best results from sytems 
and methods already tried out in Europe and 
America, then by inviting to their schools excel 
lent teachers and great scholars from abroad. 
Thus they naturally advanced far ahead in every 
thing in education through better equipment in 
men and material, while on the other hand Mis 
sion schools began to fall behind due to a lack of 
material equipment and a lessening of spiritual 
enthusiasm. Today, again there has arisen a pre 
judice against the Christian religion. Mission 
schools have lost their special attractions as they 
are all obliged to conform to the government sys 
tem and are placed under its supervision. They 
cannot adequately compete with government 
schools in either equipment or in intellectual 
strength of teaching force. Naturally, first class 
young men and women are now attracted to the 
government schools and colleges where they can 
get a better education under the guidance of bet 
ter teachers and scholars and where they find bet 
ter equipment, such as libraries, laboratories and 
study halls. Graduation from government schools 
and colleges also insures a more promising future 
in the class of positions open to them. It is not an 
exaggeration to say that Mission schools are mak 
ing only a futile effort to catch up with govern 
ment institutions, and making this attempt with 
scanty means, little thoughtful planning, and a 
group of overworked laborers. They are doing 
little in the way of direct Christian education. 

What, then, is the place of Christian schools to 
day in Japan? Mission schools had many things 



144 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

to offer and they did a glorious work in early 
days. The question is, how much can mission 
schools give to Christian education today in 
Japan ; or in other words, what is the raison d etre 
of mission schools? There is little possibility for 
Mission schools as they exist today to achieve a 
status comparable with government schools, un 
less some concrete plans are made and followed 
in character building based on Christian faith ; 
unless they can produce definite results through 
guidance in Christian living, and finally bring 
their students to our Master, Jesus Christ. In 
order to be able to do this Christian schools and 
colleges must command the respect and the con 
fidence of young men and women by the scholar 
ship of their faculties, by the modernization of 
their equipment and by the outstanding personal 
characters of their teachers and officers in the 
fields of learning and life. Without a definite plan 
for Christian education, with but meagre funds 
and with but makeshift buildings and facilities, 
by slavishly following the letter of the regulations, 
and by outdated and futile schemes to bring young 
people to Bible study and compulsory chapel 
services, nothing can be accomplished. Today 
Christian schools and colleges in Japan are faced 
with an acute crisis and Christian education in 
this country is on the verge of a complete failure. 
Compulsory attendance at Chapel services is felt 
to be very irksome, notably in the higher grade 
schools and today it invites contempt and scorn. 
It certainly does not touch the heart of present 
young people nor does it appeal to the finer feel 
ings of the religious adolescent. There is a lurk 
ing feeling that Christian schools are foreign both 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATION IN JAPAN 145 

in their teaching and in their management. This 
is especially so at this present moment of rising 
nationalism in education and in the politico- 
economic entaglsments between East and West. 

Recently the education authorities have taken 
a definite step to encourage religious education 
outside the schools. Government supervision of 
religious education appears to be inevitable and 
the functions of Christian schools will be greatly 
weakened unless they make a definite stand for 
leadership in Christian culture and Christian 
scholarship. Christian schools should promote all 
necessary functions of modern education by free 
ing themselves from a purely transmissive educa 
tion, by emphasizing creative teaching, and by 
harmonizing mechanism and personality in edu 
cation. Certain foreign observers report that, in 
their opinion, Christian education is greatly ham 
pered by a sense of white superiority on the part 
of missionaries. Missionaries generally have not 
had this attitude but their school methods, taken 
in connection with their evangelical methods and 
with the problem of control and government, tend 
to give such an impression to many nationals and 
to casual observers. Every caution should be taken 
in carrying out the educational functions of Chris 
tian schools, that they may not be misunderstood 
and that it may be made clear that the God, the 
Christ and the Faith they profess and preach are 
not Occidental or foreign. The real plight of all 
mission schools and the weak point of Christian 
education in general is that they are not Christian 
enough in the true sense of the word and that they 
are satisfied with mediocre and haphazzard ac 
complishments in their educational activities. 



14C THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

True education should arouse an enthusiasm "for 
knowledge and a many-sided interest in the 
things of intellect" as Mr. Roshnall says, and we 
might say that the true meaning of Christian edu 
cation must be found in experiencing a Christian 
enthusiasm for knowledge, useful for the noble 
purpose of life, and a many-sided interest in the 
things of faith as well as of intellect. 



Chapter VIII 

THE NEW EVANGELISTIC STRATEGY 
IN JAPAN 

Toyohiko Kagawa 

The Kingdom of God Movement gave a new 
stimulus to the various religions of Japan. Bud 
dhism, Shintoism and all of the religions were 
challenged, and revived. Unless we Christians are 
prepared, the Shintoists and Buddhists will cap 
ture the young men of Japan and nationalism will 
become a formidable rival. 

Ten years ago the children of Christian families 
were not forced to observe the Shinto ritualism, 
but now their performance is obligatory. In large 
cities the teaching of religions is very greatly 
stressed. In many girls high schools in Tokyo, 
they observe a religious week. The first day they 
study Buddhism, the second day Shintoism, the 
third Christianity and so on. Many girls are in 
terested in Christian ethics and we are told that 
in a certain Government School the Christian Club 
has 150 members although the Buddhist group as 
well as the Shintoist is small. We were surprised 
to learn recently that many of the students in the 
Government schools want to become Christians. 

As stated above, the nationalist movement is 
strong but it is interesting to note that the youth 
are not contented nor satisfied. Upon my return 
from an extended trip in 1935, I was disappointed 
and troubled by the various influences which 



148 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

seemed to be at work in many* places. But as I 
travelled about to many cities, I discovered that 
the influence was quite superficial. Ninety-nine 
per cent of the whole population is eager for a real 
spiritual message. This encouraged me to resume 
an evangelistic campaign. 

I was again surprised at the welcoma Christian 
stories receive. I insist that my stories speak a 
Christian message, and wrote for the Cooperative 
Magazine with this understanding. To my sur 
prise the monthly circulation increased from 
350,000 copies to over one million. Here is proof 
that the people of rural areas are not afraid of 
the Christian message. I believe that at present 
we have the best opportunity of reaching the peo 
ple in country sections. Ten years ago they were 
apprehensive but their whole attitude has greatly 
changed. 

It is common knowledge that Buddhism has 
adopted many of the ceremonies and rituals of 
the Christian Church. Hymns have been changed 
to suit their Buddhist settings and in some in 
stances the Bible has been read in Buddhist Tem 
ples. Many Buddhist leaders are embracing 
Christian teachings and interjecting them into the 
Buddhist message. 

And herein there is great danger. Unless we 
Christians give the real Gospel to Japan, Buddh 
ism will march on and will supersede us in power. 
Therefore we need a new strategy for evangelism. 
Let us have three kinds spiritual, educational 
and industrial. 

For the first, we need personal evangelism as 
well as mass evangelism and literature. Denomi- 
nationalism came to Japan from the west and 



THE NEW EVANGELISTIC STRATEGY IN JAPAN 149 

with it came competition for strategic centres. We 
have a good many churches in localized areas. 1 In 
the past four years I have visited 126 churches and 
discovered that in many instances there were four 
or five churches built within a radius of about one 
square mile in the heart of the city. Beyond that 
and outside the city limits there were no churches. 
How foolishly we are squandering our power and 
energy for the Gospel of Christ, in competition 
among churches! 

We have 9,600 villages and thirty million pop 
ulation in farming villages. We have only 170 
preaching places or chapels among those 9,600 
villages. We have 1,800 churches and chapels in 
the large towns and some of them are within the 
aforementioned square mile. Sapporo is the cen 
tre of Christian culture for Hokkaido, but on.? mile 
beyond the city the Christian influence is scarcely 
felt at all. When we get to the downtown section 
we find no churches. In Osaka, the second city in 
Japan, with a population of two and a half mil 
lion there are about twenty districts and many of 
them have no churches. Higashi Yodogawa is 
wealthy and has many churches. Nishi Yodogawa, 
with a population of 100,000 has no churches at 
all. I don t know why the Japanese loaders want 
to settle their churches among the middle class 
people rrobably they want to get their support 
quickly. But from the point of view of evangelism 
we are wasting our energy by concentrating in 
small areas. We need a larger vision to send us 
to a wider area. 

The question is asked, "Do we need more mis 
sionaries " I say, do you think 30,000,000 people 
(ths population of rural Japan) who have only 



150 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

170 churches, have enough? And I know of only 
two cases where Christian evangelists are doing 
work among the one and one half million fisher 
men. We haven t developed enough energy and 
power to put into evangelism for the fishermen. 
We need more power for rural evangelism, evan 
gelism amongst fishermen, and amongst industrial 
workmen. Because the missionary forces are be 
ing withdrawn from Japan so quickly, it is very 
difficult to occupy the vacant places. Wo must 
speedily recruit our forces for these spaces which 
have been left unmanned since the missionary has 
been withdrawn. 

Several years ago the farmers and laborers 
laymen s gospel schools were started. We have 
only 4,000 preachers and teachers in our Christian 
forces, and half of them are engaged in educa 
tional work only half are engaged in direct 
evangelism. We have no energy left for the more 
aggressive evangelism in rural and fishing sec 
tions. 

The purpose of the farmers and laborers lay 
men s gospel schools is to develop lay leaders who, 
while supporting themselves by their own work, 
will be free to preach in the evenings. There ara 
many persons who are eager to preach and to 
serve the people. It seems to me that our theolo 
gical training has often divorced men from the 
problems and sufferings of the people. When our 
preachers leave the seminaries and go to the, rural 
areas, they want to become scholars. 

We cannot invite ordinary seminary graduates 
as our helpers in the rural evangelism. Many 
graduates have, forgotten how to speak the lan 
guage of the working people who cannot under- 



THE NEW EVANGELISTIC STRATEGY IN JAPAN 151 

stand their terminology. They are like a certain 
communist who was addressing 1 a group in public 
some years ago, and when the attention of the 
police was called to him the police said they were 
not afraid of what he might say his terminology 
was too difficult and the people could not under 
stand him. We have that situation now in Japan, 
among many theological graduates. 

If we could get about 5,000 lay leaders right 
now we could occupy those fields from which the 
missionaries have withdrawn. Our method is to 
start a Farmers Gospel School, lasting a week, in 
which we ask pastors and specialists to come and 
help us. We have many Christian professors in 
tha different universities who are willing to serve 
free of charge. Often they even pay their own 
transportation. In Hokkaido we bought a farm, 
paying 1,500, started a school and invited pro 
fessors of the Imperial Universtiy, where Profes 
sors Clark s influence is still felt. Because we 
provided the place, they were willing to come 
without remuneration and even paid their own 
transportation. 

If we can provide the classrooms and equip 
ment, students will come from far and wide. 
Before we had established our Hokkaido school, 
one boy came from there taking 100 days to walk 
about 2,000 miles in order to attend the Gospel 
school in Kobe. This shows how eager many are for 
a practical gospel. The curriculum includes four 
subjects: (1) New Testament; (2) the history of 
Christian brotherhood. We do not teach the his 
tory of discussions nor doctrines! (3) Agriculture; 
ws teach the new methods of agriculture, with the 
tree crops proposed by Professor James Russell 



152 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

Smith* of Columbia University. I call it Biblical 
Agriculture because we start with Genesis and 
the need of the trees of life. We tell the story of 
Abel s method more sheep and goats. Our 
agriculture has hitherto! depended solely on fields 
and rice, ignoring the mountain slopes. Eighty- 
five per cent of Japan is mountainous and we need 
to encourage the growth of food-bearing trees. 
We tell the story of the land where milk and 
honey flow. If we get the bees and goats we can 
create a land where milk and honey flows. This 
has a great appeal. (4) Rural Sociology. 

We teach these four subjects in the morning 
and their practical application in the afternoon. 
We teach the students how to graft trees, to care 
for beehives, to condense milk and to cure ham 
and bacon. We have over 5,700,000 farmers 
and seventy per cent of them are tenants and very 
poor; their income is less than $100 a year. We 
cannot ask contributions for the church unless we 
teach them how they can raise the monoy. So 
we teach them to plant trees and we ask them to 
give one-tenth of the crops of the trees to our 
work. 

Now we have about one hundred gospel schools 
scattered throughout Japan, and we find this is 
the real method to approach the farmers. We 
are now formulating our plans for more schools. 
Our object is to capture the 9,600 villages. My 
plan of strategy is to build 100 churches in as 
many villages each year for ten years. These 
church buildings would be centres for various ac- 



* See Tree Crops and The Food Resources of the World, books by 
Professor Smith, published in Japanese by Dr. Kagawa. 



THE NEW EVANGELISTIC STRATEGY IN JAPAN 153 

tivities. In the daytime we would use them for 
day nurseries, in the evenings for night-schools, on 
Sunday for church services and in the winter for 
agricultural schools. In this plan I see a real basis 
for cooperation. 

Imagine a small group of at least ten Christians 
in, a certain village. The Baptists have been 
working there but do not feel that they can pro 
vide a building nor can the little group raise the 
amount necessary. I would propose then, that 
they be provided with a church from the fund 
raised for rural churches, the same to be a Bap 
tist Church. Similarly the fund would work 
for Presbyterian, Methodist, Disciples, or other 
groups. 

Hospitals cost huge sums of money and look 
fine but the cost of their upkeep deprives other 
institutions. Schools also cost much, and if we 
don t keep them up we lose prestige. Govern 
ment Schools have better buildings and equip 
ment. Girls schools in Japan are in better con 
dition than boys schools. The government has 
wonderful schools and our Christian schools are 
getting behind the times so that it is getting more 
difficult to get good boys to come to them, and our 
prestige is waning. We have only seventeen 
Christian Schools for boys and it seems to me that 
the poorer schools which haven t sufficient equip 
ment to compete with the government schools 
might well be eliminated. If we want to exert 
a good Christian influence, let us keep up with the 
times. This is the time to change technique. Let 
us have small gospel schools in the cities, towns 
and villages for the training of lay leaders. 

I am asking many missionaries to go to the 



154 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

small towns where they are usually welcomed. I 
must confess that we Japanese pastors become like 
Confucian teachers, too dignified to approach 
we become superior to the common people and we 
lose the chance to get in touch with them. Mis 
sionaries have good motives and have great power 
to get love into the hearts of the young people. 
It is not necessary for them to have broadcasting 
ability. They need to have love and understand 
ing, and through contacts with young people they 
may help to mould the future of Japan. The 
missionaries are being withdrawn from Japan so 
fast that we don t know what to do. During the 
World War the German forces knew how to re- 
treat, but the missionary forces have not prepared 
to withdraw ; mission boards don t know how to 
retreat! I would say to them, "Start your gospel 
schools quickly and get lay leaders and finish 
your work; and if the missionaries must be with 
drawn, support lay leaders there first. You are 
wise people, you are good people, but you don t 
knoiv hoiv to retreat." 

The Gospel means everything to Japan; it 
means five types of emancipation spiritual, 
physical, political, social and economic. (1) 
Spiritual emancipation from sin: saving the soul. 
(2) Physical emancipation; God s touch on the 
body. (3) Political emancipation; freeing the 
oppressed. (4) Social emancipation; freedom 
from class. (5) Economic emancipation; reliev 
ing the poor. If the gospel does not provide these 
five kinds, why, then there will be Buddhism or 
something else. We must prove that the gospel 
is the cross of Jesus, not only in our talk, but in 
our own bodily existence. 



THE NEW EVANGELISTIC STRATEGY IN JAPAN 155 

We need two kinds of gospel schools thos? 
for farmers and fishermen, and those in the city. 
The graduates of both these types of schools, 
rural and city, are wonderful teachers of the gos 
pel. I wish God would give us about five thou 
sand of these lay leaders. 

We need industrial evangelism. For many 
years I have been laying emphasis on the new sort 
of evangelism according to trades. Labor unions 
united by industries and craftsmen are nearer 
together than the ordinary people in the mass. 
Some time ago, we started a mission for nurses 
only. In Japan the standing of nurses is very 
inferior to that of the common people. I wish 
some mission board would send a special itinerat 
ing missionary or missionaries to tha 50,000 nurses 
of Japan. When those nurses learn of the Great 
Physician they become better nurses and evangel 
ists to the sick. If we could only build a Christian 
residence for nurses! 

I would ask for a special missionary to serve the 
fishermen. They are miserably poor. Our ter 
ritory is so narrow, we haven t pastureland, so we 
eat fish. But the fishermen are poorer than the 
slum folks. The gospel started from the sons of 
Zebedee, but in Japan the sons of Zebadee are not 
approached. If some one would start a mission 
for carpenters. Jesus was a carpenter can t we 
have one special missionary or evangelist to ap 
proach the carpenters in Japan? So with the 
clerks in the offices. This is the time to approach 
the industries, and the railroads. We once had a 
flourishing railroad mission but some of the mis 
sionaries have been withdrawn. We have need 
of missionaries for teachers of common schools. 



156 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

We have 250,000 primary school teachers and 
they are eager to get the message of Christ, be 
cause they have heard the story of Pestalozzi and 
Froebel. If they get it they can spread it to the 
youth of the country districts. I have been praying 
for many years for that work, but have not yet 
had my prayer answered. We need a magazine to 
give the gospel to the common school teachers. 
We can expand our movement then to high school 
teachers. As you know, formerly we had mis 
sionaries for seamen; but the work is almost aban 
doned now. And what of machine workers? We 
must have gospel workers trade by trade. Com 
munists are working on that line and we must 
employ the same strategy with the gospel. We 
must have a Christian brotherhood movement. 
Buddhism is a great religion but it has not love. 
Confucianism is fine but it is not based on love. 
Christianity has the gospel and Jesus told us to 
love other peopla ; he laid stress on that. Unless 
we Christians love people, the gospel has no ap 
peal ; so I want to get more enthusiasm for the 
Christian brotherhood movement. But it is only 
possible working through the trades. 

I believe that the cooperative movement is the 
gospel of love in action, and that if the evangelist 
of the Christian Church does not understand the 
cooperative scheme he has no right to teach the 
gospel in Japan. If he knows it then he has a 
big job to do in Japan. I would like to make it 
incumbent for all missionaries to Japan to study 
the cooperative movement before they come. 

Our attack must be on these 1 three fronts, 
spiritual, educational, and industrial (including 
rural) if we capture Japan for Christ. We need 



THE NEW EVANGELISTIC STRATEGY IN JAPAN 157 

1,000 rural church centres. We want to double 
the number of Christians in the next ten years. 
And to accomplish this we need the earnest pray 
ers of all Christian people. 



Chapter IX 

RURAL CONDITIONS AND PROSPECTS 
IN AOMORI KEN 

George S. Noss 

Because I live in Aomori Ken, it is impossible to 
consider the question of evangelization of the 
rural districts without a careful study of the dis 
tressing economic condition of the farmers and 
fishermen here. For every social problem which 
confronts the missionary in the central and west 
ern districts of Japan is to be mat with here in ag 
gravated form. This is not due to any backward 
ness on the part of the people concerned, but to 
the extreme difficulties and handicaps under 
which they must live and work. 

Most of the districts in the northern Tohoku are 
experiencing their third successive failure (in 
whole or in great part) of the rice crop. For years 
the fishing has been poor, and getting poorer. The 
farmers and fisher folk now take no interest in 
religion as such : at every meeting I have attended 
for some years, the request is always to give them 
information on things economic. They will sit up 
half the night discussing ways and means of mak 
ing a living and of improving their living condi 
tions, but questions on religion leave them bored 
and unresponsive. 

We think of Japan as a very old country, but 
there are many places in the Tohoku where the 
parallel is with America. Most of the villages in 
the Tsugaru district do not run back more than 
three hundred years; in the eastern, or Nambu 



160 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

part of Aomori Ken settlements have been made 
at an even later time, and some at the present 
day. Ainu were still living here and there at the 
time of the Meiji Restoration, and Ainu place- 
names, and, I suspect, Ainu descendants, are 
found everywhere. In the early years of Meiji 
there were great primeval forests of cryptomeria 
in the southwestern mountains of the Ken ; on 
the cluster of peninsulas around Mutsu Bay were 
huge tracts of the slow-growing evergrgen 
known as Tsugaru hiba (a kind of cypress), while 
to the east were very sparsely-settled districts 
given over to the breeding of horses, or covered 
with hardwood forests of oak, katsura, beech, 
and the like. These sources of wealth have been 
recklessly depleted: it is due to the recent efforts 
of the Government Forestry Bureau that what is 
left is beginning to be used wisely and for the 
benefit of future generations. 

The old methods of pasturing horses were very 
wasteful. The land was cleared very often by 
fire, and every spring it was burned over to get 
rid of dead vegetation, noxious growths, and to 
destroy the cattle-ticks (dani) which are locally 
abundant. This very often resulted in the com 
plete destruction of the accumulated humus, and 
as this humus often overlay great stretches of 
sand, there are many places where the winds 
have blown sand or loose earth into great dunes 
or caused the formation of gullies or wastes. 
Along the eastern coast in spring the west wind 
sometimes blows such quantites of fine earth and 
powdered sand through the air that the nearby 
hills in every direction are completely obscured, 
and the sea given a yellow tinga. The famous Sabi- 



RURAL CONDITIONS & PROSPECTS IN AOMORI 161 

shiro is a waste place of immense extent, where 
everything that can support vegetation has been 
blown away, leaving a hard, raw, ugly-looking 
waste, with not a spear of grass to be seen. The 
control of this "wind erosion" is quite a problem, 
I have seen a large forest of thrifty oaks in pro 
cess of being buried by the advancing sands. 

The fishermen have problems of their own. The 
littoral fisheries have been temporarily ruined by 
indiscriminate trawling. This has resulted in 
misery for the little hamlets that used to depend 
upon local fishing with hand-propelled boats. 
The authorities have stepped in by marking off 
zones within which no trawler may operate, and 
although there is some poaching, the fishermen 
report that the fish are coming back again. 

Multitudes of the fishermen go off to the Hok 
kaido for the spring herring fisheries, and many 
also go to the Kuriles and Kamtchatka during the 
summer months for salmon. Where the local fish 
ing is very poor, practically all the strong men are 
away during most of the year: in the winter 
months they go into the mountains to burn char 
coal. Hence about the only time one can meet 
with the young men in some villages is at the time 
of the annual village meeting. 

Their life is one) of great hardship. To get the 
sea-ear (awabi) they go out in narrow boats that 
have been evolved from the Ainu dugouts. One 
can often see men in one of these "semi-dugouts," 
in a fairly rough sea, scull (after a fashion) with 
one foot, detach the awabi with a basket-like ap 
paratus on the end of a long pole, operated by 
both hands, and at the same manipulate a glass- 
bottomed box. Sudden squalls and snow flurries 



162 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

add to their discomfort and peril. Other men go 
out at night to catch the squid, which are dried 
and prepared for shipment to China. Chinese 
trade relations have been irregular, and this puts 
an added burden upon the fishermen. Within a 
few years the price of the aivabi had dropped by 
ninety per cent, and 1 the dried squid were heaped 
up in the warehouses of Hachinoho until no more 
could be stored. When catches can be made the 
fishermen are not allowed to profit by them. Near 
the Tsugaru Strait the sanma (mackerel pike) can 
be caught with the hands (the fisherman first 
spreading a piece of straw matting on the water 
beside his little boat, to attract the fish), but on 
inquiry I learned that there was no market. Some 
times the sardines are caught in incredible quan 
tities, but a fisherman told me with bitterness that 
he could get no more than thirteen sen a barrel 
for them (after furnishing the boat with its equip 
ment, and braving the dangers and exposure of 
winter fishing at night) . Occasionally one can 
buy large fresh cod in the streets of Aomori for 
ten sen a fish, or less. Locally the sardines are 
pressed for their oil, and the residue sold for fer 
tilizer. Therefore in certain villages sardines were 
nought to be unfit for human coonsumption. and 
last winter the police were obliged to "persuade" 
the starving people of one district to eat the fresh 
sardines, much to their resentment at being com 
pelled "to eat fertilizer" ! Because of the wide 
spread use of motor boats, the fishing done with 
small hand-sculled boats furnishes no living at all, 
except for those who have little farms. 

Although the climate in most parts of Aomori 
Ken is too cold really to guarantee a crop of rice, 



RURAL CONDITIONS & PROSPECTS IN AOMORI 163 

there are many farmers who try to make a living 
by selling rice. In some places they also sell their 
straw for matting and ropes. Because they have 
not learned how to raise cattle, pigs, and other 
domestic animals, they must also buy their ferti 
lizer. They must sell their ricei to suit the specu 
lators who buy it. They also put off buying their 
fertilizer until they must. Hence it means that 
they sell at the bottom of the market and buy at 
the top. Over wide stretches the farmers have 
been forced into tenantry, and this is especially 
the case in northern Tsugaru, where suffering has 
been; almost incredibly acute. The landlords live 
in distant cities ; Sendai has many of them ; some 
of the landlords actually tried to prevent investi 
gation of peasant suffering, for their own reasons. 
On June 7th, 1933, I stood on a snowdrift that 
was not a hundred yards away from the sea, and 
looked at a cherry-tree that was just coming into 
full bloom. This is an extreme case, but it illust 
rates the statement about the climate. It is a com 
mon thing to see the farmers shovel the snow out 
of their seed plots so that the sun can warm up 
the soil and geti it ready for the seed rice. Other 
grains, and beans, potatoes, fruits, and nuts, seem 
better suited to this climate. Oddly enough, it 
was only in recent years that the farmers in some 
districts even took to rice. Before that, they lived 
on grains like millet. Because they doubtless felt 
that he who does not live on rice does not have a 
human standard of living, they took up rice cul 
ture, although in some places the irrigating water 
comes straight from snowfields or cold springs, 
and at other places the sandy subsoil threatens 
the crop with absolute failure unless there is an 



104 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

abundance of warm and well-timed rain. And 
when confronted with the question of turning 
their paddies into wheat fields, they say that rice 
culture has a way of accumulating a sub-surface 
of sour, impervious clay, that handicaps the land 
for other crops! 

In the Nambu districts the farmers houses are 
usually very large and solidly-built: they were 
put up when timber was cheap and firewood 
plentiful. Here and there they are already being 
pinched for lack of suitable fuel, and some old 
men regretfully tell of the large and cheerful 
hardwood fires they enjoyed in their youth, and 
the necessity to get along with smoky brushwood* 
now. In these huge, dark, drafty houses they must 
live, and in many of them they "fence off" a 
corner with a low partition of boards and crowd 
in there to sleep, sometimes thirty souls and more, 
men, women, and children, with all the bed 
clothing they can find, and even their garments, 
"shingled" over them. Those who have cotton 
comforters often do not air them ; they say that 
sunning a cotton comforter makes it hard and 
stiff and uncomfortable to use. Hence the bed 
clothing used in common is damp and foul; the 
moisture of their breath, their perspiration, and 
the poisonous spray from the sneezing and cough 
ing of the sick combine to render it repellent and 
insanitary. A doctor sent out on an inspection 
trip said with a shudder that he had seen houses 
where the bedding was almost wet from these 
causes. Let it be understood that these people do 
not sleep this way because they know no better; 
they do so because they have no choice. 



RURAL CONDITIONS & PROSPECTS IN AOMORI 165 

Charcoal-burning, in these snowy mountains, is 
the severest kind of labour. Some men eat a sho 
of rice a day while burning charcoal. Yet the re 
turn is pitifully inadequate. In the village of Ima- 
betsu, the farmers of the hamlet of Futamata 
built their ovens, felled the trees, cut up the 
material, burned the charcoal, wove the "bags," 
carried the charcoal on their backs to the nearest 
road, thence by horse to Futamata (which is it 
self twori* from the sea). When the charcoal 
had been delivered to the coastal steamer, they 
got only fifteen sen a bag for it. The steamer 
carried the charcoal on a six-hour voyage to Ao- 
mori City, and collected ten sen a bag freight; at 
that time we who bought charcoal in the city paid 
sixty to seventy sen a bag for it. Somebody some 
where collected the usual pirate s profit. 

It is not necessary to go into the question of 
what they are eating, in the villages where star 
vation is threatened. We hear of pine bark, roots, 
boiled vegetable refuse, grasses, certain parts of 
the straw, grasses, acorns, the entrails of all sorts 
of creatures as well as the meat, fern roots, and 
the like, being eaten. The farmers have a grim 
saying: "I wish God had made me a horse, for 
horses know no famine!" Some may call to mind 
here a short article in the Japan Advertiser for 
November 14th, 1934, in which a director of a 
Tokyo social service bureau said in an interview 
that the Tohoku farmers preferred grass to rice, 
and that the young women wish to be sold into a 
life of shame. Perhaps he was only indulging in 
a cynical joke. At any rate nothing so outrageous 



* About five miles. 



166 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

has been said, I suppose, since the days of Foulon, 
to whom a similar joke was (perhaps wrongly) 
attributed. What happened to Foulon is another 
story. 

On a walking trip with a young pastor, I drop 
ped into four houses at random, in one afternoon, 
and this is what I saw : 

(1) A fairly-good house, near the sea, clustered 
with five others behind a sand dune. A most des 
olate place, with no trees or bushes to be seen, 
and mixed sand and snow being blown in every 
thing. We found a family of father, mother and 
five small children huddled around a smoking fire 
of green wood. The children wero sooty-faced, 
blear-eyed and without exception barefooted. The 
mother did not even lift her eyes to look at us. The 
father, ragged and haggard, had been a well-built 
man. He told us with a savage laugh that he could 
find no work, he had no food, and insufficient bed 
ding. Fishing was impossible, and he couldn t 
move away because there was no place to go to. 

(2) The house next door, a tiny hovel, had two 
women in it, a mother and her grown daughter. 
The young woman was shabby but neat and clean, 
and sat quietly beside another smoky fire, which 
she tended with hands that were all split and 
bleeding with chilblains. Her mother was help 
less with palsy. There was nothing in this hut 
except two straw pallets and a few cooking uten 
sils. They had no food, but the village office had 
promised them help. Fortunately we were able to 
deliver bedding and some old clothing to this and 
the other house. 

(3) A farm-house a mile away from the sea, 
half-hidden in a grove of pines. Large and ill- 



RURAL CONDITIONS & PROSPECTS IN AOMORI 167 

kept, with farm tools and odd bits of lumber scat 
tered everywhere, and the whole place littered 
with straw and filth. A few tired-looking women, 
all of middle age, with faces of what Mark Twain 
calls the "fish-belly white." The children had 
gone to school, all the strong men and young wo 
men were away to look for work. Yes, they had 
food, but only beans, and not vary good beans at 
that. Beans three times a day, and twenty-one 
times a week, and nothing but beans. No other 
vegetables, for the season had not allowed these 
to ripen properly. 

(4) About half-a-mile further on we stopped 
at a particularly dilapidated house on the out 
skirts of a village. Dirt inches deep lay crusted 
over the threshold. Everything was out of repair, 
and looked it. Within was an old woman, half- 
blind and very dirty, trying to spin threads out of 
hemp tow. With her was a little boy, clad in rags, 
with a sooty face, and with the backs of his hands 
and the tops of his feet almost as black as coal. 
Yes, this was the only grand child. Where was 
the father? He had been killed in an accident, 
two years before. Where was the mother She 
had tried to run the little farm, but nothing seem 
ed to ripen, so in despair she said she was "going 
away somewhere" to work. She evidently had 
work, for sometimes a little money came, but just 
where she was the grandmother couldn t learn. 
How much, did she get for spinning that thread ? 
Well, sometimes she could sell it, and when she 
did it brought her about six sen for a full day s 
work. . . . This old lady had to be urged three 
times before she would allow us to lay a little 
money beside the hearth. 



168 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

The above conditions may seem to some to be 
exceptional, but they were typical of this parti 
cular district with a population of tens of thou 
sands of people. 

The great need of these people is gainful em 
ployment during the winter. Part of October and 
all of November are taken up with heavy rains, 
sleet, and hail; December, January, February, 
and half of March see constant snowstorms. Dur 
ing this period, when work is hard to find, great 
social damage is done. There is a great deal of 
drinking, though where thoy get the money for it 
is impossible to imagine. A certain village com 
mune, representative enough, and not extreme in 
any way, has a population of seven thousand 
souls, and its average annual drink bill is a hund 
red and sixty thousand yon. It was most dis 
heartening when I once took some rice (not much, 
only about sixty bushels) to a distressed valley, 
to see that the little steamer was almost loaded 
to the hatches with tubs of sake for the New Year ; 
and again, when I took a matter of twenty-five 
bushels of rice to 1 a little hamlet (in June) to see 
the people, wan and ragged, drinking heavily be 
cause it was the day when they let the water run 
into the paddy fields for the first time that season, 
and so of course they must celebrate. Some of the 
men I had come to see and encourago lay dead 
drunk by the road, their faces, necks and hands 
swarming with gnats and mosquitoes. 

It is not depravity but a feeling that their con 
dition is hopeless that prompts many of their ex 
cesses. A Christian official in a certain Yakuba 
(administrative office) told me: "Don t give them 
money, or Japanese rice, or good clothing, because 



RURAL CONDITIONS & PROSPECTS IN AOMORI 169 

they will be tempted to exchange these for sake, 
to drown their sorroows. If you wish to help them, 
give them old clothing which they cannot sell, or 
Formosa rice, which cannot be brewed. Better 
yet, give them the means to work. For example, 
give them rope-making machines, which cost only 
fourteen yen apiece. With these machines any 
one can make rope of rice straw, which always 
finds a market." 

Suitable work during the winter months will 
become increasingly necessary in the future. At 
present many of the farmers seem to be in direct 
competition with those who live in more favour 
able climates. Just as the Scotch took to cottage 
industries and made the names of Paisley shawls, 
Harris tweeds, and the like, world-wide in reputa 
tion, so these farmers must take to special occupa 
tions during the winters if they would survive. 
Horse-breeding is becoming a thing of the past, 
with increasing mechanization in the cities and 
in the army. The apple business is threatened by 
the fact that there are not yet proper harbor and 
warehouse facilities to expedite export; and the 
competition of Manchurian apples, which ripen a 
little earlier, is increasingly keen. (In this connec 
tion I once had some people come in from the 
country to see how many ways apples could be 
prepared. They saw and tasted jellies, tarts, pies, 
sauce, apple butter and baked apples, apple 
dumplings, and so on. But they said sadly that as 
long as sugar is so high in price it is hopeless to 
expect them to use much of it.) Anything in the 
nature of direct competition with the farmers to 
the south is impossible. Improved rail service and 
marketing is already bringing all kinds of fresh 



170 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

vegetables from the south during the winter, and 
this sort of thing will develop still further. This 
winter, for the first time, it was possible to buy 
cauliflower and Brussels sprouts in Aomori City. 
It is to be hoped that such things as specialized 
weaving, tanning of skins, fur farming, dairy pro 
ducts, and wood products can be encouraged. One 
advantage is the aptitude and teachability of the 
people, and their eagerness to help themselves, 
but it cannot be expected that they can invest 
their own money in new enterprises. They have 
no money, and their present debt load is terrify 
ing. It is not necessarily a, question of taxes, say 
seme of them ; it is their inability to make ends 
meet, and their consequent running into debt. 
Their indebtedness is not primarily due to their 
incapacity as agriculturists, although they have 
much to learn. A friend of mine, with seventeen 
years of dairy and general farm experience in 
California, tried to make a go of it on a large tract 
of apparently very good land. He has good health, 
is very active, is ascetic in his tastes (does not 
drink, smoke, or even drink tea), and certainly 
knows what ought to be done with a piece of land. 
But he has slowly fallen behind, getting poorer 
and poorer. His children must walk five miles to 
school, and his nearest neighbours are something 
more than a mile away. Now if this educated, in 
telligent, active, austere man, who started with a 
small store of capital on a piece of chosen ground, 
cannot get ahead, there is something fundament 
ally wrong with JaDan s treatment of its agricul 
tural classes. He himself said that if he did not 
send his boy and girl to the middle school he 
might break even. But this we should not take 



RURAL CONDITIONS & PROSPECTS IN AOMORI 171 

into account unless we agree that farmers have no 
right to send their children to middle school, even 
as day students. 

Rev. Tada of Kochi remarked last spring that 
country evangelism must be done on a fifty-years 
plan, starting with day nurseries, kindergartens 
and Sunday schools, and ending with self-support 
ing congregations of adults. He was correct, ex 
cept that in a place like Aomori Ken we must 
begin with social rehabilitation. 

Day nurseries cannot be made to pay their way 
because they are run for people who are too poor 
to pay. In very small hamlets, with from ten to 
twenty houses, such work is most feasible. Then 
all the children can be gathered by a couple of 
young Christian women. The hours are from seven 
in the morning until six at night, during the rice- 
planting and rice-harvesting seasons. The little 
children are taught how to play, ar-e told stories 
and taught songs, and their meals (such as they 
are) are supervised. With the men all gone to sea 
to fish, and the women (even the old women) busy 
planting or harvesting rice, the little tots run all 
kinds of dangers. They fall into the fireplaces or 
down wells, or they play with fire. Tiny babies 
huddled into the characteristic round baskets 
have been known to be attacked by ferocious and 
hungry rats. And so forth. In every village can 
be seen people of any age and of either sex with 
hideous fire scars on the backs or sides of their 
heads. (The world-famous Dr. Hideo Noguchi was 
crippled by such an accident. He was born and 
raised in a Tohoku village.) The country people 
appreciate these day nurseries, and after they 



172 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

have once had them, they will cheerfully do all 
they can to have them every year. 

Kindergartens cannot be run in the hamlets un 
less the children are taken without tuition charges. 
In the small towns they should not have a monthly 
tuition charge, but a daily one, of three to five ssn, 
at the most. The laborer will give his child a 
couple of sen each day, but a monthly charge al 
ways looks steep to him. Since kindergartens are 
run through the winter, a suitable place in which 
to meet is a necessity. If past experience in the 
Tohoku is any guide, the people of the average 
small town will try their best to keep a kinder 
garten after they have had a "good taste" of one. 
With a building provided, Sunday-school work 
can be done as a matter of course, and if the 
teachers are interested and capable, there is us 
ually) no trouble in gathering the children. Right 
here I wish to say that I feel no missionary ought 
to presume to preach to a meeting of adults until 
after he has done a good deal of apprentice-work 
in Sunday-schools. There is no better way in which 
to learn the kind of Japanese that Japanese can 
understand. The children will laugh unrestrain 
edly at all mistakes, with a sort of brutal kindness, 
and they will not hesitate to correct you, and find 
you out if you are insincere or lazy, but the adults 
listen with an unfortunate patience and equani 
mity, and allow your mistakes to become ingrain 
ed. Children have no race prejudice, unless they 
have been infected with it by their elders or by the 
poorer sort of school-teacher, but even then you 
can make them lose it, if! you have none yourself, 
and if you have a genuine interest in them and in 
their country. 



RURAL CONDITIONS & PROSPECTS IN AOMORI 173 

Work done for the girls and women is extreme 
ly important. The older women present special 
problems, because they have lived lives filled with 
unending drudgery and constant humiliations, 
and in my brief experience many of them are 
either embittered or broken-spirited. But each 
new, generatoin of young women grow up with 
fresh hope, and if they are given what they de 
serve, the sins of the past will be fully redeemed. 
Country girls can be taught to sew, for few of 
them know how. They can be given proper 
things to read, and proper outside interests, for 
otherwise they will forget what they learned in 
school, and become practically illiterate, like so 
many of their elder sisters. Various kinds of cot 
tage industry should be taught these young wo 
men: one reason why the lamentable sale of girls 
into prostitution keeps up is because their families 
think they need the money more than they do 
their services. Anyone in the slightest degree 
familiar with economic problems in the Shetlands, 
Orkneys, or Faeroes, should know how the women 
there redeem a situation that appears at first sight 
to be hopeless. Given a chance, the young women 
of Aomori Ken will give as good account of them 
selves as ths Scotch and Danish girls. 

Many good things have been done with news 
paper evangelism, but may I say that in these 
parts farmers can t afford newspapers, and there 
fore rarely read them. 

There is a pronounced language difficulty, 
especially in the Tsugaru districts. The dialect is 
scarcely to be understood, at first. Nor do some 
of the people understand the "orthodox" Japan- 



174 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

ese very well. The following incident will illust 
rate this: 

I was walking through a village that had been 
very hard hit by the famine of 1931- 32. I met a 
disconsolate woman who looked as though she 
might talk, and realizing that there were probably 
only women in the place anyhow, I spoke to her: 
"Kyosaku hido gozaimasho." (The crop failure 
must be dreadful, isn t it?) 

"Wagarane," she replied (I don t understand 
you). 

I tried her with another question, only to hear 
her say: "Wa wa Nuhonzun da hade, Ome no ko- 
doba wagaranegosu." (I am a Japanese, as you 
see, therefore I don t understand your lingo) ! 

The Tsugaru dialect is very pleasing to the ear, 
and it is vigorous and direct. With all due respect, 
the Tokyo "dialect" is stilted and artificial, in 
comparison. This is the real, old-time Japanese, 
and not a shopkeeper s jargon sprinkled with un 
recognizable Anglicisms. The day will come when 
the Tsugaru accents will be appreciated, just as 
the Scotch, the Irish, and the people of the Amer 
ican South are becomingly proud of their special 
brogues and intonations. 

Peasant gospel schools are being tried, and the 
gospel of the way of life is preached. The young 
men most desperately wish to find out how they 
may live. Specially selected young men are 
brought together, and if possible at a church, 
where they are taught and where they engage in 
guided discussion. I have known of an eager but 
dull pastor who gathered some promising young 
men who were then treated to a week s lectures 
on Paulinism. Paulinism is very well in its way, 



and I am a student of Paulinism myself, but that 
is one subject we do not bring before young men 
until they are ready for it. If the teacher knows 
the way of the cross he does not have to talk too 
much about it. The young men are religious at 
heart (who is not?) and after they are taught 
how to live, someone is sure to come out with the 
question, "How are we to be saved?" At least 
that has been the experience. They don t allow 
the teacher to take anything for granted, and that 
prevents him, fortunately, from taking refuge in 
generalities or clouds of words. 

I have befora me the plan of some young men 
belonging to our Noheji Church. These young 
men have been trained in agriculture both at 
school and in life. They propose to break up for 
for cultivation a : number of chobu of rolling land 
formerly used for pasturing horses. The land is 
good ajid cheap. The government is anxious to see 
the land occupied, and will give about half of the 
money required in breaking the ground. The 
young men have estimated, on ths basis of pre 
vious experience, that they can prepare the genya 
(plains) for cultivation at an average rate of 
about 60 sen a tan (ca. .245 acre) with hired 
horses. The object is to run a few model farms, 
and in connection with these to organize a peasant 
gospel school on a permanent basis, to meet at 
stated seasons in a building of its own. The gov 
ernment has promised to aid to the extent of half 
the cost of this building. This school will be run 
for young women as well as young men. The 
teachers will be members of the Noheji Church 
who have had agricultural training. It is the 
purpose of the school to teach good farming 



176 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

methods and procedure to show what can be done 
in the way of raising and using cattle and other 
animals to teach the baking of bread and the 
churning of butter, the use of dairy products, and, 
if the price of sugar is ever brought within the 
reach of the country people, to show how various 
meats can be sugar-cured, as well as to teach the 
proper making of jams and jellies. Through its 
type of living conditions, the school hopes to 
teach the people how to live. Because the mem 
bers of the church will run this school and because 
interested young people will be connected with 
the land, it is hoped that in this way a Christian 
pastor may ultimately be supported, and that it 
will thus be possible to open up intimate contacts 
and evangelize the country round about. In this 
way the project will serve two purposes: it will 
help the church to support itself, and will give 
opportunity to extend itself through the rural 
districts. The total budget is only 1620.00. 
Surely this is a worthy experiment that costs little 
and promises much. And for us as well as for 
them, here is fresh ground waiting to be broken. 



Chapter X 
MEDICAL CO-OPERATIVES IN JAPAN 

R. D. McCoy 

The development of medical co-operatives in 
Japan has been truly spontaneous. It was a na 
tural occurance, an answer to the needs of the 
situation. It grew out of the defects in the system 
of medical practitioners and the crisis in national 
health. 

Dr. Kagawa states in his booklet: The Case 
For Medical Co-operatives: "The death rate in 
Japan is the highest among civilized nations. Of 
this there are three causes, (1) the insufficiency 
of income, that is, the general poverty of the peo 
ple, (2) the general imperfection of sanitation 
and health equipment among the proletarian 
classes, and (3) the lack of medical equipment." 

Regarding the influence of poverty on the death 
rate, one can understand this by comparing Koji- 
machi Ward in Tokyo where the infant death rate 
is 70 per 1000 births and Honjo Ward where it is 
200 per 1000. In the rural districts the same 
thing is true. It can be safely said that the main 
reason ( why the death rate in Japan has not de 
creased at all, when compared with the early 
years of the Meiji Era, is the lack of health equip 
ment among the non-propertied classes. This con 
stitutes one of the most serious problems of the 
nation. 

Thus through the work of the medical co-opera 
tives, which seek to prevent illness that arises 
from poverty and relieve poverty that conies from 



178 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

illness, the new Medical Co-operative Movement 
of Japan has taken form, born out of necessity. 
And it is necessary that we heed the fact that this 
movement has developed in the six northern 
provinces which are visited] by famine and suffer 
ing from poverty, not in the prosperous villages 
nor in the cities where there arc many free dis 
pensaries. 

Although the number of doctors in Japan has 
increased with surprising rapidity, and although 
there are 17 medical universities and 25 special 
medical schools, there has been no noticable 
change in the death rate in Japan, which is about 
18 per 1000 of population. The fact that this rate 
has been maintained for nearly 50 years impresses 
one with the necessity for some fundamental re 
formation to be brought about in Japan s medical 
system. 

The idea of co-operatives is by no means new in 
Japan. The Sangyo Kumiai or Industrial Guild 
was formed by the statesmen of the early years of 
Meiji, following the development of capitalism, 
in an effort to check the downfall of the middle 
class. They imported the system of Credit Co 
operatives which had developed in Germany at 
that time, and planned to transplant it into this 
country just as it was. Through the years, how 
ever, the system has been completely Japonicized. 
Various features have been added. Along with 
the Credit department appeared Purchase, Sales, 
Utility Departments, etc., and the total number of 
co-operatives is now nearly 15,000. 

But the first appearance of Medical Co-opera 
tives in Japan was not so long ago. In 1922, at 
which time capitalism was at last in the deep de- 



MEDICAL CO-OPERATIVES IN JAPAN 179 

pression following the great war, strange to relate, 
medical equipment and utility work were started 
at practically the same time in Okayama and 
Nagano Prefectures. At this beginning period, 
medical co-operatives were established as addi 
tional departments of the Industrial Co-opera 
tives, and were conducted on a small scale, limited 
in every case to the rural villages. As for the 
motive for opening these medical departments, 
there were in the main, two. The first cause was 
the imperfect distribution of doctors and a feeling 
of great inconvenience in medical matters on the 
part of the people who live in the interior. The 
second cause can be regarded as economic, and 
it arose out of the agony caused by having to pay 
such heavy fees for doctors visits when they were 
summoned from a distance. 

In this way, the beginning period in which 
rural co-operatives, pressed by necessity, estab 
lished medical departments through natural dev 
elopment, is called by Dr. Kagawa the first period 
in the development of Medical Co-operatives. Ho 
mentions eight co-operatives of this kind ( ken-ei ) , 
i.e. carried on as additional features, the pioneer 
organizations in systematic co-operation in medi 
cal matters, as follows : 

In April, 1922, in Funeo village, Okayama Prefecture. 

May, 1922, in Takagi village, Nagano Prefecture. 

Aug., 1924, in Kofu village, Okayama Prefecture. 

Dec., 1924, in Akita village, Shimane Prefecture. 

May, 1927, in Inutsuka village, Fukuoka Preefcture. 

Sept., 1927, in Kawaguchi village, Hiroshima Pre 
fecture. 

Feb., 1928, in legushi village, Ehime Prefecture. 

Nov., 1928, in Tainai village, Niigata Prefecture. 



180 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

These medical co-operatives of the first period 
were all developed in doctorless villages or where 
the supply of physicians was insufficient. They 
were conducted on a small scale and in, the limit 
ed area of a single village, and having from 400 
to a little less than 1000 members. They employed 
only one doctor each, and one nurse, and the cost 
of medicines corresponded, for the most part, with 
the fixed rate of the Medical Association. These 
first medical co-operatives, accordingly, did not 
have sufficient power to propagandize themselves 
or to spread throughout the whole country, nor 
to exert any influence over the Medical Associa 
tion or other medical affairs; but they grew, 
silently and slowly. 

However, during the past few years, with the 
gradual deepening of the financial crisis, Medical 
Co-operatives on a large scale (as tan-ei or single 
department co-operatives), have appeared grad 
ually in large and medium-sized cities where 
physicians have come together in comparatively 
large numbers. 

"This beacon fire of the second period in the 
development of Medical Co-operatives," to use 
Dr. Kagawa s phrase, was lighted in Aomori City, 
on the very edge of the north-east district of the 
main island. In July, 1927, plans were laid for 
securing the names of 1000 members and 2000 
shares, as a minimum, and in September, 1928, 
when 705 supporters had been secured, a co 
operative medical clinic was opened in rented 
quarters in Ura Machi, Aomori City. 

The co-operatives in this second period had a 
different aspect from those of the first. In their 
motive of organization and in their development 



MEDICAL CO-OPERATIVES IN JAPAN 181 

one can see a very positive idea of economic and 
class permeation. Regarding the motive for es 
tablishing the Tosei Medical Co-operativa in 
Aomori let us note what was said in part by Mr. 
Seishi Okamoto, its founder and president: 

"In hard times, the thing that causes the great 
est suffering in our human life is the inability, 
because of poverty, to secure the services of a 
physician when someone suddenly becomes ill. I 
am unable to endure the sight of such a condition 
in this Showa Era, and for Aomori City and its 
neighboring towns and villages I have determined 
to establish a hospital, secure competent physic 
ians and carry on utility work through the co 
operation of the middle class." 

Following the appearance of the medical co 
operative in Aomori City several large and small 
co-operatives were organized in the two years 
from 1929 to 1931. The largest of these was the 
Mutual Clinic Co-operative of Hachioji, Tokyo 
Prefecture, later called the Tama Co-operative 
Hospital, established in September, 1929. 

At last, in May, 1931, with Dr. Nitobe, Dr. 
Kagawa, Dr. Fusajiro Kato, a member of the 
Tokyo City Council, Mr. Michio Kozaki, and 
many other prominent men as promoters, applica 
tion for permission to establish the Tokyo Medical 
Utility Co-operative was presented to the Tokyo 
Fu office. When the Medical Co-operative Move 
ment at last unfurled its banner in the capital city 
of the Empire it encountered the antagonism and 
obstruction of the Medical Association, which 
conflict developed into a nation-wide controversy 
which still rages and constitutes one of the chief 



182 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

problems in the development of Medical Co 
operatives. 

While the Tokyo Medical Co-operative was 
carrying on its violent controversy with the Med 
ical Association, which delayed for a year and a 
month until May, 1932, the handing down of 
final permission by the authorities, the Akita 
Medical Co-operative was established in Akita 
City in January, 1932. The Akita Co-operative 
was a great success. It had no sooner started its 
work, with over 6000 members, than patients 
fairly stormed the gate and immediately the 
membership increased to 10,000. It now has a 
membership of 12,000, or 28% of the adult popu 
lation of that city. This marvelous energy im 
mediately and inevitably resulted in the rebuild 
ing of the hospital on a large scale. Dr. Kagawa 
says in his booklet: "The medical co-operative 
movement, stimulated by these good results spread 
simultaneously to every part of Akita Prefecture. 
And the sparks which had been smouldering here 
and there were changed, in a twinkle, into a wild 
fire by this blast of north wind which arose in 
Akita, and today they are spreading over the 
whole country." 

In the first period the development of medical 
co-operatives was really a natural and unconsci 
ous movement, and even in the second period, 
previous to the opening of the Tokyo Medical Co 
operative, they had in some ways a natural flavor. 
But with the Tokyo Medical Co-operative there 
was manifest a truly conscious development, a 
joining in holy battle for social reconstruction. 
This idea is made clear in the prospectus which 
was issued at the beginning of the campaign for 



MEDICAL CO-OPERATIVES IN JAPAN 183 

the establishment of the Tokyo institution. I 
quote as follows: 

"It goes without saying that treatment for sick 
ness, as a protection of human life, must be en 
joyed without distinction by rich and poor, high 
and low, city and country. The medical practice 
of the past was carried on as a benevolent art, 
which is a matter of course when viewed from the 
standpoint of its original nature. However, in 
present-day society, when everything, even the 
medical art, is carried on under the profit system, 
the result has been that those who could not bear 
economically the expense of medical treatment 
have been placed in a condition of finding it diffi 
cult to secure medical security. 

"Of course, in the face of such a social defect, 
charity hospitals as a form of social work for the 
very poor, were brought into existence. Also, for 
factory laborers and miners there was enacted the 
health insurance law. But still the greater part 
of the population, which is not included in these 
plans, is troubled by the necessity of meeting high 
medical expenses. Today there is presented the 
peculiar social phenomenon in which those who 
are able to receive perfect medical attention are 
limited to the rich and to those who are branded 
as extremely poor. 

"The Union Co-operative Hospital which is here 
planned will provide a new economic organiza 
tion in the original spirit of medicine as a bene 
volent art, instead of the present medical system, 
and thus will carry it on for the united happiness 
of the co-operative members. That is to say, we 
will provide medical and health equipment which 
will depend on the co-operative economics of the 



184 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

members, secure reliable doctors, nurses and 
medicines, and provide guidance and help in kind 
medical treatment and in matters of health. 
Therefore, this system, through the united 
strength of many people, might be said to make it 
possible for one to have one s own physician 
(family doctor) who is prepared to serve in gen 
eral practice. Thus at last we expect to avoid the 
unrest arising from sickness, which has been the 
greatest threat of our lives. 

"The Union Co-operative Hospital solves the 
economic problem which is beyond the reach of 
the doctor as an individual. Still more, in medical 
matters, it has the peculiar trait of making it pos 
sible to practise organized medicine through the 
co-operation and union of specialists, and even in 
preventative medicine it is able to make an abso 
lute and certain contribution. 

"An Organized Health Movement: that is the 
goal which the co-operatives have directly in 
view. But the reason why we would carry on 
medical work especially under the form of a co 
operative is because this movement is of such a 
nature as will enable it to penetrate into every 
stratum of society in the nation, and also because 
it is recognized as having great significance in the 
organization of a social unit; and so long as the 
future social plan takes cognizance of the health 
of the people as a matter of importance, we be 
lieve that the Medical Co-operative should be the 
foundation of the new society." 

Medical Co-operatives in Japan, as stated 
above, have developed recently in a wonderful 
way. For some time there was no central organ 
ization to gather statistics as to the number and 



MEDICAL CO-OPERATIVES IN JAPAN 185 

make-up of the various organizations. Three 
years ago, just after the Tokyo Medical Co-opera 
tive was started, a nation-wide investigation was 
made under the leadership of Dr. Kagawa, and 
the results were published in the first number of 
the "Medical Co-operative Movement" ( Iryo Ku- 
miai Undo) under date of April 24, 1932. At that 
time there were 28 co-operatives with permission 
granted under the Industrial Guild Regulations, 
and eight existing independently. The comparative 
growth during the past three years will be clearly 
indicated by the statistical report appearing in 
the May, 1935, issue of the Iryo Kumiai Shimbun 
(Medical Co-operative News), the official organ 
of the Union Medical Co-operative Association. 

This report gives a total of 83 Medical Co 
operatives in Japan proper and 5 in Formosa, with 
26 others in process of organization, or a total of 
114. Some of these co-operatives have branch 
clinics or dispensaries, so I have been told that 
the total of places where medical treatment can 
be secured under co-operative auspices would 
reach 150. These are all organized,, so to speak, 
under the auspices of the Industrial Guild. In 
addition to these there were 28 independent or 
voluntary medical co-operatives when Dr. Kaga 
wa wrote his booklet two years ago. 

The Prefectures having the largest number of 
medical co-operatives are as follows: Iwate 
10, Aomori 8, Akita 8, Niigata 6; Shimane, 
Mie, Gunma, and Aichi 4 each; Shizuoka and 
Nagano 3 each; Kochi, Okayama, Hyogo, Ya- 
manashi, Tokyo and Ibaraki 2 each, and 13 
other prefectures with one each. The Co-opera 
tive Hospital in the city of Morioka is the largest 



186 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

in Japan. It has 134 beds and last year gained a 
clear profit of 10,000.00. In Akita Prefecture 
?>8% of the adult population are members of med 
ical co-operatives. The Akita City hospital has 
47 beds and 6 doctors. It is having a financial 
struggle, however, at present. The Tokyo Medical 
Co-operative now has 5600 members who have 
taken out 7000 shares at 10 each. It now has 
51 beds which are practically always full, and 170 
to 180 out-patients daily, 9 doctors, 15 nurses, and 
1 visiting nursa. 

The path of medical co-operatives, however, is 
not without its rough places. Dr. Kagawa states 
that only about one-half of the co-operatives at 
the time he wrote his booklet were able to make 
both ends meet. "In order to carry on a medical 
co-operative in an ideal manner," he states, "we 
have come to the conclusion among ourselves that 
the scope of a co-operative should be a city and a 
couple of counties, or simply one or two counties, 
differing in proportion to the convenience or in 
convenience of communications in that area, but 
only of such extent as can make use of the hos 
pital ; that the number of members should be 
3000 or more ; and that it is necessary to establish 
departments of internal medicine and surgery, at 
least, and in addition, X-ray, children s depart 
ment, maternity ward, if at all possible, and at 
least 30 beds." 

At the close of his booklet, Dr. Kagasa men 
tions six outstanding problems which are facing 
the Medical Co-operatives today. I can only 
enumerate them here. They are as follows: 

1. The problem of capital for the development 
of co-ops. 



MEDICAL CO-OPERATIVES IN JAPAN 187 

2. Problem of the supply of competent doctors. 

3. Outstanding fees. 

4. Relation to the Health Insurance system. 

5. Opposition movement of the Medical Asso 
ciation. 

6. Union movement of the medical co-opera 
tives. 

Dr. Kagawa calls this last the union move 
ment the Third Period in the development of 
medical co-operatives. 

The opposition of the Medical Association, for 
tunately, has hastened the nation-wide union 
movement of medical co-operatives. In 1933, a 
National Medical Co-operative Council was form 
ed, and in April, 1934, a National Medical Utility 
Co-operative Association was organized as a step 
toward the formation of a National Union. An 
office has been opened in the Central Building of 
the Industrial Guild in Tokyo, and a monthly news 
paper, the Iryo Kumiai Shimbun is published. 
In addition to this, union movements have arisen 
in some of the six northern prefectures, notably, 
Aomori and Akita. 

"The mission of these union organizations," to 
quote again from the booklet, "is, from a negative 
standpoint, to remove the obstructions of the 
medical co-operatives, and positively, to work in 
every way to hasten their development." 



Chapter XI 



Koh Yuki 



It was in 1859 that Protestant missionaries first 
came over the sea to Japan. These men encoun 
tered, so many difficulties in trying to provide for 
the future development of Christianity, with the 
Bible to translate, a dictionary to compile, tracts 
to publish, and so forth, that they were not able 
for some time to start work upon a hymnal in Jap 
anese. The greatest reason for this delay was that 
the Japanese of those days had no knowledge of 
the occidental musical scale, and consequently 
were unable to sing the hymns. At first the mis 
sionaries tried to teach the Japanese to use the 
English hymnal, but this proved most unsatisfac 
tory. As early as the year 1861 Dr. Hepburn had 
stated positively that the Japanese were unable 
to sing western songs. However, Mrs. Ballagh 
proved this statement false, by demonstrating that 
the Japanese could sing hymns. In 1871, this lady 
discovsred among the pupils in her Sunday School 
a young man who could sing western songs. En 
couraged by this, Mrs. Pierson and Miss Crosby 
also succeeded in teaching English hymns. 

However, Japanese hymns made their appear 
ance in 1872, just after the first Protestant Church 
was established in Yokohama. In that same year, 
when the first missionary conference was held in 
Yokohama and the subject of hymns in the Japa- 



190 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

nese language was introduced, Reverend James 
Ballagh presented two hymns in Japanese. These 
were: 

(1) "Yoi kuni arimasu, Taiso enpo 
"Shinja wa sakaete, Hikarizo." 

(2) "Yesu ware wo aisu, Sayo Seisho mosu, 
"Kisureba kotachi, Yowai mo tsuyoi 

"Hai Yesu aisu, Hai Yesu aisu, 
"Hai Yesu aisu, Sayo Seisho mosu." 

These were the first hymns written in Japanese, 
and of these the former was a translation by the 
Reverend Mr. Goble of "There is a Happy Land," 
and the latter was Miss Crobsy s translation of 
"Jesus Loves me." 

From the impetus given by these hymns, in 
1874 six different collections of hymns were pub 
lished. At the tima the Kobe Kumiai Church was 
organized, the first of these was published by Mr. 
Y. Maeda and others, who with the help of Messrs. 
Greene, Davis, Gordon and Matsuyama were able 
to produce a book of 8 hymns. The second one 
containing 19 hymns was compiled in Yokohama 
by the Reverend Henry Loomis and Mr. Okuno. 
The third, containing 27 hymns, was edited by the 
Reverend N. Brown and became the first hymnal 
of the Baptist Church. The fourth collection was 
compiled in Nagasaki by the Reverend Messrs. 
Stout, Davison, Segawa, and Suga, as a coopera 
tive effort of the Dutch Reformed and Methodist 
Missions. The fifth, which was edited in Kobe 
by the Rev. J. C. Berry, contained 39 hymns and 
the first chants. The sixth, containing 20 hymns, 
was published in Yokohama by the Reverend Y. 
Kumano. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF HYMNOLOGY IN JAPAN 191 

It was by the combined efforts of such mission 
aries as Greene, Davis, Berry (American Board), 
Loomis (Presbyterian), N. Brown (Baptist), 
Stout (Reformed), Davison (Methodist) and 
others, and such Japanese as M. Okuno, T. Ma- 
tsuyama, A. Sugawa, Y. Kumano and others, that 
these first Japanese hymns were translated and 
compiled. Naturally, from a literary point of 
view, hymnology was in its infancy and these 
rough literal translations are not to bo mentioned 
in the same breath with the hymns of today. 

One reason for this is that the missionaries of 
that day did not have a sufficient understanding of 
the Japanese language. They were unable to dis 
tinguish between the colloquial language used in 
conversation and the literary language used in 
poetry; furthermore they tried to apply the 
rhymes of western songs to Japanese songs, where 
it is not suitable. For example, the phrase "Come 
to Jesus" was translated "Yesu ni oide" or "Yesu 
ni irasshai" ; and "Jesus Loves Me" was translat 
ed with an attempt at rhyme, as follows: 

"Yesu ware wo aisu, 
"Sayo Seisho mosu 
"Kisureba Kotachi 
"Yowai mo tsuyoi." 

At the same time, the Japanese collaborators 
did not fully understand English, consequently 
their translations sometimes had quite, a different 
meaning from that of the originals. 

"Let every creature rise and bring 
"Peculiar honors to our King" 

was translated by someone in lines having some- 



192 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

what the following meaning: 

"Ye monsters of the bubbling deep 
"Your Maker s praises shout, 
"Up from the sands ye coddling psep, 
"And wag your tails about." 

Also the Japanese were unaccustomed to occi 
dental metre, and consequently many unskilful 
translations resulted. It is correct to say that 
there/ is practically no metre in Japan except the 
original 7.5, or 5.7, syllable metre. All ivaka or 
haiku are a form of this metre. Therefore, even 
though Mr. Okuno and Mr. Matsuyama knew the 
Japanese metre, they had no knowledge of west 
ern song metre, short metre, or common metre, 
and it was impossible for them to make any but 
extremely uncouth translations. 



It is known that at least 18 different collections 
of hymns were published in the years between 
1875 and 1888. Improvement is clearly seen in 
the better selection of words and in the greater 
number of tunes used. It can be said that these 
collections became the foundation for the "Kiri- 
sutokyo Kashu" (1884), "Kirisutokyo Sambika" 
(1896) and the "Kokon Sambika" (1901). As 
shown by these collections of hymns, the Japanese 
Sambika had now made so great an advance over 
former collections, as to give the feeling of a dif 
ferent age. 

The "Kirisutokyo Sambika" was compiled by 
Dr. Davison of the Methodist denomination, with 
Homei Iwano and Miss E. Matsumoto as his assist 
ants; it contained 244 hymns, 3 chants and 10 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF HYMNOLOGY IN JAPAN 193 

doxologies, and in addition had appended the ten 
commandments, the Lord s Prayer and the Apos 
tles Creed. The octavo edition, the foreign bind 
ing, the printing and musical notes, the indices of 
English first lines, tune names, and metre were all 
well worked out. Taken as a whole, the most 
conspicuous points were the more refined nature 
of the hymns; as compared with former hymns ; 
the fact that the subjects and names of hymns 
appeared in Chinese writing; and the including of 
many American gospel songs. 

The "Shinsen Sambika" was completed by the 
joint efforts of committees appointed by the Nihon 
Kirisuto and Kumiai Churches; and most of the 
work of compilation was done by Messrs. M. Oku- 
no, M. Uemura, T. Matsuyama and G. Allchin. 
The volume consisted of 263 hymns, 13 doxologies, 
12 chants, the ten commandments, the Lord s 
Prayer, and the Apostles Creed; it was a crown 
octavo edition with foreign binding, well typed 
and with musical notes. The special features of 
this book were the deeper grasp of Christian 
truth ; the addition of much more original work by 
the Japanese, especially in the "Tankacho" 
(metre 5.7.5.7.7) ; and the lowering of the pitch 
of about 100 of the tunes, to suit the voices of the 
Japanese of that time. 

The "Kirisutokyo Sambika" was compiled by 
A. A. Bennett of the Baptist denomination. It con 
tained 353 hymns, and in style and contents re 
sembled the "Kirisutokyo Sambika." 

The "Kokon Seikashu" was edited by Bishop 
Foss of the Anglican Church, assisted by T. Imai 
and T. Matsuyama. It contained 412 hymns ar- 
rang3d according to the Episcopal Church calen- 



194 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

dar. The hymns were largely those of the An 
glican and the American Episcopal Churches. 

The hymns contained in these collections, the 
translations as well as the originals, showed a 
great improvement in literary style. So much so, 
in fact, that Bimyo Yamada, a famous literary 
man of that time, wrote a magazine article prais 
ing the "Shinsen Sambika." Considered in the 
light of today, however, for the most part, the 
translated hymns had depth of thought but an 
awkward literary style; while the original hymns 
had a fluent style but superficial ideas. For ex 
ample : 

"Waga tamashii wo aisuru lesu yo 
"Nami wa sakamaki kaze fuki arete 
"Ayauki toki mo konomi wo mamori 
"Mimoto ni nogare yukashime tamae. 
"Ware niwa hoka no kakurega arazu 
"Tada chikara naki kono tamashii wo 
"Yudane matsureba misute tamawade 
"Naomo awaremi nagusame tamae." 

(Shinsen Sambika 152) 

is the translation of the famous hymn. "Jesus 
lover of my soul." In spite of the fact that the 
original meaning is comparatively well reproduc 
ed, when compared with hymns of today, the 
literary style is seen to be inferior. On the other 
hand, the following, 

"Sarinishi hito no koshikata wo 

"Kaerimisureba utsusemi no 

"Monuke no kara to narishikado 

"Kokoro wa ikade kienubeki. 

"Kami no masamichi fuminobori 

"Mame ni tsukaeshi kami no kono 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF HYMNOLOGY IN JAPAN 195 

"Yo ni nokoshitsuru ai no mi wa 
"Iro mo kawarade kaguwashiya." 

(Shinsen Sambika 206) 

was written by Dr. M. Uemura, and while the 
words are beautiful their substance is meagre. 
Furthermore, although some of the original 
hymns of that time used western metre the great 
majority of them were written in the customary 
Japanese metres, namely 5.7.5.7.7 syllables, 7.5 
syllables, or 7.7 syllables, for example: 

Hymn No. 

(5.7.5.7.7) "Shu wa ware no bokusha ni maseba 45 

"Ware no shiro ware no chikara to 131 

"Kami nakuba ikani shitekawa" 189 

(7.5) "Tsumi no kegare ni oowarete" 108 

"Amatsu mashimizu nagarekite 

"Waga tamashii yo osoruru na 137 

(7.7) "Megumi ni tomeru makoto no kamiwa 50 

"Megumi ni tomeru waga kami Ehoba 53 

"Ware no sumika wa konoyo ni arade 212 

This fact shows that the Japanese of that time 
were not yet able to use the Western metre freely 
in writing songs. The 7.7 syllable metre was not 
often seen in ordinary Japanese songs ; but the 
Japanese made a relatively clever use of an 
adaptation of the 7.5 syllable and 5.7.5,7.7 syl 
lable metres. Of these the 5.7.5.7.7 metre has 
gradually ceased being used so that in the hym 
nals of the present not more than one or two 
hymns of this metre remain. This seems to be due 
to the fact that the music written for the hymns 
of this metre were comparatively poorly done, 
and that from the first this metre did not seem to 
fit Western tunes. 



196 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 



In 1900, at a meeting of the Japan Evangelical 
Alliance in Osaka, the proposal was presented 
and carried that there should be one union Japa 
nese Sambika. The following year representatives 
of the different denominations met in Tokyo, se 
lected 125 well-known hymns, and decided that 
these should be retranslated and set to appropri 
ate tunes. The men who undertook this work were 
Dr. Allchin, Dr. MacNair, Bishop Foss, Dr. Spen 
cer and Dr. Parshley for the missionaries, and Mr. 
Bessho, Mr. Fujimoto, Mr. Sakurai, Mr. Matsu- 
yama and Mr. Maeda and Mr. Yuasa for the 
Japanese. These hymns, which 1 were collected in 
the Episcopal Church "Kokon Sambika" of 1901 
and in the general "Sambika" of the other de 
nominations published in 1903, became the models 
for all later hymns. 

Soon after the selection of these hymns the 
work of compiling the general hymnal was begun. 
The original draft of the hymns was made by a 
Committee of three consisting of Messrs. Bessho, 
Miwa and Yuya and their work was examined by 
a committee composed of most of the men who 
had been on the former committee which chose 
the 125 hymns to be retranslated. In this way the 
hymnal was brought to completion and published 
in 1903. It contained 459 hymns, 6 doxologies 
and 18 chants. With its wider range of material, 
its greatly refined verse, and its loftier music, this 
edition marks the first epoch in the annals of the 
Japanese Sambika. For the next 30 years this 
book was used in practically all Christian 
churches throughout Japan. 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF HYMNOLOGY IN JAPAN 197 

A study of the words of the hymns shows that 
this hymnal had an elegant literary style. It ap 
peared about the time that the "romantic move 
ment" in Japanese literature was at its height ; a 
new style of poetry and elegant prose were the 
vogue. Consequently, to some extent, the hymnal 
reflects this tendency. Not only is it conspicuous 
in the original hymns of the Japanese, but it is 
also seen in the translated hymns. 

For example, the second verse of the gospel 
hymn, "There shall be showers of blessings" was 
translated : 

"Sukuinushi lesu no kudashi tamaeba 
"Haru no ame yorimo nodoka nizo aran." 

(Sambika 121) 

On the whole, in this manner, gospel-hymns be 
came more beautiful than they were in the orig 
inal ; but it cannot be denied that at the same 
time the Christian thought-content became dilut 
ed. This is clearly seen in the example just cited. 
However, due to the difference in construction of 
the European languages and Japanese, it is almost 
impossible to avoid some changes in translation. 
For instance, when a European song is translated 
into Japanese in its own metre certain ideas con 
tained in the former simply cannot be incorporat 
ed in the translation. Because of this, the tendency 
in this hymnal was to sacrifice the contents for the 
sake of the figures of speech. 

In this hymn-book, the new hymns written by 
Japanese tried to supply certain needs not ade 
quately taken care of in the translated hymns ; they 
therefore had to do rather with such subjects as 
the Home, Social Meetings, the Ceremonies of the 



198 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

Church, etc., than with the central truths of the 
Gospel. Consequently, these songs were beauti 
ful, but lacking in religious depth. An example 
of this is the following: 

"Higashi no sora wa 1 honobono to 
"Noboru asahi ni akeyukeba 
"Hana no nioi ni tsutsumarete 
"Kasumishi tsuki mo shiramikeri." (386) 

However, the greatest defect of this hymnal is 
that the words and the music do not fit smoothly 
together. For example, take number 53 in the 
Sambika, "God is Love: His Mercy Brightens," 
As translated, the fourth verse and chorus read as 
follows: 

"Yowa utsuri yukedo, 
"Megumi no hikari, 
"Towa nizo kagayaku 
"Kami wa ai nari. 
"Warera mo aisen 
"Ai no mikami wo." 

But when sung to the music they must be changed 
to, "Yowa utsu ri yukedo," and "Ai nomi kami 
wo," and all meaning is lost when heard. Many 
more examples of this sort of thing could be given. 
Admitting the defects which have been men 
tioned, nevertheless, this collection of hymns was 
the finest piece of work which the Japanese 
Christian church of the time had produced. His 
torically it must always be remembered as a 
significant accomplishment. 

4 
However, there were certain groups who were 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF HYMNOLOGY IN JAPAN 199 

not satisfied with the general Sambika of 1903. 
From the middle of the Meiji Era until the begin 
ning of Taisho these groups had each printed sup 
plementary collections of hymns. They were such 
hymnals as Mr. Buxton s and Mr. Sasao s "Sukui 
no uta," Mr. T. Mitani s "Fukuin Shoka," Mr. T. 
Nakada s "Revival Shoka," the Plymouth Breth 
ren Hymnal, Unitarian Songs, the Mormon Hym 
nal, and the Salvation Army Hymnal. But these 
were all quite inferior to the general Sambika. 

About the middle of the Taisho Era there began 
to be heard a demand for a revision of the Sam 
bika. This came in the natural course of events, 
stimulated by the new emphasis in Christian 
thought, the change in literary ideas and the 
development in Western music. 

Several experiments in revision had appeared. 
Among these were the writer s own "Seika" in 
which appeared hymn tunes of his own composi 
tion. 

At last in 1928 the work began, continuing for 
three years, until 1931, when the "Shin Sambika" 
was published. In the work of revision, special 
responsibility for the words was given to the 
writer, and for the music, to E. Kioka. They, to 
gether with U. Bessho, D. Fujimoto, M. Nakaya- 
ma, S. Abe, F. D. Gealy, H. D. Hannaford, C. 
Torii, S. Tsugawa (for a time) and others, consti 
tuted the revision committee ; but the Sambika 
Committee itself was the final courtl of decision. 

When completed the book contained 604 
hymns, including doxologies, chants, and an 
thems; and in addition 35 Responsive Readings 
were incorporated. The special features were the 
addition of many classical and modern tunes, and 



200 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

more worshipful tunes; the adoption of German 
chorals; the use of hymns directed toward a more 
positive Christian attitude, concerning, for in 
stance, the Kingdom of God, Love, Service, the 
International Spirit, World Peace, etc. ; and the 
increased number of hymns and tunes composed 
by Japanese. In addition, the indices of respon 
sive readings, authors, composers and of original 
first lines of other languages, as well as English, 
may be considered a real mark of progress. 

The new Sambika omitted about 80 hymns 
which had been in the old one and added about 
200, so that the total number became more than 
600. Accordingly, in the number of hymns it 
does not fall behind European or American hym 
nals. The question is what of its quality. On 
the whole, it cannot be said that the language of 
the new Sambika is superior, rhetorically, to the 
old one. Among the newly translated hymns many 
are prosarically done ; but their depth and power 
are superior to former translations, I believe. A 
study of hymns 38, 59, 70, and others, will de 
monstrate this. 

When we turn to the original compositions we 
find a wealth of variety in both thought and ex 
pression. Mr. I. Miyagawa s hymns treat of 
Japanese nature and scenery, a new feature in 
Christian hymns; Mr. Y. Oda s hymn sings of 
oriental "resignation" ; Mr. S. Kega gives expres 
sion to a Japanese mother s sorrow at the, loss of 
her child, while Mr. K. Suzuki, with young ardor, 
hymns the joy of the Cross. These are the first 
fruits of Christ s gospel grown in Japanese soil. 

The writer, also, contributed 8 hymns to the 
new Sambika. It would not be proper for me to 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF HYMNOLOGY IN JAPAN 201 

comment on their religious and literary value; but 
since most of them are widely sung, it has given 
the author pleasure. Of these hymns, 112 is the 
favorite hymn of President Abe of Aoyama Gaku- 
in; 214 was the favorite of the young evangelist, 
Mr. Hirata, and was sung at his funeral ; and in 
the same way, number 305, as his favorite hymn, 
was sung at the funeral of the Rev. R. Miyazawa 
of Komagome Church. These hymns sing of Christ, 
the Kingdom of God, and Prayer, but something 
within them seems to speak to the heart of the 
Japanese people. 

It is just 4 years since the new Sambika was 
published, but already, almost without exception, 
it is used throughout the whole country.* But as 
one of those who helped to compile it, I am al 
ways conscious that it is not perfect. There are 
things which should be taken out, hymns which 
should be added to it, and corrections which 
should be made to both words and tunes. To sum 
it all up, this hymnal too belongs to a transitional 
period. For its consummation we must wait for 
the opportunity offered by the next revision. 



* It should be said that the Episcopal and Holiness Churches do 
not use the Sambika, having their own hymnals. The reader is 
referred to a more detailed account of the revised Sambika which 
appeared in the 1932 edition of the Year Book Editor. 



Chapter XII 
CHURCH ARCHITECTURE IN JAPAN 

William Merrell Varies 

It did not require fault-finding commissions 
from abroad to inform us that there is a good deal 
the matter with Church architecture in Japan. 
There is plenty for even the wayfaring eye to 
glimpse. But there are reasons for a good many 
of the faults which joy-riding commissions and 
visiting professionals have not time to ferret out. 

Roughly, there are three periods in the building 
of Churches since Protestant missions entered this 
field. The first was the pioneer stage, when the 
missionary was not only prophet and priest but 
also planner, and everything except carpenter. 
There was not yet a congregation to assemble for 
worship ; only a potential group to gather for 
instruction. The earliest Church building, there 
fore, rather inevitably became a sort of glorified 
class-room. 

The second period was that of the subsidized 
Church, and in it the Missionary continued to hold 
most responsibility often by that most insidious 
and un-Christian theory that authority inheres in 
money. In this period, also, the Church was still 
a meeting-place in which to listen to instruction 
that is, sermons. 

The idea of worship was still vague. This is 
amply evidenced by the facti that a Japanese 
audience, which would be horrified if anybody 
moved or w r hispered during the reading of the 
Imperial Rescript on Education, will even today 



204 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

show no sign of shock over late comers at Church 
stalking to their seats, or whispering with their 
neighbors, during the reading of the Scripture, or 
even during a prayer. 

The Church being considered as merely a lec 
ture hall, and "going to church" as merely a 
means of listening to instruction, is partly a pro 
duct of the practice in the second period of eco 
nomizing mission funds when the building of 
church edifices was concerned. Although early 
mission residences often had an acre of grounds 
and were of large size (if lacking in appearance 
or conveniences), it was a quite general practice 
among us Protestants to buy a very tiny piece of 
ground and erect an insignificant box-like church 
upon it barely large enough for the existing 
congregation, and with no possibility of future 
growth. 

R.oman Catholics exhibited a far wiser strategy 
in that they commonly secured a large piece of 
land, in a prominent location, before they made 
any other effort in a new community. Their first 
church buildings were often box-like, too ; but at 
leasts they let it be known that their faith anti 
cipated an eventual church. 

The Greek Orthodox Church began with even 
greater faith. Before they had any considerable 
following the late, great Archbishop Nicolai 
erected on the finest site in Tokyo the most impos 
ing edifice of any Faith a real cathedral; of pro 
portions that would be significant in any world 
capital. 

The third period in church architecture in 
Japan is of rather; recent date. It represents the 
independent Japanese churches beginning to 



CHURCH ARCHITECTURE IN JAPAN 205 

erect their own buildings and employing profes 
sional architectural assistance. 

It would be very pleasant to record here that 
the expectable blossoming forth of the artistic 
temper of Japan had begun to produce outstand 
ing examples of church architecture. But, un 
fortunately, we cannot honestly lay claim to such 
a happy issue. As a matter of fact, with a few 
notable exceptions, the tendency is to produce 
freak designs, that are sometimes even worse than 
the old boxes. 

For this condition which fortunately must be 
only a transitional and temporary matter several 
factors are doubtless to blame. There is, on the 
part of the congregations, a strong inheritance 
from the first and second periods. There is, fur 
thermore, a shortage of funds for adequate con 
struction. And there are too many young archi 
tects lately trained in the local technical schools 
and embued with the current craze for the 
"modern" style whatever that may be. 

Although there is not yet a modern style, to 
the majority the term seems to mean anything 
different; anything that obviously and ostenta 
tiously flouts the classical or accepted types of 
the past. 

So we are getting nowadays an epidemic of 
structures that are assuredly different. But that 
they tend to induce upon or within the people who 
gather in them a spirit of reverent worship, or 
present any distinctly religious "atmosphere," 
one ; seriously doubts. 

I have said that this is a passing phase. Surely 
it cannot go on indefinitely. And there are at 
least three ways out. (But we must disabuse our- 



206 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

selves of the impression that Christendom will 
reach its climax in and through you and me, and 
that therefore the ultimate in Church Architec 
ture must be achieved in our day). 

The first way out, which to me seems a bit im 
probable at the present moment, is for somebody 
to develop a new style that meets all the require 
ments of an ideal church. Because this is really 
possible, we should be patient with the perpetra 
tors of monstrosities, so long as they 1 are reverent 
and in earnest. 

The second way out, which is eloquently ad 
vocated by all visitors to Japan, whether profes 
sional or amateur, is for somebody to successful 
ly employ the ancient and beautiful Japanese 
architecture. This may yet be accomplished. A 
few attempts have already been made, which 
show some promise. But the more one studies 
Japanese architecture, in its delicate and exact 
proportions, the less one feels assurance of its be 
ing adaptable to uses very far dissimilar to those 
for which it was designed. We must not forget 
the monstrosities which were produced of old in 
attempts to adapt the equally delicate and exact 
proportions of the Classic Orders. You can t get a 
Classic Temple by plastering columns of approx 
imate proportions onto a modern office building 
as some of our forefathers tried. To successful 
ly use the Japanese style it may prove necessary 
to adapt the church instead of vice versa! 

It is quite certain that the Sunday school and 
the social-service units of a modern church plant 
would require a different style as it is out of the 
question to use the real Japanese style for an edu 
cational building. Quite possibly a Hall of Wor- 



CHURCH ARCHITECTURE IN JAPAN 207 

ship in pure Japanese style may some day form 
the center of a church group; but it will be in a 
day when much money is available for such use; 
as one cannot camouflage Japanese architecture 
with cheap materials painted over. 

The third way out is to employ the Gothic, or 
some other old-established style. I know that in 
proposing this I am risking my neck; for at the 
moment the architect who has any use for the 
past is considered already passe. Nevertheless, 
I still believe "there are reasons." First of all, 
Christianity is not a national cult but a universal 
religion. If ever that fundamantal fact needed 
emphasis, it is just now. One of the most conspic 
uous evidences of this fact is the sight of church 
buildings, which everyone unmistakably recog 
nizes as churches, in all countries as one travels 
throughout the world. 

A well proportioned and authentic example of 
the Gothic need not appear discordant in almost 
any setting especially if there be sufficient 
grounds about it to allow for trees between the 
church and its neighbors. Some other styles are 
almost as universally usable. But a distinctive 
type for the church in any community is not bad 
form, and a type used throughout the world might 
be looked upon as rather more appropriate than* 
the opposite extreme of having every locality 
house its Christian church in a building absolute 
ly at variance with every other in the world. 

Personally, I have never felt it anything but 
the logical thing that Buddhist Temples should 
tend to look alike, regardless of where found; ana 
the rare examples where they have definitely imi 
tated churches in Western lands have caused ex- 



208 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

actly the opposite of admiration in my eyes. Why, 
then, should a Christian church in Japan camou 
flage itself in the outward shell of Buddhism, 
however beautiful that form may be, considered 
abstractly? 

Finally, it seems quite fair to at least leave the 
question of the eventual development of a Japan 
ese style of church building for Japan to the 
Japanese architect. It is not, assuredly, the pro 
vince of the foreign architect sojourning here to 
dictate this development. And in the meantime, 
I remain one of those conservative international 
ists whose heart warms at the sight of a good 
specimen of Gothic Church rising among the man 
sions, markets, mud-huts, or skyscrapers of any 
sort of town, however remote and different that 
town may be, and regardless of where it is located 
in our earth. 



Chapter XIII 
THE ABOLITION MOVEMENT 

E. C. Hennigar 

The two years which have elapsed since last a 
report of this movement appeared in the Year 
Book have seen considerable progress toward the 
goal of ridding the fair name of Japan of the blot 
of government-licensed prostitution. There has 
been also some element of disappointment for it 
was widely published in the newspapers that abo 
lition of the system was imminent, definite dates 
being set in two or more instances. Groups of 
newspaper men verily haunt every public office 
and waylay visitors either on entrance or depart 
ure. From chance words dropped at such times, 
even from the personnel going and coming they, 
with much imaginative matter added, evolve 
stories of great interest for their papers. The tale 
that abolition was to come on April 1st, 1935, was 
one such product of the imagination. It has been 
hinted that there was something of the nature of 
a cruel practical joke in the date selected. Noth 
ing happened, of course, on that date, nor yet in 
December, as was predicted in a leading paper 
late last summer. 

While the dates were imaginary the story was 
not wholly fabricated, as will appear from the 
following pronouncement of a responsible official 
of the Home Department. In May, 1934, at a 
meeting of the Prefectural Police Inspectors Mr. 
S. Miyano, head of the Police Affairs Bureau of 
the Home Department said, "The Abolition of 



2 1C THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

licensed prostitution is the fixed policy of the 
Home Department. However, the control of pub 
lic morals after abolition is causing some thought 
to the officials, and much study is now being given 
to that matter. A draft proposal (daitai no genari) 
has already been prepared and we intend to put 
it .into operation (gutai kivasuru) in the not far 
distant future (chikaku)." Such a statement was 
surely enough to raise the hopes of all friends of 
abolition. 

About the same time, in April, 1934, to be ex 
act, at a meeting of the League of Nations Com 
mission on the Traffic in Women and Children the 
Japanese representative reported progress in abo 
lition, pointing out that three prefectures had 
already abolished the system and that the move 
ment was going forward steadily (chakuchaku) . 
On the strength of this he asked the Commission 
to include Japan in the list of countries having no 
licensed prostitution (sic). This declaration and 
request were made publicly in this International 
body. These two pronouncements are important 
and very worthy of notice as being statements of 
the policy of the government as much as a year 
and a half ago. 

Why, then, has abolition not been accomplished 
as predicted and as hoped There are five rea 
sons, any one of which might be sufficient to 
account for some change in the policy of the De 
partment. In the first place the Cabinet of Vis 
count Saito resigned on July 3rd, 1934. With 
change of Cabinet all the higher officials of the 
various departments were changed. The men in 
the Home Department who had studied abolition 
very seriously and were prepared to take the step 



THE ABOLITION MOVEMENT 211 

of abolishing the licensed system were scattered 
to various important positions in other ministries 
or in the prefectures. Then the officials investi 
gating the case from the side of public health 
were not yet ready to report. Further the tax on 
the prostitute quarters which had gone into the 
prefectural treasuries in the past was to come, as 
restaurant tax, in the future to the central gov 
ernment. This created a hard problem as between 
local and central treasuries. Finally the brothel 
keepers of the whole empire became thoroughly 
alarmed at the prospect of nation-wide abolition 
and put up a determined resistance through their 
representatives in the Diet. And so national abo 
lition, which at one time seemed on the verge of 
accomplishment, is postponed. 

Meanwhile great progress has been made in 
the various Prefectures. It would seem that here 
lies the greatest hope for abolition, namely to 
move one prefecture at a time to clean house in 
this sphere. Our movement is organized in 40 
prefectures. In 26, some attempt has been made 
td| put an Abolition Bill through the local Assem 
bly, with success in 14 cases, viz. in Saitama, 
Akita, Fukui, Fukushima, Nlagano, Niigata, Ya- 
manashi, Kanagawa, Ibaraki, Iwate, Miyazaki, 
Okinawa and Kochi Prefectures, making, with 
Gunma, 14 in all. Kochi is the last prefecture to 
come into this group, having passed the Abolition 
Bill only on December 26th, 1935. The Bill passed 
by a vote of 13 vs. 7. During the same month 
Abolition Memorials were presented in Miyagi 
and Tokushima Prefectural Assemblies only to be 
defeated, in the first case by a vote of 17 vs. 14 



212 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

and in the second by the overwhelming majority 
of 23 vs. 4. 

Five prefectures are already without licensed 
quarters, viz. Gumma which abolished the quar 
ters as far back as 1893, Saitama 1930, Akita 

1933, Nagasaki July 1934 and Aomori December, 

1934. The system in other prefectures is begin 
ning to disintegrate as is clear from the following 
reports from 14 prefectures: 

Iwate prefecture The segregated quarters in 
Fukuoka and Iwayado changed into bars and res 
taurants on January 27th 1935. 

Fukushima Kitakata quarters abolished July 
1st, 1934. Wakamatsu quarters changed to res 
taurants January 28th, 1935. 

Yamagata The brothels in Tsuruoka were 
allowed to be restaurants for two years with tha 
girls serving as bar-maids. After two years the 
houses may become low grade hotels. 

Tochigi The quarters at Kizunegawa are 
abolished, the last two houses having closed out 
on February 1st, 1935. 

Nagano The brothel keepers of Ueda, Sakaki, 
Nanakubo, Kami Suwa, Shimo Suwa and Iwamu- 
rata asked in 1935 to be allowed to change their 
houses into restaurants. The prefectural author 
ities, however, wishing to clear out the whole 
business from Nagano Ken refused to grant the 
request of these six places. 

Tokyo city Suzaki, with over 300 houses is 
one of Tokyo s largest licensed quarters, and next 
to the Yoshiwara the most famous. About one 
half of the keepers of these houses last year ex 
pressed themselves as wishing to make a change. 
They are awaiting a reply from the authorities. 



THE ABOLITION MOVEMENT 213 

Kanagawa Yokosuka asked to be allowed to 
change both form of business and location as well. 
Tozuka quarters, four houses with 17 inmates 
asked permission to change the form of business. 

Toyama The houses in the Takeoka quarters 
became restaurants from September, 1934. 

Tottori Yonago quarters many inmates 

changed their status February, 1934. 

Aichi The keepers of the Nakamura quarters 
in Nagoya asked for a change in January. At 
last report they were waiting for a reply from the 
authorities. 

Nara In February, 1934, representatives of 
the brothel keepers at Kitsuri went to the Prefec- 
tural offices asking to be allowed to make a 
change. They are waiting for the authorities to 
decide upon a policy. 

Okayama The keepers in Okayama city de 
cided to cease business. 

Ehime Hokujo quarters reported as on the 
verge of giving up the business. 

Ibaraki has only four quarters with 16 houses 
whereas formerly the prefecture had 7 quarters 
with 70 houses. 

The change into restaurants, bars and low 
grade hotels is of course far below our ideals and 
hopes. However, it is a step on the way to a purer 
society. The inmates will be freer to cease their 
evil life than they were under the old system 
where they were practically slaves sold to tha 
keepers by their parents or guardians. The work 
ers for abolition are under no illusion, nor are they 
satisfied. But this 400 year old system is at long 
last pryed loose and is toppling and another 
strong push may well send it into the limbo of 



214 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

rejected systems. The reasons for the disintegra 
tion of the quarters are various. No doubt the 
rising tide of public opinion against the whole 
system must be counted as one reason. Probably 
economic reasons bear with still greater weight 
upon the keepers. They are feeling the competi 
tion of the all too numerous cafes which have 
sprung up in every city and town in the empire. 
The depression, too, has taken from the pockets 
of town and country dwellers the margin which 
was previously spent in the licensed quarters. In 
Tokyo, which is largely industrialized, the de 
pression has not been felt so keenly. This reflects 
itself in the fact that in the first half of 1935, 
according to a recent newspaper report, 2,903,346 
men visited the licensed quarters in Tokyo, an 
average of over 16,000 per night, spending on the 
average 2.30 each. This amounts to 6,698,728. 
Compared with the corresponding period of the 
preceding year, these figures show an increase of 
85,314 in the number of guests and an increase of 
170,721 in the spendings. Probably many of 
these added quests are lured by lower prices, for 
the brothel keepers, in order to compete with the 
ubiquitous cafe with its waitresses, have cut down 
on prices during the past year. 

The most recent figures to hand for the whole 
country, those of 1933, show 509 licensed segre 
gated quarters (decrease of 25 in two years), 
10,281 houses (decrease 518), 49,302 inmates 
(decrease 2,762), guests 24,922,604 (increase 2,- 
527,734). These very accurate statistics are kept 
by the authorities for taxation purposes. Every 
man who visits the quarters must register name, 
age, address and occupation, just as at a hotel. It 



THE ABOLITION MOVEMENT ?15 

must be further stated that the number of inmates 
has increased again, since 1933, on account of the 
very severe depression, especially in the northern 
parts of Japan, causing many parents to sell their 
daughters to this life of shame. 

Akita and Yamagata prefectures have had an 
especially unsavory reputation for supplying girls 
for these houses of vice. The country is cold, has 
much snow in winter, is poor and, what is more, 
the people have a very low ethical outlook. 
Officers of the Purity Society have visited the sec 
tion more than once ; to investigate conditions and 
to attempt to raise the moral standards of the 
villagers. The last three years crops have been 
consistently bad and as always happens in famine 
times the selling of girls had increased. The 
Asahi wrote up the conditions under the caption 
"Musume Jigoku," literally "The Daughter s 
Hell." It told of villages from which all daugh 
ters had been sold. Other papers and magazines 
took up the story deploring the fact that this 
feudal custom of selling daughters had projected 
itself even into this 20th century Japan. The 
Central government could overlook the matter no 
longer. The Home Department through the police 
sent orders that the traffic in girls must stop and 
gave 100,000 to be loaned to families which were 
in financial straits making it necessary to take 
this extreme step. 

The W.C.T.U., The Patriotic Women s So 
ciety, The Buddhist Women s Association with 
the help of the Asahi newspaper got together 
another very considerable sum of money. Mis 
sionaries, the church and Salvation Army work 
ers went among the people and saved many of 



216 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

these girls some 1340 so far as is definitely 
known. As a result of this work also, souteneurs 
have been driven from these two prefectures. The 
Yamagata police said "Our prefecture has a bad 
reputation for this traffic in girls. In 1933, 614 
girls were sold from Yamagata and in the first 
four months of 1934 the number had already 
reached 250, a large increase over the year be 
fore. There have been cases of very extreme 
poverty but also we regret to say the people of 
our prefecture have very low ideals. Bad souten 
eurs, as well, have tricked many people for thsir 
own profit." During December 1-10, 1935, the 
National Association of Brothel Keepers held its 
Convention in Y ? amagata. Representatives were 
sent from this Convention to wait on the governor 
asking him to stop entirely or at least to let up a 
bit on this movement to suppress the traffic in 
girls, saying that a continuance of the movement 
would ruin their business. The governor, it is re 
ported, replied that his aim was to raise the 
ethical ideas of virtue and that he could not let up 
one iota in his efforts. 

The last three prefectures to put abolition into 
effect were 

Nagasaki Aomori Akita 

Number of 
Licensed Quarters 24 13 10 

Number of 

Houses 174 119 38 

Number of 

Inmates 1,424 377 110 

Number of 
Guests per year 178,800 50,504 25,759 



THE ABOLITION MOVEMENT 217 

It is of interest to ask what happens after aboli 
tion. When the system was abolished in Akita 
prefecture the 110 girls were in debt to their 
keepers to the extent of 52,421. Through the 
efforts of the police this debt was reduced by 
3,676.00. Some girls had their debt reduced as 
much as 14%, not a few got a cut of 10%, others 
2% or 3%. Many were so unfortunate as to get no 
cut at all. The keepers got from the authorities 
the right to carry on as restauranteurs and to con 
tinue to employ these women, still in debt to them, 
as bar-maids (shakufu). 94 of the 110 women 
remained in this status, 7 found employment as 
servants and 9 returned to their homes. 

The chief of police in Akita says private prosti 
tutes have not increased since abolition. He points 
out the obvious fact, that even while the public 
licensed system was in existence there were pri 
vate prostitutes in abundance. "The problem is 
easier to handle now. We have no regrets at 
having accomplished abolition in our prefecture. 
The new system is much more humane," writes 
the chief. The officer in charge of hygiene says 
that the control of the social diseases is better 
since abolition. The prefecture has opened ten 
clinics for the treatment of venereal diseases. 
Another official declared that public morals had 
in no way suffered since the abolition of the segre 
gated quarters. He said "The cancer has been cut 
and we are on the way to health." There has been 
no such survey in Nagasaki or Aomori as yet, it 
being only a little more than a year since theso 
prefectures abolished the system. Conditions are 
said to be much the same as in Akita, not ideal, 
of course, but improving. 



218 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

In March, 1935, the Kokumin Junketsu Domei 
(National Purity League) was organized. The 
old Abolition League is a part of this new society. 
Its work has been widened and deepened. The 
new organization looks to the future, looks toward 
the more fundamental solution of the whole prob 
lem. It works for abolition, of course, but beyond 
that and after abolition has been accomplished 
there will still be much needed in the way of social 
education on all matters pertaining to sex, much 
in the way of hygiene education that will need the 
attention of such a, society as this. 

In April, 1934, there was formed another body 
which will have great influence in the solution of 
this question, The Society for the Prevention of the 
Traffic in Women ( Baisho Boshi Kyokai ) . The 
significance of this organization is that it is a co 
operative society between officials and citizens. 
Among its leading members were the then Vice- 
minister of the Home Department and seven other 
high, officials under the Cabinet. There were also 
several former Cabinet ministers or pr^fectural 
governors and a host of religious and social work 
ers. This body has been making a very sincere 
study of every question connected with the prob 
lem of ridding Japan of this traffic which has 
fastened itself upon Society, and which has been 
sapping much of the life of this nation through so 
many generations. 

So we bring this review to a close. Much has 
been written of the history of the traffic in Japan 
and other matters connected with it in recent 
issues of this Year Book, and to these the student 
is referred. While we are not able to report the 
accomplishment of the measure of abolition that 



THE ABOLITION MOVEMENT 219 

had been hoped for within 1935, yet when we con 
sider that as a political movement the work is 
only twelve years old, that already fourteen Pre- 
fectural Assemblies have passed abolition bills 
and that five have implemented them, certainly we 
have no reason to feel any discouragement. Pub 
lic opinion is being aroused and educated and 
mobilized, the reputable press is almost entirely 
with us, and that is what is needed to make any 
great moral movement a success. We may con 
fidently expect that when abolition does come it 
will be more far reaching and satisfactory than 
the measures proposed heretofore. 



Chapter XIV 

CHRISTIAN LITERATURE IN FORMOSA, 

(TAIWAN) 

Hugh MacMillan 

Is there any place in the Orient where the pro 
viding of Christian literature presents a greater 
problem than in Taiwan? To supply the! church- 
going population with Christian reading material 
is a big problem, but to consider using Christian 
literature as an evangelistic agency is to be con 
fronted by greater difficulties still. 

The Island of Taiwan has a population of over 
five millions, 5,194,980, to be exact, according 
to census figures available at this time of writing. 
To see the problem of supplying Christian litera 
ture in this island from one angle, let us think 
about the racial groups comprising this five mil 
lion, and the languages they speak. 

Call the population five hundred instead of five 
million and let us work out an approximate scale 
more easily grasped mentally. Of this five hun 
dred, about 388 are descendants of people from 
Fukien province who speak the Amoy dialect of 
Chinese. About sixty-seven are from Canton dis 
trict and speak a dialect of Cantonese. About 
twenty-five are from Japan proper. Twenty are 
aborigines of seven or eight distinct groups. 
Apportioning these latter according to the five 
hundred scale, about six would belong to the Ami 
group ; five to the Paiwan ; four, Taial ; three, Bun- 



222 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

nan; one, Saiset; one, Suo. Included in govern 
ment figures reporting the population of abori 
gines, i.e. (206, 029) is a group of Pepohoan. These 
number over fifty-seven thousand and among 
them are quite a number of Christians. Apart 
from this latter group, and a few Ami people 
among whom work is just beginning, the problem 
of giving Christian literature to the aborigines has 
not been touched. 

With the exception of these Christians among 
the Pepohoan, a group that have adopted Chinese 
customs, the Christian population of Taiwan is 
almost entirely, among the Amoy-speaking Fukie- 
nese and the Hakka-Cantonese. About one in a 
hundred of the population of the whole Island is 
a member orj adherent of the Christian church. 

Since, in Formosa, the appeal of Christianity 
has brought its greatest response from the unedu 
cated classes, a great many were unable to read 
or write when attracted to the gospel. Therefore 
the teaching of reading and writing has been of 
primary importance. To accomplish this, a Ro- 
maji system, used among Amoy-speaking people 
in Fukien, China, has been used widely in For 
mosa, to read and write the local Chinese dialects. 
New missionaries find it most helpful in learning 
the language. It provides a method for readily, 
and fairly accurately reproducing the difficult 
Chinese tones. It is also widely used am ong For- 
mosan Christians. Alert, young people, who have 
never had opportunities for education can, with 
this Romaji system, learn to read and write their 
mother tongue in two weeks or less. 

In this language some literature is produced. 
The Bible, in two translations of both the Old and 



CHRISTIAN LITERATURE IN FORMOSA 223 

New Testaments, stands first. The hymn-book 
used throughout the Formosan church is also in 
Romaji . 

In addition there are a few translations of Chris 
tian books from Europe and America. A Chris 
tian monthly magazine has been published in this 
Romaji for the past fifty years. Its first issue is 
dated 1885. Its present circulation is about two 
thousand. While the circulation is not large, this 
little magazine serves to keep groups of Chris 
tians in nearly two hundred cities, towns and vil 
lages throughout Formosa in touch with the 
church s activities. 

Many, particularly among the older Christians, 
read Chinese characters. But apart from the Bible 
and hymn-book little reading of Christian litera 
ture is done. A few translations of Occidental 
Christian books are ordered from Shanghai but 
these are few and reading is confined to ministers 
or active Christian workers who seek sermon 
material or biblical exposition. A few religious 
magazines in Chinese characters have been pop 
ular in the past among ministers, but subscrip 
tions for these have recently greatly fallen off. 

Two factors tend to lesson the inflow of Chris 
tian literature in Chinese. First, the preference 
of church leaders, chiefly the younger men, for 
literature in Japanese. These young men, edu 
cated in Japanese, many of them graduates of 
colleges in Japan proper, find themselves unable 
to read and understand the Chinese characters as 
freely as they do the Japanese. Secondly, the 
scrutiny exercised by government authorities over 
literature emanating from Chinese sources. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that Chris- 



224 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

tian literature in Taiwan at present is limited to 
translations of the Bible, hymn-books, local 
church news, and a few translations, chiefly of 
sermons by evangelical preachers in Europe or 
America. This literature is read almost exclusive 
ly by Christians, that is, at best by one in a 
hundred of the population. 

What is to be the future of Christian literature 
in Taiwan? Up to the present, Christian litera 
ture was thought of almost entirely in terms of the 
Chinese language. From now on, due to forty 
years of the Japanese educational system in the 
Island, it will be necessary to think more and more 
in terms of Japanese. This may mean a big step 
in the solution of the Christian literature problem. 
The number of Christians and others able to read 
Chinese is decreasing, while the number able to 
read Japanese is increasing rapidly. In addition 
to the regular school course, the government dur 
ing the past few years has added classes in Japa 
nese for young people unable to attend school. 
This will further increase the number able to 
read the national language. Young folks in Sun 
day schools and young people s societies who have 
been reading Japanese all week in school books, 
newspapers and magazines, come to church on 
Sunday and do their reading from Romanized 
Chinese. This tends to give the impression that 
religion is dissociated from every day life. It is 
true they feel they get something through their 
Sunday reading they do not get through the 
Japanese. This is true even when they read in 
church, in the Japanese language itself. Some are 
asking, "Why can t we get this through the 
Japanese?" And some are beginning to answer, 



CHRISTIAN LITERATURE IN FORMOSA 225 

"We can." Does this not then present a new op 
portunity for Christian literature through the 
medium of the language these young people read 
so freely? 

In spite of the increasing numbers of Japanese- 
reading Christians in Taiwan, the church has as 
yet, scarcely begun to recognize the need among 
youth of leadership in introducing them to the 
great Christian literature now available through 
Japanese. Christian literature as an evangelistic 
agency has not yet had much influence in Taiwan. 
In the past the number of people able to read 
Chinese characters was small, and thus this min 
istry has been handicapped. 

Increased numbers of Japanese readers how 
ever, make possible a whole new field of evan 
gelism through the means of Christian literature. 
Already there is evidence that the time is ripe for 
advance) in this direction. In Taiwan a few Chris 
tian magazines are beginning to appear here and 
there. For example, the "Kirisutokyo Shinri," 
"Shinko no Tomo," "Taiwan Seinen," "Taiwan 
Renmeiho," etc. Yamamuro Gumpei, well-known 
Salvation Army leader s "Heimin no Fukuin," and 
Kagawa Toyohiko s tracts are used more and 
more for distribution here and there, and are said 
to be read with eagerness. The newspapers also, 
particularly the "Taiwan Minpo" have articles on 
Christianity from time to time. These beginnings 
point to a new and hopeful field for Christian en 
deavour. Through the medium of Japanese a 
whole new outlook for Christian readers opens 
up. They are put in touch with some of the 
world s best Christian thought. And this, it may 
even be added, is available increasingly to the 



226 THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 

very Taiwan natives themselves, the so-called 
"ban-jin" of the mountains. Friends of Jesus to 
introduce this literature to all is the need. 



PART III 



PART III 

REPORTS 
No. 1 

THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 

William Axling 

A Summary of Activities 

Since its inception the National Christian 
Council s aim has been to serve the Kingdom enter 
prise in the Empire as a correlating unifying force. 
It has conscientiously avoided duplicating the 
work and overlapping the fields of its forty-four 
cooperating units and striven to furnish them a 
medium through which to act cooperatively and 
accomplish work beyond their reach as separate 
units. 

A review of the Council s work for 1935 shows 
that there exists such an arena and that here the 
Council is rendering a unique contribution to the 
advance of the Kingdom in Japan. 

Dr. John R. Mott s Visit 

The Council, in cooperation with National Com 
mittee of the Y.M.C.A., set up and financed Dr. 
Mott s nation-wide program during his month s 
visit to Japan in the Spring of 1935. That program 
mcluded two conferences for Christian leaders 
and a series of Regional Youth Conferences. The 
Kamakura and Otsu conferences for Christian 



230 REPORTS 

leaders majored on such subjects as Christian 
Education, cooperation between the Older 
Churches of the West and the fast emerging 
Younger Churches of the East, Evangelism, Chris 
tian Literature, International Relations and the 
holding of a World Christian Conference in Asia 
in 1938. 

The Regional Youth Conferences dealt with the 
whole range of problems which have captured the 
imagination and the interest of modern youth and 
the contribution which Christian youth can and 
should make toward the solution of these prob 
lems. 

In addition to these intensive efforts to further 
Kingdom interests Dr. Mott spoke to great audi 
ences in Tokyo, Sendai, Hakodate, Kyoto, Osaka, 
Kobe, Yamaguchi and Seoul. 

Dr. Mott was again granted the honor of an 
audience with His Majesty the Emperor. He and 
Mrs. Mott also met in an informal intimate way 
Prince and Princess Chichibu. He had special in 
terviews with the Premier and the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs. 

In the midst of his crowded program Dr. Mott 
took time to meet personally and intimately a 
whole host of others of Japan s outstanding lead 
ers in affairs of state, in the educational world and 
in business 1 life and left the impress of his mighty 
personality upon their thinking and their lives. 

Other Guests from Afar 

When Dr. Ivan Lee Holt, president of tho 
Federal Council of Churches of Christ in the 
United States, came in April as a fraternal mes 
senger from that body to the Christians of Japan, 



THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 231 

the Council acted as his host and arranged his 
program. He was given an opportunity to meet 
many Christian leaders and strengthen the senso 
of solidarity which exists between the Christians 
of the United States and of Japan. Arrangements 
were also made for him to meet national leaders. 
This enabled him to contribute much toward creat 
ing a better understanding and finer relations 
between these two nations which face each across 
the wide Pacific. 

Rev. William Paton, Executive Secretary of the 
London office of the International Missionary 
Council, visited Japan in October in the interests 
of the work of that world-wide organization. He 
too was helped to make contacts with a large 
number of front-line Christian pastors and lay 
men and to confer with national leaders in official 
and private life. 

Japan is increasingly becoming the Mecca for 
Christian leaders of other nations who think in 
world terms and it falls to the lot of the Council 
to welcome them, plan their itineraries and pro 
grams and make their visits meaningful. 

The Movement for Church Union 

For many years the question of Church Union 
has commanded the interest of a small group of 
Christian pastors and lay leaders. It has failed, 
however, to challenge in any wide sense the 
Christian community as such. The All-Japan 
Christian Conference, held in November under the 
auspices of the Christian Council, however, push 
ed this question out into the open and made it the 
concern of many thoughtful Christians in all the 
different communions. 



232 REPORTS 

To this conference was presented a "Basis of 
Union" which had been drawn up by a Committee 
for the Study of the Question of Church Union. 
This was an interdenominational committee which 
had studied this problem from every angle for 
seven years. After many sessions and repeated 
revisions it had agreed on the following as an 
irreducible minimum "Basis of Union": 

1. Name: The Japan Catholic Christian 
Church. 

2. Creed: We believe in God the almighty 
Father, Creator of heaven and earth. 

We believe in the only begotton Son of God, 

our Lord Jesus Christ. 
We believe in the Holy Spirit. 
We believe in the Holy Catholic Church, 

the forgiveness of sin, and in life eternal. 

3. The Holy Scriptures: We accept the Holy 
Scriptures as the essential way of salvation 
and as the standard for the life of faith. 

4. Ordinances: We observe the two rituals 
of Baptism, and the Holy Communion of 
our Lord. 

5. Polity: Based on a constitutional system 
of government, we would take measures for 
the autonomous growth of the individual 
churches, and thus look forward to the 
fulfilment of the purpose of the existence 
of the Catholic Church. (N.B. Catholic is 
here used in the sense of all inclusive 
union.) 

The conference spent a whole day studying and 
discussing this question of union and the next 
move to be made in going forward toward its real 
ization. 



THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 

This study and discussion resulted in the fol 
lowing actions: It was unanimously voted; 

1. To make the tentative "Basis of Union" 
and the suggestions made on the floor of the Con 
ference and in the four sectional meetings mate 
rials for reference in the work of evolving a more 
satisfactory basis for union. 

3. To appoint a Commission on Church Union. 
It being understood that this commission should 
undertake immediately a restudy of the "Basis of 
Union" and inaugurate such activities as it may 
deem necessary to prepare the way for union. 

4. That this commission shall consist of 
twenty-five members, twenty-one of whom shall 
be appointed by this Conference and four co-opted 
by the commission itself. 

5. That the various communions shall be free 
at any time to make such changes in their repre 
sentation on this commission as they may deem 
wise. 

This Commission on Church Union was later 
appointed and has divided its work into four divi 
sions. One division will explore the possibilities 
of union through consultations with the various 
communions, another will study the matter of 
formulating a suitable creed, the third section 
will make a special study of church polity and 
organization and the fourth will be responsible 
for finding the finances necessary for the work of 
the Commission. A budget of 1,500.00 has been 
adopted. 

The Commission in addition to its work of study 
and investigation also plans to carry on a cam 
paign of education and agitation among the 
churches in the interests of Church Union. 



234 REPORTS 

A Nation-wide Evangelistic Campaign 

The second outstanding action of the All-Japan 
Christian Conference was the decision to launch 
a Nation-Wide United Campaign of Evangelism. 
The high tides of materialism and ultra-national 
ism which have swept across Japan in recent years 
and the tension under which the people have 
lived have made Christian work exceedingly dif 
ficult. This has caused an ebb in the aggressive 
evangelism which characterized the years of the 
Kingdom of God Movement. 

The new awakening on the part of officials of 
the Department of Education, of educators in 
general and of national leaders to the need of 
religious education in the training of youth has 
seemingly inaugurated a new era in Japan s 
thought and heart life. With this awakening has 
also come a new openness to religion on the part 
of the people at large. 

In order to take advantage of this turn in the 
tide the All-Japan Christian Conference appoint 
ed a Commission on Nation-Wide Evangelism to 
rally and unite the Christian forces in a forward 
evangelistic movement. This commission was in 
structed to push evangelism in areas not reached 
by the individual communions and on a scale 
impossible for them as separate units. 

Seishin Sakko Undo 

The Special Campaign for students sponsored 
by the Christian Council is a holdover from the 
Kingdom of God Movement. One of the signifi 
cant features of this Spiritual Awakening Move 
ment for students is the fact that the Department 



THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 235 

of Education of the Imperial Government not only 
endorses it but cooperates in it. Whenever a cam 
paign is planned for a student center, the Depart 
ment of Education in the name of the Minister of 
Education communicates with the principals of all 
the schools of higher grade in that city or area, 
and urges them to give our speakers an oppor 
tunity to speak inj their schools and to encourage 
their students to attend the other meetings ad 
dressed by these speakers in their city. 

During 1935 meetings were held in 55 schools 
and churches of 12 student centers. 25,885 people 
mostly students attended these meetings. In 
addition to sending speakers to address schools 
and student audiences the Christian monthly "Re 
ligious Education" has been sent to the faculty- 
room of some 300 Normal and Middle Schools. A 
pamphlet entitled "The Meaning of Religious 
Education" has also been widely distributed 
among teachers of Primary Schools, 

The Christian Rural Life Institute 

Recent years have witnessed an ever-increasing 
interest on the part of the Christian forces in the 
nation s unevangelized rural life. The present 
effort to push the Christian frontiers out into this 
virgin territory has brought out the fact that spe 
cially trained Christiana! are needed for this field. 
The training in existing theological seminaries has 
the city and town in view and unfits rather than 
fits meri for pioneer rural evangelism. 

In order to train men and women for Christian 
leadership in the rural field the Council s Commis 
sion on Rural] Evangelism is promoting the estab 
lishment of a Christian Rural Life Institute. This 



236 REPORTS 

institute will have a four-fold program : 

1. To provide training for Christian rural 

leadership, both lay and ministerial; 

2. To be a demonstrational centre of a rural 

Christian service program ; 

3. To do research and experimental work; 

4. To do extension and correlation work. 

I. Demonstrational Service: 

1. To provide experimentation and demonst 
ration in rural methods, subject matter, and pro 
grams providing three different approaches to 
rural evangelism on a self-supporting basis; and 
to achieve sufficient experience and discover 
materials for their wider application and use. 

2. For carrying out experimentation and de 
monstration in community welfare work. It should 
have a personnel with special training and per 
sonal adaptability along the lines of rural life, 
social planning, rural evangelism, religious edu 
cation of youth and children, adult education, 
work for women, and the home. 

II. Leadership Training: 

1. To give additional or post-graduate train 
ing to pastors, evangelists, and theological stu 
dents, along rural lines, through the holding of 
short-term training institutes and special lecture 
courses. 

2. To provide permanent equipment for a 
Central Training School for Rural Evangelists. Its 
work should be the training of rural young people 
as lay-workers, and also to train special Christian 
workers for the rural field. 

III. Research Work. 

As conditions permit to build up a comprehen 
sive library of rural literature. 



THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 237 

IV. Extension Work. 

To establish a close relationship with the va 
rious local rural church community parish experi 
ments now under way and being planned by 
several denominational groups in different pre 
fectures of the Empire. 

World Contacts 

In order to do its share in developing a keen 
realization of spiritual solidarity among the 
Christians of the world and do its bit in the build 
ing of a Christian world brotherhood the Council 
maintains vital relations with similar Councils in 
neighboring nations and with the parent body, 
the International Missionary Council. 

With a view to strengthening the tie between 
the Christians of Japan and China, the Council 
sent Hon. D. Tagawa, M.P., and Honorary Secre 
tary William Axling as its fraternal delegates to 
the Biennial Meeting of the China Council held at 
Shanghai April 25th May 2nd. The welcome 
which these delegates received demonstrated in a 
marvelous manner that Christ does break down 
barriers and enables those who follow Him to 
transcend national difficulties and racial differ 
ences. 

General Secretary A. Ebisawa, Treasurer E. 
Yoshida and Mr. G. S. Phelps were sent as the 
Council s delegates to the Tri-Annual Meeting of 
International Missionary Council, held at North- 
field, Massachusetts, in October. Reports from 
that gathering indicate that these representatives 
made a signal contribution to the study, discus 
sion and results of that meeting. 



238 REPORTS 

They were not able to bring the proposed 1938 
World Christian Conference to Japan but they 
helped to crystalize the sentiment that that Chris 
tian conclave should be held in Asia. They also 
helped to define the main issues with which that 
conference should come to grips. 

The Religions Bill 

A succession of Ministers of Education have 
endeavored to get Parliament to enact legislation 
which will bring religious organizations under 
closer supervision of the Department of Educa 
tion. Such a bill will be introduced into the next 
session of Parliament. 

Before putting the bill before the legislative 
body, however, the Department of Education has 
taken the precaution of appointing an Imperial 
Commission to study the draft of the proposed bill 
and suggest necessary changes and amendments. 
The Christian Council was given an opportunity 
to suggest the name of a representative Christian 
to be appointed by the government to serve on its 
commission. Rev. M. Tomita, the Chairman of the 
Council, was recommended and duly appointed. 
Hon. T. Matsuyama, M.P., a prominent Christian 
layman was nominated by the Seiyu Kai as one of 
its representatives and also received appoint 
ment. In addition there is a Roman Catholic re 
presentative on the commission. Thus three 
Christians are serving on the government s com 
mission and looking after Christian interests. 

The Council also appointed its own Special 
Committee to make an intensive study of the bill 
and call the attention of the government s com- 



THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 239 

mission to objectionable features as well as to 
submit necessary amendments. In this way the 
Council is taking every possible measure to safe 
guard the rights, prerogatives and freedom of the 
Christian church. 

Far Flung Relief 

Famine (Conditions in Northern Japan, the Ty 
phoon Disaster in the Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe area 
and the Formosan Earthquake compelled the 
Council to make emergency calls for relief funds. 
Over 20,000 yen was raised for relief work in 
these ( three areas. 

In one famine area a temporary Children s 
Home was established and in another Day Nur 
series were organized. In the Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe 
devastated sections Medical Units and Day Nur 
series were established. In Formosa the funds 
were used to help rebuild wrecked chapels. 

The above record indicates that through the 
Council the Japanese Christian movement is in 
creasingly becoming a creative factor in the na 
tion s fast unfolding life and is gearing into the 
world s interrelated Christian life and activity. 



No. 2 

MINUTES OF THE THIRTY-FOURTH ANNUAL 

MEETING OF THE FEDERATION OF 

CHRISTIAN MISSIONS IN JAPAN 

1935 

A. R. Stone, Secretary 

The thirty-fourth annual meeting of the Fede 
ration of Christian Missions in Japan convened at 
the Karuizawa auditorium on Friday morning, 
August 2nd, 1935, and adjourned at the close of 
the Sunday morning service on August 4th. Sixty- 
four delegates representing twenty-eight mission 
bodies responded to the roll call, sixty-six dele 
gates fees having been paid. The central theme 
of the Conference was "The Ministry of Healing." 

Friday, August Second 

The Chairman, Mr. G. S. Phelps, called the 
meeting to order at 9.00 a.m., and conducted a 
brief devotional service. He read from Matthew 
4:23-5:12, and then led in prayer. The roll was 
now called and the names of alternate delegates 
were noted. 

Welcome to Fraternal Delegates and Guests 

The Secretary announced that the Federation 
was to be honored with the presence of the fol 
lowing fraternal delegates: Rev. Akira Ebisawa, 
and Rev. William Axling, D.D. of the National 
Christian Council of Japan; Rev. J. F. Preston, 
D.D., of the Federal Council of Protestant Evan- 



242 REPORTS 

gelical Missions in Korea ; and Rev. Earl H. Cressy, 
of the National Christian Council of China. The 
Secretary also announced that the following 
guests of the Conference were to be present dur 
ing part or all of the sessions of the annual meet 
ing: Hon. Hampei Nagao and Mr. Fumio Uekuri, 
of the, Christian Literature Society in Japan ; Dr. 
J. P. Hubbard, M.D., Dr. Herbert E. Bowles, M.D., 
Miss Christine Nuno, and Miss Helen M. Shipps of 
St. Luke s International Medical Center, Tokyo; 
Rev. W. J. M. Cragg, D.D., of Kwansei Gakuin, 
Nishinomiya; Dr. Yuzuru Nozu, M.D., of the 
Tokyo City Health Centre; and Dr. R. K, Start, 
M.D., of the New Life Sanitarium, Obuse, Shinshu. 
The chairman introduced the above fraternal 
delegates and guests, and they were accorded the 
privileges of the floor. 

Business 

Report of the Executive Committee. 

The Secretary, Mr. T. T. Brumbaugh, reported 
on the actions taken by the Executive Committee 
during the interim since the previous annual 
meeting. Other than carrying on the routine 
business of filling vacancies, of preparing a bud 
get, and of planning the 1935 Conference, two 
main actions had been taken, viz: (1) With 
regard to the study (committed to the Executive 
Committee by the 1934 Annual Meeting) of the 
future status of the Federation with special re 
ference to the transfer of its remaining ad 
ministrative functions to the National Council, 
the executive committee feeling the importance 
of a very careful consideration of all interests in- 



MINUTES OF THE THIRTY-FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING 243 

volved appointed a sub-committee for surveying 
the situation. The following were appointed: C. 
W. Iglehart (Chairman), T. A. Young, L. C. M. 
Smythe, J. C. Mann, Miss Harriet Jost, Miss Char 
lotte DeForest, J. F. Ray, Paul Oltman, and the 
Chairman and Vice-Chairman of the Federation. 
This committee s report was completed in time to 
send a copy to delegates and mission secretaries a 
month in advance of the 1935 annual meeting, 
(2) The Executive Committee cooperated with 
the National Christian Council in appealing for 
relief funds to help alleviate the suffering caused 
by three major catastrophies in the Empire during 
the year, viz : the Tohoku famine, the Kwansai 
typhoon, and the( Formosan earthquake. A total 
of 1,572.65 was collected and forwarded through 
National Christian Council channels by the Treas 
urer of the Federation. The; secretary also made 
reference to the pre-Federation Conference on 
Social and Economic Problems, which had been 
held in Tokyo on June 29th, 1935, with Dr. 
Jerome Davis as speaker and leader. 

Appointment of Sessional Committees. 

The following committees, recommended by 
the Executive Committee to serve during the 1935 
annual meeting, were approved by the Federation 
as follows: 

Business Committee: S. J. Moran, P. F. Warner, and Miss 

Kate Hansen. 
Music Committee: W. M. Vories, Mrs. L. G. S. Miller, Mrs. 

H. W. Outerbridge. 
Committee on Nominations: B. F. Shively (Convenor), 

E. T. Horn, Harvey Thede, S. F. Moran, Miss A. M. 



244 REPORTS 

Monk, E. O. Mills, Miss Barbara Bailey, A. C. Hut- 

chinson, Mrs. H. W. Outerbridge. 
Reception Committee: F. W. Heckclman, Miss H. M. 

Howey, Harvey Thede, Mrs. A. Jorgensen, B. M. 

Luben. 

Auditor: Paul Oltman. 
Communion Service: W. J. M. Cragg. 
Committee on Resolutions: C. M. Warren, Miss Alice 

Strothard. 

Publicity Committee: Arthur Jorgensen. 
Recording Secretaries: Miss Florence Walvoord, A. R. 

Stone. 

Reports. 

The report of the 1 treasurer of the Federation, 
Mr. R. H. Fisher, was received and approved. 
(This report appears at the end of these minutes.) 
Following the report of the treasurer, the reports 
from the organizations on which the Federation 
is represented v/ere heard and accepted as fol 
lows: The Japan Christian Quarterly (the report 
of the editor, Mr. Willis Lamott, being read by the 
secretary of the Federation) ; The Japan Chris 
tian Year Book (the editor, Dr. F. D. Gealy) ; the 
Board of Directors of the School of Japanese 
Language and Culture (Dr. William Axling) ; the 
Board of Directors of the Christian Literature 
Society (Hon. Hampei Nagao) ; Board of Trus 
tees of the American School in Japan (the prin 
cipal, Mr. Harold Amos, reporting in place of Dr. 
H. M. Gary) ; the Advisory Committee of the 
Canadian Academy (Mrs. Roy Smith, reporting in 
place of Mrs. S. D. Thorlaksson) ; and the Board 
of the National Sunday School Association (the re 
port of Mr. J. H. Covell being read by the secre 
tary.) The report of the fraternal delegate to 



MINUTES OF THE THIRTY-FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING 245 

the Federal Council of Protestant Evangelical Mis 
sions in Korea, Dr. C. B. Olds, was read by the 
secretary; and Mr. G. S. Phelps, the fraternal del 
egate to the National Christian Council of Japan 
gave a brief report. The following committees 
of the Federation also reported: the committee 
on Work for Koreans in Japan (the report of Rev. 
J. B. Cobb being read by the secretary) ; the spe 
cial committee for the Study of Christian Work 
with Youth (the report of Mr. R,. L. Durgin being 
read by the secretary) ; and the committee on 
Social and Economic Problems (the report of Mr. 
J. H. Covell being read by the secretary.) The 
Federation accepted the reports of the above fra 
ternal delegates and committees. 

"The Healing Touch" 

At the devotional hour on Friday morning, Dr. 
W. J. M. Gragg, professor of Old Testament in 
Kwansei Gakuin, Nishinomiya, Japan, in harmony 
with the general theme of the Conference, spoke 
on "The Healing Touch of Jesus Christ," empha 
sizing the healing ministry of Jesus, and our need 
to know that healing touch in our own disordered 
lives. He presented to Christian missionaries 
the challenge of passing on this healing touch to 
others round about them. 

"The Need of the Ministry of Healing" 

The chairman, Mr. Phelps, opened the Friday 
afternoon session with brief devotions, after 
which he introduced Rev. H. M. Gary D. D., who 
presided over the papers and ensuing discussion 
on "The Need of the Ministry of Healing", this be- 



246 REPORTS 

ing the first part of the main theme of the Confer 
ence, "The Ministry of Healing." 

The first paper was by Dr. John P. Hubbard 
M.D., of St. Luke s International Medical Center, 
Tokyo, whose topic was "The Need of the Spiri 
tual in Healing." Dr. Hubbard interpreted this 
subject as meaning "The Need of the Christian 
Approach to the Art of Healing." He stated that 
Christianity makes the same difference in medicine 
as in the other fields of life, i. e. it places a new 
emphasis on the value of human life and person 
ality. He said that a doctor must care for his 
patients in such a way that they will know that 
they have come in contact with Christian service, 
and that a Christian hospital should be an ex 
ample of the teachings of Christ at work in the 
world. 

The next paper, on "The Need of General 
Health Education," was given by Dr. Yuzuru 
Nozu, M.D., Director of Social Hygiene in the City 
Health Centre, Tokyo. The health centre in 
which Dr. Nozu serves was established in Feb 
ruary 1935 with the aid of the Rockfeller Foun 
dation. He pointed out the very urgent need of 
health education in Japan, stating that although 
scientific medicine had made great strides in 
Japan, its application was still very primitive. 
The lack of public health work makes for high 
infant mortality. He then explained how they 
were aiming at getting at the basis of public 
health through health education for school chil 
dren; and he described the classes held for both 
teachers and children, telling of the methods used. 
Health education for children should be positive, 
viz: "Do" rather than "Don t." 



MINUTES OF THE THIRTY-FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING 247 

Following a solo by Mrs. L. G. S. Miller, Miss 
Helen K. Shipps of St. Luke s International Med 
ical Centre was introduced. Miss Ship s topic 
was "The Field of Social Service," and in speak 
ing of medical social service she said that medical 
social case work should be considered as an in 
trinsic part of clinical medicine. The medical 
social worker learns the social situation contribu- 
tary to the specific illness, and is able to help 
greatly with friendly interest. Hope and courage 
are brought to the sick and dependents, and! they 
are told what is needed for convalescent care 
after the patient s discharge from the hospital. 

The last paper of the afternoon was by Dr. C. J. 
McLaren, M.D., of Severance Hospital, Keijo, on 
the subject The Spiritual Healing of Disease." 
Dr. McLaren was unable to be present in person, 
and his paper was read by Dr. Gary. Dr. McLaren 
introduced his subject by dealing with the nature 
and cause of disease ; and he divided disease into 
two parts: diseases of the body, and diseases of 
the mind, both of these again being divisible into 
diseases of physical causation and diseases of 
psychical causation. Mental diseases of physical 
as well as psychical causation need psychic treat 
ment, for the emotions greatly affect bodily func 
tions. With regard to mental diseases of psychic 
causation, the prime necessity for the healer is to 
know how he may instil and inspire that sort of 
faith which is matched with reality and which 
overcomes. Dr. McLaren described the "spiritual" 
as being the loyalties and revolts of the human 
spirit to truth: the suspicions of and confidence 
toward God. 

Dr. Gary now read a brief paper constituting 



248 REPORTS 

his own comments on Dr. McLaren s paper. Dr. 
Gary stressed that belief in spiritual healing does 
not mean disbelief in science. He reminded us of 
our own wonderful powers of recuperation of 
s~elf healing and also of the fact that on the three 
planes of body, mind, and spirit, we have reserves 
of energy which few of us have learned to use. A 
mind at peace with itself and quickened by hope 
is a\ great asset in the healing of disease. Tower 
is available." 

A discussion nnsued, centering on the questions 
of health education and hospital visitation. With 
regard to health conditions in schools in Japan, 
the lack of health instruction, especially in sex 
hygiene, in schools was regretted, and it was 
stated that the urge to too heavy study and work 
constitutes the cause of the comparatively poor 
health conditions among the students of Japan. 
Regarding spiritual healing, the opinion was 
urged that in spite of man s own reserve powers, 
there is also God s act from outside on man s body 
or mind as an answer to man s prayer. 

The Annual Reception 

The annual reception to delegates, fraternal 
delegates, and guests was held on Friday evening 
at 7.45 in the Karuizawa auditorium. Dr. F. W. 
Heckelman presided over the evening s program. 

Significant messages were given by Rev. Akira 
Ebisawa of the National Christian Council of 
Japan, Rev. E. H. Cressy of the National Christian 
Council of China, and Rev. J. F. Preston, D.D., of 
the Federal Council of Protestant Evangelical 
Missions in Korea. Mrs. Cressy and Mrs. Preston 
were also introduced to the Federation. Delect- 



MINUTES OF THE THIRTY-FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING 249 

able refreshments were served by the Reception 
Committee and the pleasant and profitable 
evening was brought to a happy close. 

Saturday, August Third 

The Saturday sessions began at 9.00 a. m. with 
brief devotional exercises conducted by the chair 
man. After announcements had been, made and 
the roll completed, the morning was given over to 
papers and discussion on the second part of the 
conference s main theme. 

"Methods of Healing" 

The. chairman introduced Miss Christine M. 
Nuno of St. Luke s International Medical Centre, 
Tokyo, who led the morning s program of papers 
and discussion on the "Methods of Healing." 

The first paper was by Rev. R. D. McCoy, on 
"The Work of Medical Cooperatives." Mr. McCoy 
quoted freely from Dr. Kagawa s booklet, "The 
Case for Medical Cooperatives," outlining the 
origin of medical cooperative associations, and 
emphasising the spirit of those who started the 
movement. He pointed out the difficulties of ad 
justment with the existing medical organizations. 
"Medical Cooperative Hospitals provide a new 
economic organization in thn original spirit of 
medicine as a benevolent art." 

Dr. Herbert M. Bowles, M.D., of St. Luke s In 
ternational Medical Centre, followed with a paper 
on "The Place of the Christian Hospital." Dr. 
Bowles declared that there was still much which 
the Christian movement could do for so-called 
"Medical Missions" in Japan. He advised using 



250 REPORTS 

foreign-born Japanese doctors; and pointed out 
the fact that it isn t necessary for a Mission to 
establish a hospital in order to engage in Medical 
Work. 

After a solo by Mrs. H. W. Outerbridge, Dr. R. 
K. Start, M.D., of the New Life Sanitarium, Obuse, 
Shinshu, read a very instruuctive paper on "The 
Treatment of Tuberculosis." Dr. Start pointed 
out the need of watchfulness so that this insidious 
disease may be detected and checked in its early 
stages. He described the modern pneumothorax 
treatment ; and then gave some very practical sug 
gestions regarding the segregation and care of 
the sick and concerning prevention. 

In leading the discussion period, Miss Nuno cal 
led on, several members of the Federation to des 
cribe what work they were doing along medical 
lines. Dr. W. M. Vories told of the Omi Brother 
hood Sanitarium, recently enlarged to hold 70 
beds. Miss A. Roberts of the Church Missionary 
Society told of their centre in Ikebukuro, Tokyo, 
which includes a day-dispensary, a maternity 
ward, a mothercraft branch, and a well-baby 
clinic. Miss Nuno told of the work of Mr. W. 
Huckabee in Hiroshima, who has a centre cooper 
ating with the other medical agencies of the city. 

In closing, Miss Nuno stressed the desirability 
of presenting to girls in mission schools the chal 
lenges of the wonderful field of service in the 
nursing profession. She also pointed out that 
anyone with a practical knowledge ofi the care of 
children can conduct a well-baby clinic, without 
having either a nurse or doctor in her employ 
ment. The discussion closed at 11.15 a. m. 



MINUTES OP THE THIRTY-FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING 251 

"Worship and Fellowship" 

At 11.20 a.m. Dr. W. J. M. Cragg led the Fed 
eration in its second devotional service. Directing 
the attention of his audience to Acts 2:42, "and 
they continued steadfastly in the apostles doc 
trine and fellowship, in the breaking of bread and 
in prayers," Dr. Cragg reminded us that here in 
1935 for us, as well as for the first apostles, was 
the basis for a rich and fruitful Christian service. 

The Future Status of the Federation 

The Saturday afternoon session, which was de 
voted to business, opened at 2.00 p.m. with brief 
devotions conducted by the chairman. The first 
and most important item of business was the con 
sideration of the report of the Committee on "The 
Future of the Federation of Christian Missions in 
Japan." R.ev. C. W. Iglehart, D.D., chairman of 
the committee, read the report in full, making 
necessary elucidations. The report appears here 
with in full. (But note that the proposed constitu 
tion at the end of tha report appears as amended 
by action of the Federation later on in the after 
noon.) 

Report of the Committee on 

The Future of the Federation of Christian 

Missions in Japan 

HISTORICAL SKETCH 

The cooperative organizations of missions and of 
churches in Japan had completely separate histories until 
1913. Since that time they have been interwoven. 

Church comity movements began in 1878 with the 
Kirisuto Shinto Shimboku-Kioai. In 1883 the Shinto Dai 
Shimboku-Kwai, a five day conference was held. This 



252 REPORTS 

resulted in the organization in 1884 of the Fukuin Domei 
Kwai, which carried on until 1906, after which there was 
a break for five years. In 1911 the Nihon Kirisuto Kyo- 
kwai Domei or Federation of Churches was formed, and 
this functioned until 1923 when it gave place to the 
Nihon Kirisuto Kyo Remmei, the National Christian 
Council of the present. 

On the missions side a permanent organization began 
in 1902 when the promoting committee of the Third 
General Conference of Missionaries held in 1900 set up 
the Standing Committee on Cooperating Missions. Since 
that year until the present there have been changes in 
name and structure, but there has been a continuous 
series of annual meetings. In the first meeting there 
were twenty delegates and five standing committees. By 
1911 the number of delegates and of committees had 
doubled, and the Standing Committee had become the 
Conference of Federated Missions. The peak of activity 
was reached about the year 1918 when 80 regular dele 
gates were in attendance, working through some seven 
teen standing committees and eight special ones, and 
covering in their view the entire range of Christian work 
in Japan. i 

Following the special conferences of 1913 there began 
the movement to unify the cooperative activities of mis 
sions and of churches, and in the same year the Japan 
Continuation Committee was organized. This was com 
posed of equal numbers delegated from the Japanese 
Federation of Churches and the Conference of Federated 
Missions respectively, and of others coopted by them, and 
it was the hope that through this new organ would 
channel all the cooperative activities of the Christian 
movement. But the Federation of Missions was then 
going from strength to strength, and the only change in 
its functions that can be seen in the record is the addi 
tion of one more standing committee, the fifteen mem 
bers of the Continuation Committee. There was, there- 



MINUTES OF THE THIRTY-FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING 253 

fore, more duplication instead of less, and although some 
of the objectives of the new joint organ were realized, on 
the whole it was not found effective. 

In 1923 an entire overhauling of the machinery of co 
operation in the Christian movement was attempted. On 
the church side not only was the Japan Continuation 
Committee abandoned, but the Japanese Federation of 
Churches itself went out of existence in favor of the new 
National Christian Council, in which there was to be re 
presentation of churches and missions alike in one inte 
grated body. The wisdom of this self-denying act is 
amply justified in the subsequent record of achievements 
of the Council as the one organ of cooperation for almost 
all the Protestant churches in Japan. 

If the church leaders took it for granted that the Con 
ference of Federated Missions would follow their example 
in the dissolution of their organization they were to be 
disappointed, for in the 1925 annual meeting the vote 
was taken, and registered in favor of "the continuance of 
the Federation of Christian Missions." Drastic changes, 
however, were made in the scope and functions of the 
body. The seven large committees on work were all dis 
continued, and the future purpose of the Federation was 
defined as being "for fellowship, education, and inspira 
tion." 

But though this limitation of scope of the Federation 
was the clear intention of the 1925 meeting, and has been 
the judgment of the majority of the members every time 
the matter has come up during the ten years succeeding, 
no radical change to correspond with it was made in the 
constitution. The sections on the purpose and the pow 
ers of the Federation were left much as before, with the 
addition of the word, "with due regard to the powers of 
the National Christian Council." This failure to carry 
through the organic structure of the Federation the 
changes implicit in the new situation which it accepted 
so heartily has resulted in many anomalies. 



254 REPORTS 

The Federation is still a delegated body, its members 
being not individuals, but representatives of missions. 
Yet all of these missions would be welcomed in the Na 
tional Christian Council, and the great majority of them 
are already represented in it. There is thus a curious 
interlocking of functions on the mission side which has 
no counterpart in the church representation, and which 
leads to constant confusion. 

The purpose of the Federation would seem to be to re 
main an informal organ of discussion and inspiration. 
By the action of the 1933 annual meeting even the 
drawing-up of findings was ordered to be discontinued. 
And yet the Federation retains most of the old heavy 
machinery and requires about the same expenses as be 
fore. Furthermore, almost without realizing it inter- 
committes are again beginning to sprout, as for in 
stance, the committee on the study of Work for Young 
People. 

With this background, then, the 1934 annual meeting 
instructed the Executive Committee to have made "a 
study of the future of the Federation, with especial re 
ference to the transfer of its remaining activities to the 
National Christian Council." The Executive Committee 
appointed a special committee, as follows: C. W. Igle- 
hart, T. A. Young, L. C. M. Smythe, Harriet J. Jost, J. C. 
Mann, Charlotte DeForest, J. F. Ray, P. V. Oltman, and 
the Chairman and Vice-chairman of the Federation. 
The committee held sectional meetings in the Kwanto 
and Kwansai regions, and met with the Executive Com 
mittee in the final preparation of the report. The re 
commendations follows: 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

I. Regarding the Future of the Federation of 

Christian Missions. 

1. The committee recommends that this Federation 
be changed to a Fellowship of Christian Missionaries, the 



MINUTES OF THE THIRTY-FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING 255 

chief purpose of which shall be the holding of an annual 
meeting for fellowship, education and inspiration. 

2. It furthermore recommends that in accordance 
with Article X the present Constitution be amended by 
putting before this annual meeting the amendments em 
bodied in the appended Proposed Constitution, and by 
taking final action at the annual meeting in 1936. 
//. Regarding the Transfer of the Remaining Activities 

of the Federation to the National Christian Council. 

1. The committee being unauthorized to enter into 
official negotiations with the National Christian Council 
or other bodies is unprepared to offer a definite plan of 
action. It has, however, arrived at judgments as to> the 
desirable and feasible course to be pursued in the dis 
position of each of the respective activities of the Fed 
eration, and it presents these, as follows: 

(a) The Executive Committee of nine will no longer 
be necessary, the four officers of the Fellowship being 
adequate for the work of setting up the annual meeting. 

(b) Publications Committee. [Since the Christian 
Literature Society is already the publisher of the Japan 
Christian Quarterly and the Year Book, the next natural 
step would seem to be to ask the Society to make the 
selection of missionary members on the editorial boards 
(the board to choose the missionary editors-in-chief, as 
at present) and in addition to its present responsibility 
for publishing and marketing the publications, to under 
take the cost of editing as well. In case, the Society were 
unable to meet this financial charge some plan would 
have to be made either for a reduction of costs, or for the 
raising of a maintenance fund for carrying on the work 
of English publications. 

(c) Committee on Work for Koreans. Inasmuch as 
this is a joint undertaking in which the other partner" is 
the National Christian Council of Korea, the share now 
being carried by the Federation might well be transferred 



256 REPORTS 

to the Japan National Christian Council. In case mis 
sionaries may be needed for purposes of promotion and 
money-raising, that may be arranged for in the make-up 
of the committee. 

(d) Committee on Social and Economic Problems. 
This should be discontinued or subsumed within the So 
cial Department of the National Christian Council. The 
gathering of missionaries in the Kwanto and Kwansai 
regions for informal study of social problems should and 
can continue, but without being under the auspices of 
the Federation of Missions. 

(e) Representatives on Christian Literature Society 
Board. The selection of missionary members for the 
Board of Directors of the Christian Literature Society 
can readily be transferred to the National Christian 
Council under such guarantees as the Federation may 
desire. Within the C.L.S. itself there are difficult ques 
tions of relationship, function and legal status which 
remain to be settled, but these are internal problems, 
and must be solved without regard to the question of 
whether the missionary membership on the Board of 
Directors shall have been chosen by the Federation or by 
the Council. 

(f) Trustees, School of Japanese Language and Cul 
ture. This selection of missionary members may be 
committed to the National Christian Council, providing 
the make-up of the Board is to continue unchanged. In 
case future developments lead to a self-perpetuating 
organization of the board, no nominations from any 
other body would be necessary. 

(g) National Sunday School Association Board. In 
case, the Association desires to continue one missionary 
member the selection may be made by the National 
Christian Council, otherwise the relationship may be 
terminated. 

(h) Trustees, American School in Japan. There seems 
to be no need for a continuance of this election to the 



MINUTES OF THE THIRTY-FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING 257 

board from the Federation. The board may coopt or 
elect a missionary member if it so desires. 

( i ) Advisory Committee, Canadian Academy. There 
seems to be no need for a continuance of this relation 
ship. However, in the case of both the American School 
and the Canadian Academy if so desired the selection of 
a missionary member could readily be made by the Na 
tional Christian Council. 

(j) Fraternal Delegate to Korea. This may be dis 
continued. 

(k) Fraternal Delegate to the National Christian 
Council. This should be discontinued. 

(1) Necrologist. The duties of the necrologist may 
be transferred to the Publications Committee or its suc 
cessor for the preparation of obituaries to be published 
annually in the Year Book. 

2. The committee recommends that the incoming 
executive committee be instructed to negotiate with the 
National Christian Council and such other bodies as are 
involved in the adjustments indicated above in the pre 
paration of a program of transference or discontinuance 
of the remaining activities of the Federation; the same 
to be presented to the 1936 Annual Meeting of the Fed 
eration for final ratification. 

Respectfully submitted, 

June 19, 1935. Charles W. Iglehart, 

Tokyo. Chairman. 



258 REPORTS 

Proposed Constitution of 
The Fellowship of Christian Missionaries in Japan 

Article I. Name 

The name of the organization shall be the 
Fellowship of Christian Missionaries in Japan. 

Article II. Purpose 

The purpose of the Fellowship shall be to pro 
mote fellowship, mutual understanding and the 
spirit of unity among the missionaries comprising 
it, and to provide an opportunity for gatherings 
of an inspirational and educative character. 

Article III. Membership 

Membership in the Fellowship shall be open to 
all Christian missionaries in Japan who accept the 
Constitution and By-laws and pay the stated fees. 
Registration shall include membership in the Fel 
lowship for the Annual Meeting and the ensuing 
year. 

Article IV. Officers 

The officers of the Fellowship shall be a Chair 
man, a Vice-Chairman, a Secretary and a Treas 
urer, elected at each Annual Meeting. They shall 
assume office at the close of the meeting at which 
they are elected. 

Article V. Meetings 

1. Regular meetings of the Fellowship shall 
be held annually at such time and place as the 
Fellowship shall determine. Special meetings 
may be held at the call of the Officers. 



MINUTES OF THE THIRTY-FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING 259 

2. A quorum for the transaction of business at 
any meeting shall consist of a majority of the re 
gistered members in attendance. 

Article VI. Expenses 

1. The ordinary expenses of the Fellowship, 
including the cost of the annual meeting shall be 
met by the registration fees of its members, fixed 
annually for the ensuing year. 

2. Extraordinary expenses shall be incurred 
only as special provision may be made by the 
members of the Fellowship. 

Article VII. Amendments 

Amendments to the Constitution, if signed by 
three or more members may be proposed at any 
Annual Meeting of the Fellowship. Final action 
shall be taken at the Annual Meeting following, 
when a two-thirds vote of the members present 
shall be required to make the amendment effect 
ive, i * 

By-Laws 

1. Questions of parliamentary procedure shall 
be decided in accordance with Robert s Rules of 
Order. 

2. The officers shall constitute a standing 
committee whose functions shall be (1) To trans 
act the ordinary and ad interim business of the 
Fellowship; (2) To carry out such measures as 
may be referred to it by the Fellowship; (3) To 
authorize the disbursement of funds, call special 
meetings, arrange for the Annual Meeting, and 
submit its report to that body. 

3. Previous to the Annual Meeting of the 
Fellowship, the officers may appoint such com- 



260 REPORTS 

mittees and assign to individuals such duties as 
shall be deemed necessary for the effective con 
duct of the meeting 1 . 

4. The Secretary shall keep a record of the 
proceedings of each meeting of the Fellowship, 
and when so ordered shall furnish each member 
with a copy of the same. 

5. The By-laws may be amended by a two- 
thirds vote of the members present at any regular 
meeting. 

Following detailed discussion of the above re 
port, on motion of Dr. B. F. Shively, the Federa 
tion declared itself unanimously in favor of the 
first recommendation of the committee, viz : "that 
this Federation be changed to a Fellowship of 
Christian Missionaries, the chief purpose of which 
shall be the holding of an annual meeting for fel 
lowship, education and inspiration." 

The Federation then proceeded to discuss seri 
atim the constitution recommended by the com 
mittee for the proposed Fellowship of Christian 
Missionaries. In order to facilitate discussion, 
the Federation constituted itself a Committee 
of the Whole. After detailed discussion, the 
conference resumed as a Federation, and on mo 
tion of Mr. Arthur Jorgensen, the constitution 
recommended by the committee, and as amended 
in the Committee of the Whole, was on motion 
adopted. (It appears above in its final amended 
form.) 

On motion of Rev. R. D. McCoy, the Federation 
now passed the following enabling motion, accept 
ing the committee s recommendation that "in ac 
cordance with Article X, the present constitution 



MINUTES OF THE THIRTY-FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING 261 

of the Federation of Christian Missions in Japan 
be amended by putting before this annual meeting 
the amendments embodied in the appended 
(above) Proposed Constitution, and by taking 
final action at the annual meeting in 1936." 

Thus, if the 1936 annual meeting of the Feder 
ation reaffirms the above decision, the Federa 
tion o^ Christian Missions will really be replaced 
by the proposed "Fellowship of Christian Mis 
sionaries in Japan." 

Discussion revealed that it was too soon to take 
definite action on the transfer of the remaining 
activities of the Federation to the National Chris 
tian Council. Therefore the Federation, on mo 
tion, adopted the committee s recommendation 
that the incoming(1935-1936) Executive Com 
mittee be instructed to negotiate with the National 
Council and such other bodies as are involved in 
the administrative adjustments indicated in the 
committee s report, in the preparation of a pro 
gram of transference or discontinuance of the re 
maining activities of the Federation: the same to 
be presented to the 1936 annual meeting of the 
Federation for final ratification. 

Miscellaneous Business 

The Federation next considered several items 
arising out of reports received, and from sugges 
tions by guests: 

(1) Following a suggestion from Rev. Akira 
Ebisawa, the Federation took action, joining the 
National Christian Council of Japan in inviting 
and urging the International Missionary Council 
to hold its 1938 World Conference in Japan. The 
chairman, Mr. Phelps, was asked to present the 



262 REPORTS 

invitation and welcome of the Federation to the 
proper authorities. 

(2) On motion, the Federation requested of 
the Christian Literature Society and the Publica 
tion Commitee of the Federation that the Japan 
Christian Year Book be published if possible by 
March 15th of each year. 

(3) On motion, the Federation authorized the 
formation of an Editorial Council to produce the 
Japan Christian Quarterly; this Council to be 
composed of the six members of the Committee on 
Publications assigned to the Quarterly and of 
such additional members as the Editor may desire 
to name. 

Following brief announcements, the Saturday 
afternoon session adjourned at 5:30 p.m. 

Final Business 

The Federation reassembled at 7.45 p.m. to 
hear reports from committees. The first report 
given was that of the Committee on Resolutions 
which presented: (1) A letter of gratitude to Dr. 
Charles I. McLaren, M. D., of Seoul, for his very 
instructive paper; (2) A letter of congratulation 
to the Church Missionary Society mission and of 
appreciation to Bishop-elect Mann of the Anglican 
communion in Kyushu; (3) An omnibus resolu 
tion, expressing the gratitude of the Federation 
to Dr. Cragg for his leadership of the devotional 
periods, to the musical committee for their tal 
ented contributions, to those who read papers, 
and to those who contributed to the discussions; 
(4) A resolution of appreciation to the chairman, 
Mr. G. S. Phelps. 



MINUTES OF THE THIRTY-FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING 263 

The Committee on Nominations followed with 
their report, presenting their nominations for the 
Federation s officers, committees, and representa 
tives for the ensuing year of 1935-36. This report 
was on motion accepted, and it appears below. 
The new officers who were present were intro 
duced to the Federation. 

An informal discussion followed for some thir 
ty minutes regarding the necessary adjustments to 
be made in order that the Federation s present 
administrative functions could be passed over to 
the proper bodies. The various opinions expressed 
were noted so that they might be- of assistance to 
the incoming executive committe in its assigned 
task of preparing a program of transference and 
discontinuance of the present administrative 
functions of the Federation. 

During the afternoon and evening discussions 
the opinion was many times expressed that the 
constituted bodies of the Federation should con 
tinue financial support for the proposed "Fellow 
ship" though it be not a delegated body. On mo 
tion, the incoming Executive Committee was in 
structed to communicate with the constituent bo 
dies of the Federation, asking them to continue 
their financial support by aiding in the expenses 
of their members in attendance at the proposed 
meetings of the Fellowship. 

The business sessions of the Federation s 1935 
annual meeting adjourned at 8.45 p.m. on Satur 
day evening, August 3rd. 

Federation Communion Service 
The Sacrament of the Lord s Supper was held 



264 REPORTS 

at the close of the Saturday evening business ses 
sion. Dr. Cragg conducted this communion ser 
vice in a very worshipful and dignified manner. 
It was a very fitting spiritual preparation for the 
ensuing Sunday services. 



The Sunday services began with a morning de 
votional service from 7.00 a. m., led by Rev. J. F. 
Preston, D.D., the fraternal delegate from the 
Federation in Korea. Dr. Preston, in his address, 
emphasized the need of preaching by word and 
life the full gospel, aiming at satisfying both the 
spiritual and physical needs of man. 

The Sunday morning union worship service be 
gan at 10.30, and with it was combined the 
Memorial service, when the Necrologist. Dr. A. 
Oltmans, read the names of those who had passed 
on to higher service during the year of 1934-35. 
The chairman, Mr. Phelps, gave the annual 
Federation sermon, basing his talk on Hebrews 
12:1-2, and emphasizing the words "Running the 
race that is, set before us." It was a message of 
optimism and challenge in a day of pessimism and 
defeat. Looking forward, Mr. Phelps saw three 
important needs in the Christian movement in 
Japan: (1) An increase in the number of quali 
fied Christian leaders; (2) The establishment of 
a central Christian University of the highest 
standards; and (3) Provision for the creation of 
an adequate Christian Literature. Mr. Phelps 
stressed that now is the strategic time to run the 
race with self-sacrifice and patience. 

The 1935 annual meeting officially closed at the 



MINUTES OF THE THIRTY-FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING 265 

end of the Sunday morning service ; however the 
delegates had the privilege of hearing the frater 
nal delegate from China, Rev. Earl H. Cressy 
speak at the Karuizawa Union Church Vespers at 
5.00 p.m. Mr. Cressy, in speaking of problems 
common to the Christian movements of China and 
Japan, was able to inspire and encourage all who 
heard him. Mr. Cressy emphasized the need of 
more specialization in the work of individual mis 
sionaries. 
OFFICERS 

Chairman C. W. Iglehart. 
Vice Chairman E. M. Clark. 
Secretary A. R. Stone. 
Treasurer John K. Linn. 
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 
The] Officers, and 
Term expiring 1936 H. M. Gary, Mrs. C. M. Warren, 

Miss Esther Rhoads. 

" 1937 Arthur Jorgensen, D. C. Holtom. 
COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATIONS 

Term expiring 1936 T. T. Brumbaugh, Willis Lamott 

(convenor) . 

1937 Mrs. H. D. Hannaford, Arthur 
Jorgensen. 

1938 Mrs. E. S. Cobb, Fred D. Gealy. 
Editor of the Japan Christian Quarterly Willis 

Lamott. 
Editor of the Japan Christian Year Book Fred D. 

Gealy. 

COMMITTEE ON WORK FOR KOREANS IN JAPAN 
Term expiring in 1936 S. F. Moran, Miss K. Tristram. 
1937 J. B. Cobb (convenor), W. T. 

Thomas, G. K. Chapman. 
COMMITTEE ON SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROBLEMS 



26e REPORTS 

E. M. Clark (convenor) , S. M. Hilburn, Miss Isabelle 

MacCausland. 
REPRESENTATIVES 
On Board of Directors of Christian 
Literature Society 

Term expiring 1936 Miss E. Kaufman, R. D. McCoy, 

A. J. Stirewalt, C. P. Garman. 

(Miss Kaufman resigned and was 

replaced by C. W. Iglehart by 

executive committee action.) 

Term expiring 1937 Miss A. C. Bosanquet, W. G. 
Hoekje, E. H. Zaugg, H. W. Out- 
erbridge. 

Term expiring 1938 A. D. Berry, A. K. Reischauer, 
J. F. Gressitt, S. H. Wainwright. 

On Board of Trustees of School of 
Japanese Language and Culture 

Term expiring 1936 Mrs. H. D. Hannaford, J. C. Mann. 
1937 William Axling, L. C. M. Smythe 
(The latter resigned and was re 
placed by Gilbert Bowles by 
Executive Committee action) . 
1938 G. S. Noss, P. S. Mayer. 

On Board of National Sunday School Association 

Miss Elizabeth Gillilan. 

On Board of Trustees of the American School 
in Japan 

T. D. Walser. 

On Advisory Committee of Canadian Academy 

D. C. Buchanan. " 

FRATERNAL DELEGATE TO FEDERAL COUNCIL OF 
PROTESTANT EVANGELICAL MISSIONS IN KOREA 
C. W. Iglehart (replaced by F. W. Heckelman by Exe 
cutive Committee action) . 



MINUTES OF THE THIRTY-FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING 267 

FRATERNAL DELEGATE TO THE NATIONAL CHRIS 
TIAN COUNCIL OF JAPAN 

C. W. Iglehart. 
NECROLOGIST A. Oltmans. 






r io JIDWJOO vi 



FEDERATION OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONS 
IN JAPAN 

Annual Report of the Treasurer 

(As presented at the 1935 Annual Conference) 

A. CURRENT ACCOUNT: 

Receipts : 

Balance from 1934 1,253.87 

Refund from 1934 Publications Committee .. 119.85 

Delegates Fees (66) 1,320.00 

Bank Interest 2.74 

Disbursements: 

1. Publications 

Japan Christian Quarterly 200.00 

Japan Christian Year Book, 1934 8.09 

, 1935 40.70 248.79 

2. Relations 

Delegate to Korea 100.00 100.00 

3. Administration 

Executive Committee 1933-34 7.94 

1934-35 6.04 

Secretary s Office Expenses 20.85 

Treasurer s Office Expenses 14.58 49.41 

4. 1934 Conference 

Delegates Travel 211.81 

" Entertainment 262.50474.31 

Executive Comm. Travel 51.07 

" " Entertainment 65.00 116.07 

Speakers honoraria 115.00 

Discussion Leaders 79.82 

Auditorium Rent 25.00 

Reception (Hotel) 8.50 

Incidentals . 14.29 832.99 



270 REPORTS 

5. Committees 

Social Economic Problems, 1934 Group..:. 10.00 

1935 " 36.46 

Methods of Youth Leadership Comm. 50.00 96.46 

1,327.65 

By Cash on Hand, (Aug. 2nd, 1935) .........I: 1,368.31 

-2,696.46 

B. CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY 

Received and forwarded to the Society ....... 1,480.00 

C. RELIEF APPEALS: 

Received and forwarded to the Treasurer of 
the National Christian Council: 

1. Kwansai Typhoon Relief (Sept.-Novr 34) 1,085.13 

2. Tohoku Famine Relief (Dec. 34-Feb. 35) 446.52 

3. Taiwan Earthquake Relief (May- June 35) 41.00 

1,572.65 
Respectfully submitted, 

Royal Haigh Fisher, 

Treasurer 1934-35. 






;i :.:;, :. ;o: :j;]. .*. 



No. 3 
CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY 

S. H. Wainright 

As we look back upon the past year, 1935, we 
are impressed by two events which are of moment 
to us as Christian workers. First, there was dis 
covered by the authorities corruption on a great 
scale among certain religious sects of recent 
origin in Japan. Secondly, a bill was formulated 
and proposed by the government for the control 
of religions. No doubt fuller reference to these 
developments of the year will be found elsewhere 
in this Year Book. 

These two events are not without mutual con 
nection. The "law is not made for a righteous 
man," says Paul, "but for the lawless and dis 
obedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for the 
unholy and profane." In short, among religions 
misbehavior has made it necessary that laws be 
enacted ! 

Religions lacking in truth and spirituality are 
springing up among the people. Hence, the sig 
nificance of the wide spread dissemination of the 
gospel by Christian Literature and otherwise. 

Last year, this Society issued twelve million 
pages of Christian Literature, nearly all of which 
was in the Japanese language. One third of the 
aggregate output consisted of books and two 
thirds of periodical literature, speaking in round 
figures. 

Seventeen new titles were added to the Society s 



272 REPORTS 

list of books and seven titles already published 
were reprinted during the year. Seven of the 
seventeen new titles were translations from Eng 
lish publications and four out of the seven reprint 
ed editions were translations. The Society pub 
lishes good manuscripts as they are received, in 
order to encourage production and it also issues, 
as for instance, the biography of the late Dr. 
Uemura, books on its own initiative. The list of 
new books published, is always varied on this 
account. In this year s output, the Oxford Group 
Movement is to be credited with incentive to the 
production of Christian Literature. Among the 
new books, "Group" literature will be found 
sufficient to show a distinctive influence. 

Among periodicals the Kingdom of God Weekly 
(Kami no Kuni Shimbun) will be discontinued 
under the Christian Literature Society. The So 
ciety converted the Myojo into the Kami no 
Kuni Shimbun at the beginning of tha "Kingdom 
of God Campaign." The Kingdom of God Cam 
paign Committee agreed to edit this periodical 
and to bear the editorial expenses. These ex 
penses have fallen upon the Christian Literature 
Society and have greatly increased, as required 
by the Editorial Committee. This Society there 
fore offered to take over all responsibility or to 
transfer all to the Editorial Committee. The latter 
was ready to undertake publication as well as the 
duty of editing. Orders for this periodical may 
continue to be sent to the Christian Literature 
Society (Kyo Bun Kwan) and will be filled by the 
Kami no Kuni Shimbun Committee, and that Com 
mittee assumes all financial responsibility for the 
periodical. 



CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY 273 

New Christmas cards published exceeded those 
put out ths previous year, while reprinted Christ 
mas cards more than doubled the number issued 
the previous year. Japanese Christians, with their 
artistic taste, show great interest in pictures. 

The Sokoshi, a magazine for children, fell bs- 
low the circulation the previous year, as did the 
Kami no Kuni Shimbun (slightly). The Ai no 
Hikari and Japan Christian Quarterly held their 
own.* 

The Christian Literature Society, through its 
sales department holds the agency, for publish 
ers abroad, in Japan for a dozen or more import 
ant publications, including here in Japan the 
Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, and 
Terry s Guide to the Japanese Empire. 

The Publishers Weekly is the most widely cir 
culated book trade journal in the United States. 
In the November number, 1935, it contains an 
article on the Christian Literature Society of 
Japan, written by Mr. W. S. Hall, formerly editor 
of the New York magazine called Asia, now of 
the firm of Snyder & Hall, who represent thirty 
or forty New York publishers in the orient. 

* New Books published in 1935: 

Watakushi wa Guzokyoto de Atta (I was a Pagan); Buntan 
(Sharing); Helen Keller Jijoden (Autobiography of Helen Keller); 
Seisho Yoko (Topical Bible); Seicho no Shiori (The Quiet Time); 
Oxford Group no Yoryo (Principles of Oxford Group); Japan 
Christian Year Book; Uemura Masahisa Den (Biography of Dr. 
Uemura); Yoji no Ongaku (Music for Young Children); Mikuni 
no Yusha (Heroes of the Kingdom); Kodomo no Oniwa (Chil 
dren s Garden); Noson Kosei to Seishin Kosei (Rural Regenera 
tion); Dai Dowaka no Shogai (Life, of Hans Anderson); Sambika 
Sakka no Omokage (Life of Hymn Writers & Composers); Miyama 
ni Mukaite (Unto the Hills); Eiri Shinko Hyakuwa (100 Stories of 
Faith Illustrated); Kodomo Hibi no Chikara (Daily Strength for 
Children). 



274 REPORTS 

Mr. Hall says concerning the Kyo Bun Kwan 
Building, 

"It is one of the most modern, though snuggest 
of the new buildings. It is one of the Ginza s most 
handsome ornaments, standing out from its neigh 
bors by its quiet simplicity." 

He has this to say about the store room, 

"The book shop is on the second floor, and bet 
ter approached up the stairs, from the Ginza side. 
The bookroom is one of the cheeriest places I ve 
seen where books are sold, with fixtures that hold 
and display a lot at the same time. The books and 
magazines are to a great extent Japanese, and it 
was here that the wide range of Japanese publish 
ing was brought home to me. Another point by 
which I was emphatically impressed was the low 
published prices of these well-printed Japanese 
volumes, with their excellent color plates. Five 
yen ($1.60) is a high price for a book. Most of 
them ranged from one to three yen." 



No. 4 
THE BIBLE SOCIETIES IN JAPAN, 1935 

G. H. Vinall 

In this land, where ancient feudal customs 
struggle hard for survival against the strong and 
steady current of westernization and modern in 
vention; where the beauties of mountain, forest 
and sea are often marred by the havoc of earth 
quake, fire and tempest, there goes out from the 
heart of the common people an age-long cry for 
that which satisfies; a restless spirit, which can 
not rest until it finds its satisfaction in God. Year 
by year, as a flowing river, a constant stream of 
the Holy Scriptures is sent on its way by various 
channels bringing light, life and joy into the lives 
of many love-starved, sin-sick, heart-weary souls 
dwelling in this land of contrasts. 

It is a joy to write that the records of the Bible 
Societies working in Japan during the past year 
have surpassed those of the two previous years. 
The total number of Scriptures distributed having 
reached 1,246,472 copies. A comparison of the 
two years 1934 and 1935! is made in the tables of 
distribution shown below. 

1934 

Bibles Testaments Portions Totals 

A. B. S 10,152 32,898 568,837 611,887 

British B. S 9,383 50,998 446,305 506,686 

Total 19,535 83,896 1,015,142 1,118,573 



276 REPORTS 

1935 

A. B. S 11,520 43,604 682,438 737,562 

British B. S 9,027 64,087 435,796 508,910 

Total 20,547 107,691 1,118,234 1,246,472 

From these figures it will be seen that sales 
have increased under every heading, and the fact 
that there is an increase of over 1,000 in the num 
ber of Bibles, and of over 20,000 in the number of 
New Testaments, must surely give evidence that 
there is a desire on the part of some at least, who 
having read a Gospel or Portion and wishing to 
know more, have purchased a copy of the New 
Testament or even the whole Bible. This is re 
peatedly borne out in the experience of our col 
porteurs, to quote one of them who writes: "In 
a general shop today I met a young man who told 
me he had purchased some Gospels from one of 
our workers in Kumamoto City last year. From 
reading these books he had become deeply inter 
ested in the life of Christ and wished to read more. 
This man was glad to buy a copy of the New 
Testament from me." 

It is important in these days, when the forces 
arrayed against the Christian Church are so 
strong, that every member of the Church should 
get the vision that "we are workers together" for 
the one object of bringing our fellow men and 
women into vital contact and union with our Lord 
Jesus Christ. The Bible Societies are concerned 
that their work shall be more closely related to 
the work of the Christian Church as a whole, and 
that Pastors and Church leaders shall come to 
realize that their own work may be greatly helped 
and strengthened by keeping in close touch with 
Bible Society workers who visit their districts. Our 



THE BIBLE SOCIETIES IN JAPAN, 1935 277 

colporteurs are instructed to report to the nearest 
Christian Pastor names and addresses of persons 
found interested in the Christian faith and desir 
ing further instruction. Where such information 
has been faithfully followed up there have been 
definite results in individuals and in some cases 
whole families joining the Christian Church. One 
illustration of this may be given where one of our 
workers finding a woman interested in Christian 
ity, gave her an invitation to a Women s meeting 
to be held at the home of one of the Seikokwai 
members, and at the same time passed on her 
name to this worker. The woman attended the 
meeting and becoming more interested persuaded 
her husband to join her in attending the services 
at the Church. In course of time the husband, 
wife, their children and the maid were baptized, 
and this because a Bible Society colporteur had 
passed by that way. 

We are also endeavouring to co-operate in 
another way through the Shinseikwan or New Life 
Centres. Recently our colporteurs working in one 
Prefecture carried postcards addressed to the 
New Life Centre of that district, which they 
handed to persons found interested. Our men dis 
tributed over 100,000 copies of the Scriptures in 
this Prefecture and 213 of these postcards were 
sent in to the New Life Centre as a result of their 
visit. From these as far as our information goes, 
six people have become regular correspondents of 
the Shinseikwan. 

As a piece of rural evangelism the work of the 
Bible Society colporteurs should rank high, 
though it is often lost sight of and almost entirely 
disregarded. The colporteurs are a humble set of 



278 REPORTS 

men not given to self advertisement, but courage 
ous and quietly industrious, patiently persevering 
in the face of many rebuffs and discouragements. 
As one reads the record of their work and meets 
with them in conference, one cannot fail to admire 
them. One man reports the sale of over 48,000 
copies and another over 39,000 during the work 
ing days of last year. Who can visualize just what 
this means? The number of houses called at, the 
persons spoken to, the distances traversed on bi 
cycle or on foot, the weariness and discomforts 
endured, the words of comfort and counsel given 
to thosa in trouble or perplexity. Last year forty 
men were employed throughout Japan and their 
total sales amounted to 947,150 copies of the 
Scriptures, or 75% of the whole number dis 
tributed. 

Ezekiel of old wrote "Everything shall live 
whithersoever the river cometh," and do we not 
find something of a parallel case in this stream of 
the life-giving Word as it flows through the coun 
try. One of our colporteurs writes : "I saw a 
copy of the whole Bible on; a shelf as I entered a 
tailor s shop, and looking up from his work the 
tailor said, I remember you calling at my house 
in Shingu eight years ago when I bought two Gos- 
pals from you. Through reading those Scriptures 
I was led to go to Church and later became a 
Christian and was baptized. Some years ago I 
moved to this city and now attend the Nihon Kiri- 
suto Kyokwai. Subsequently I met the minister 
of this Church and he told me that the tailor was 
one of his best lay-workars." 

Another man tells of meeting a stranger in the 
village street outside a farmer s house. Learning 



THE BIBLE SOCIETIES IN JAPAN, 1935 279 

that he was a Bible seller this man offered praise 
to God then and there in the street, and drawing 
from his pocket a well worn copy of the New 
Testament, without cover and lacking many 
pages, told how it had been purchased from a col 
porteur who visited that village in 1929. The man 
had read and re-read the book from cover to 
cover many times, and his life and character was 
entirely changed. His own father and all the 
village people were surprised at the change in the 
man s life. Our worker passed on the name and 
address of this man to the Pastor of the Church 
nearest to this village. 

"The entrance of Thy words giveth light; it 
giveth understanding to the simple," wrote the 
Psalmist many centuries ago. From time to time 
our workers are allowed access to public schools, 
and one of them writes of a visit to a Middle 
School where the Principal was a major general. 
He says: "I was afraid I would be refused per 
mission to show the Scriptures to the students but 
the head teacher, whose wife was a Christian, 
readily gave me permission to speak to the stu 
dents in the dormitories in the evening. He ex 
plained that examinations were being held during 
the day so the students had little spare time then. 
A day or so later, the examinations being over, 
I was asked to address the whole school including 
the teaching staff. An army officer with the staff 
listened to my talk on the Problem of Religion and 
later I was invited to a round table discussion with 
with the teachers; the principal, the head teacher 
and this army officer being present. All were in 
terested in the problem of religious education, 
and one teacher, a graduate of Kwansei Gakuin 



280 REPORTS 

suggested teaching the Bible to the students, to 
which many of the others agreed." Sixty-five 
copies of the New Testament and 325 Gospels 
were sold to the toachers and students of this 
school. 

So we look back upon another year of success 
ful Bible distribution with a feeling of gratitude 
and gladness that the hand of our God has been 
upon us for good. The silent but effectual mes 
sengers have been sent on their way, the seed is 
sown, who will tend it and gather in the harvest? 
Let us catch the vision, missionary, pastor, evan 
gelist, Bible Society colporteur, all workers to 
gether with Him, Who said, "Pray ye that He 
thrust forth more labourers into the harvest." 



No. 5 

NATIONAL CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL 
ASSOCIATION 

T. Miyoshi 

During the year 1935, there were three activ 
ities of the National Christian Educational Asso 
ciation which deserve special mention: 

1. The Association devoted itself to a study 
of women s vocations, especially those of gradu 
ates of women s colleges and higher schools, in 
order that educational institutions may give a 
more practical bent to their curricula. 

2. The eighth annual summer school of the 
Association was held July 25-29 at Tozanso, Go- 
temba. One hundred and twelve representatives 
of Christian schools attended. The problem dis 
cussed was "Christianity and the Nippon Spirit." 
The session was presided; over by Mr. Tagawa. 

3. The twenty-fourth annual meeting of the 
Association was held at Doshisha University. 
Ninety-five representatives attended. Eight re 
solutions were passed, including a declaration of 
principles of Christian education, and the inten 
tion to publish a magazine. The declaration of 
principles was the result of two years careful 
study on the part of a committee. Its influence 
upon the Christianity of Japan should be very 
great. 



No. 6 

THE SCHOOL OF JAPANESE LANGUAGE 
AND CULTURE 

Darley Downs 

History 

In 1913 a promotion committee headed by ths 
then mayor of Tokyo, Baron Yoshiro Sakatani, 
established "The Japanese Language School." 
Other members of the committee were Dr. T. Mi- 
yaoka, Japan representative of the Carnegie 
Foundation; Dr. D. C. Greene, founder of the 
American Board s Japan Mission; Prof. Masaharu 
Anezaki of the Tokyo Imperial University, Mr. E. 
W. Frazar, one of the leading American business 
men in Japan; and Dr. Gilbert Bowles of the 
Friends Mission. From the beginning much em 
phasis was placed on lectures and study classes 
concerning various aspects of Japanese history 
and culture; but in 1930 the name of the school 
was changed to the above and increasing atten 
tion has been given to cultural studies. 

Organization and Staff 

An advisory committee for the Cultural De 
partment was set up consisting of Dr. Anezaki, 
Baron Ino Dan, Baron Ichizaemon Morimura, Mr. 
Soichi Saito, Dr. Takayanagi, Dr. Bowles, Mr. Ki- 
kusaburo Fukui, Dr. A. K. Reischauer, Mr. Tetsu- 
jiro Shidachi, and the director. The League of 
Nations Association (now ths International Asso- 



284 REPORTS 

elation) appointed the head of its Committee on 
Intellectual Cooperation, Dr. Saburo Yamada, 
Prof, of the Keijo (Seoul) Imperial University, a 
member of the board of trustees. The Asiatic 
Society appointed Dr. A. K. Reischauer, the emi 
nent authority on Japanese Buddhism. Mr. T. Shi- 
dachi, President of the Japan Industrial Associa 
tion, former president of the Hypothec Bank and 
leading- liberal publicist and economist, accepted 
appointment as a trustee at larga. The other 
trustees are: Dr. Gilbert Bowles of the Friends 
Mission; Mr. R. L. Durgin, Hon. Sec. of the Tokyo 
Y.M.C.A., the representative of the American As 
sociation; Rev. P. W. Buncombo, a retired mis 
sionary of the Church Missionary Society; Mr. 
Donald Ross, agent of the Canadian National 
Railways, representative of the British Associa 
tion; Dr. William Axling, a leading Baptist mis 
sionary and Hon. Sec. of the Japan National 
Christian Council ; Bishop J. C. Mann . of the 
Church Missionary Society; Mrs. H. D. Hanna- 
ford, a Presbyterian missionary ; Prof. M. Toza- 
wa, Director of the Tokyo School for Foreign Lan 
guages, the leading school of its kind in the Em 
pire; Rev. Geo. Noss of the German Reformed 
Mission and Dr. Paul Mayer of the Evangelical 
Mission. Baron Sakatani has been a trustee and 
the Honorary Director of the school from the be 
ginning. Dr. Anezaki is on? of Japan s most 
famous scholars, long the head of the Department 
of Religions and chief librarian at the Imperial 
University. Since his retirement he has been 
Japan s representative on the Committee on Intel 
lectual Cooperation of the League of Nations. 
Baron Ino Dan of the Advisory Committee has 



THE SCHOOL OP JAPANESE LANGUAGE & CULTURE 285 

been for many years our adviser on Japanese art 
studies. He was for years a member of the faculty 
of fine arts at the Imperial University and is now 
one of the leaders in the new Society for the Pro 
motion of International Cultural Relations (Koku- 
sai Bunka Shinkokai) . Baron Morimura, is one of 
the leading publicists and philanthropists of 
Japan. Mr. Saito is National General Secretary 
of the Y. M. C. A., a leading figure in the Japan 
Council of the I. P. R. and a former secretary of 
the Japan-America Society. Mr. Fukui was, till 
his recent retirement, one of the three chief ex 
ecutives of the great house of Mitsui. Mr. Yahei 
Matsumiya, Dean of the Language Department, 
is certainly the most famous; teacher of the Japa 
nese language in Japan. Probably much more 
than half the westerners in Japan who have made 
any serious study of the language, have been 
taught by him. Prof. Kenzo Takayanagi, librarian 
of the Imperial University and one of the leaders 
in the Japan Council of the Institute of Pacific 
Relations, is dean of the Cultural Department. 
Mr. Kazuya Matsumiya, the Executive Secretary, 
has studied in two or three American universities, 
and has an M. A. in Religious Education from 
Hartford. He has been on the staff of Y.M.C.A., 
the I.P.R. and the Laymen s Foreign Missions 
Inquiry. Nearly all the teachers have had several 
years successful experience. 

Language Department 

Over one thousand foreigners, about three 
fourths of them Americans, have taken courses at 
the school. During the first ten years of the 
school s existence its students were almost wholly 



286 REPORTS 

missionaries, but since the earthquake the number 
of missionary students has been declining while 
the number of non-missionary students has been 
increasing. 

The total number of students registered during 
the school year 1934-35 (including the Cultural 
Department) was 239 beside 27 in the teacher 
training course. It reveals recent tendencies very 
clearly to note that only 77 of the total of 266 
were missionaries. 173 were from the United 
States, 11 from Canada, 26 from England and the 
remainder from 21 other countries. The total 
number of regular students now enrolled is 37 as 
compared with 27 last year at this time. We have 
just opened a branch school in Yokohama. 

While it is highly desirable that all regular 
students take the full three year course in resi 
dence, many after the first year, and nearly all 
after the second year, transfer to the Extension 
Department. Every effort is made to make the 
work of students in this department as much like 
regular residence work as possible. Their teach 
ers are all supposed to have taken our special 
teacher training course; carefully prepared in 
structions are given to each teacher; and he is 
expected to report in detail every week the pro 
gress of his pupil. The materials are precisely the 
same as those used at the school. Sixty persons 
were working in this department during 1934-35. 
Dean Matsumiya gives it his personal supervision. 

Cultural Department 

All regular students are required to attend the 
weekly lectures in the general orientation course 
in Japanese Culture. Among recent lectures the 



THE SCHOOL OP JAPANESE LANGUAGE & CULTURE 237 

following may be noted: "The Foreigners Atti 
tude Toward Japan" Dr. Wm. Axling, "Methods 
of Studying Japanese History" Dr. G. B. Sansom, 
"Religious Conditions in Japan" Dr. T. Ishibashi, 
Dr. Anezaki s successor in the! Department of Re 
ligions at the Imperial University, "World Ten 
dencies in Japanese Studies" Mr. Ken Yanagisawa 
of the Foreign Office, "Historical Perspectives, 
East and West" Dr. H. B. Benninghoff, "What 
Foreigners Should Know about Japanese Cus 
toms" Mrs. Tsuneko Gauntlett, "Youth Move 
ments in Japan" Mr. Soichi Saito and "An 
Orientation in Japanese Religions" Dr. A. K. 
Reischauer. 

This year a well attended course in flower ar 
rangement (Ikebana) is being given. There has 
been great satisfaction with the plan to introduce 
a different type at each session rather than to con 
centrate for the whole series on one particular 
school. 

All regular students are required to present an 
annual thesis embodying the results of research 
carried on during the year under the direction of 
the Cultural Department. The following are typ 
ical of the papers presented: "Buddhist Sunday- 
Schools," "Social Service Work in Japan," "Treat 
ment of the Mentally Deficient in Japan," "Music 
in the Japanese Home," "The Teaching of Music 
in Japanese Schools," "The Social Influence of 
Shinto," "New Movements in Shinto and Buddh 
ism," "Difficulties of Foreigners in Adjustment to 
Japanese Society," "A Case Study of the Shinto 
Household Shrine," "The Japanese Woman" and 
"Christ as Seen by Japanese" (the last four were 
presented in Japanese). 



288 REPORTS 

Last year two young men who had come to 
Japan to study her culture were given scholar 
ships amounting to 250.00. Another young man 
now has a scholarship for regular language work 
during the first term (90.00). If funds were 
available much more could be very advantage 
ously used for scholarships. 



School for Foreign-Born Japanese 

For more than three years now the Cultural 
Department has conducted a special school for 
foreign born Japanese. This school gives language 
instruction specially adapted to the needs of these 
students who are usually fairly proficient in col 
loquial Japanese but need intensive work on the 
written language, grammar and composition. 
Daily lectures are also given on cultural subjects. 
Nearly one hundred young people, almost all 
American, have worked in this department; but 
the enrollment is smaller now as various other 
agencies have been set up to meet this need. 

American School in Japan 

Qne of our teachers, gives daily lessons in each 
room at the American School below the Senior 
High School. She seems to be giving great satis 
faction. We know of no other school in the far 
east with daily required periods of language study 
for all grammar school students. Mr. Amos and 
the staff and trustees of the American School are 
to be congratulated on their progressive attitude. 

Publication Department 

Over a year ago the Kokusai Bunka Shinkokai 



THE SCHOOL OF JAPANESE LANGUAGE & CLLTURE 289 

gave us 3,000.00 to make possible the publica 
tion of a translation of Mr. Y. Matsumiya s "A 
Grammar of Spoken Japanese" and a conversa 
tion text-book. The grammar was published last 
summer^ and has had a very favorable reception. 
The Cultural Department of the Foreign Office is 
assisting in the publication of a manual for teach 
ers of Japanese. Proof is now being read on both 
the conversation text-book and the manual and 
they will appear in the new future. 

Finances 

Up to 1923, while large numbers of mission 
aries were still coming out every year, tuitions not 
only paid expenses but provided a substantial 
balance. Reverses due to the earthquake and 
large reductions in the number of students caused 
the exhaustion of the balance ; and beginning with 
1932 appeals had to be made for contributions. 
A total of 3,635.00 has been received from mis 
sions and individual missionaries, and 2,300.00 
from Japanese (in addition to the gift from the 
Shinkokai for publications). The following table 
gives the main items of the budget for the last 
three years; Sept. to Aug. in each case. 

INCOME: 

1933 1934 1935 

Balance 1,504.49 1,887.41 2,805.23 

Tuition 14,103.96 14,107.36 16,689.95 

Contributions 2,520.00 3,740.00 125.00 

Booksales 515.10 

Miscellaneous . 118.13 149.75 148.51 



18,246.58 19,884.52 20,283.79 



290 



REPORTS 



EXPENDITURES: 



Salaries 


12,501.20 


12,541.80 


12,049.60 


Supplies 


1,212.61 


97654 


1 005 63 


Publication 




300 00 


1 940 81 


Rent 


. 1,524.00 


1,805.00 


1,895 00 


Travel, postage, 
etc. 
Balance 


1,121.36 
1,887.41 


1,455.95 
2 805 23 


1,393.30 
1 999 45 











18,246.58 19,884.52 20,283.79 



No. 7 

MISSIONARIES MUTUAL AID ASSOCIATION 
OF JAPAN 

F. W. Heckelman 

The Annual Meeting of 1935 was called to 
order promptly at 10 A.M. August 26, 1935, in the 
Karuizawa Auditorium, by the Vice-Chairman, 
Dr. R. D. McCoy, who, also offered prayer. 

Roll Call : Twenty-nine responded to their 
names. The Secretary acted as proxy for most of 
the membership, and there was one present who 
acted as proxy for a few. 

Minutes: The Minutes of 1933-1934 were read 
and approved. The Minutes of the executive com 
mittee were also read and approved. These au 
thorized the Regulations printed ; the report of 
the Secretary-Treasurer for 1934-1935 ; Letters for 
the Membership Committee, as prepared by the 
Secretary-Treasurer; Certificates of Membership; 
and the approval of the payment of nine benefits 
that had fallen due. The Executive Committee set 
up a Nominating Committee of A. J. Stirewalt, C. 
P. Garman and F. W. Heckelman who were to 
present a new panel of officers, a new Member 
ship Committee, and an auditor. Assessments 103- 
106 were authorized. The printing of assessment 
blanks, receipt books, and the purchase of enve 
lopes, stamps, paper and incidentals were author 
ized. 

Financial Report: The financial report at the 
time of the annual meeting could not be complet- 



292 REPORTS 

ed inasmuch as a large number of the members 
had not paid their assessments 103-106, which 
had been called for during April. The Secretary- 
Treasurer was authorized to complete his report, 
and after auditing, to present it to the member 
ship, perhaps not until October or later. 

Membership: The Index indicates a member 
ship of 512. The following eight new members 
were added to the roll: E. B. Dozier, R. Gordon 
Newman, Mrs. Nellie S. Newman, F. H. B. Wood, 
Miss Elsie Baker, Miss Edith E. Husted, Donald 
Zoll, Mrs. T. T. Brumbaugh. The following six 
have withdrawn: Mr. C. K. Jenkins, Mr. J. E. 
Couser, Jr., Miss H. L. Richey, Mr. F. Hilliard, 
Miss Anna Kludt, -Mrs. Frederick Parrott. The 
following membership status is not yet fully de 
termined : Mr. and Mrs. O. D. Bixler, Miss Lois 
Maddox. The following have died : James Hind, 
K. H. Coatas, Frederick Parrott, C. Ntoss, J. P. 
Moore, D. R. McKanzie, Miss M. B. Moon, Mrs. E. 
H. Jones, C. K. Gumming. (Reported deaths since 
the annual meeting: Mrs. Emma M. Landis, Mrs. 
W. A. Mcllwaine, Mrs. H. W. Schwartz and Dr. 
George Allchin). 

Membership in the M.M.A.A. for Korean and 
Formosan Missionaries, other than for Japanese 
work, was referred to the Executive for special 
investigation. 

Report of the Secretary-Treasurer for 1934-35 
was authorized to be printed and sent to the mem 
bership. The usual bills for the honorarium, en 
velopes, paper, carbon paper, stamps, and incid 
ental items were authorized. 

In, view of extraordinarily heavy work, and 
some advance preparation for the incoming Sec- 



MISSIONARIES MUTUAL AID ASSOCIATION 293 

retary-Treasurer, Yen Ninety-five (95.00) was 
voted for the work of a special assistant Mr. 
Hosokawa. 

Elections: The Nominating Committee pre 
sented the following names for the new Executive, 
and they were elected : 

R. D. McCoy, Chairman; A. Oltmans, Vice-Chairman; 
H. Topping, Secretary-Treasurer. 

Auditor Harvey Thede was elected Auditor. 

Membership Committee : After some changes 
in the list presented by the Nominating Commit 
tee, the following were elected: 

Leeds Gulick, G. Binford, R. H. Fisher, Miss H. Howey, 
C. P. Garman, B. F. Shively, H. W. Outerbridge, R. S. 
Spencer, C. K. Sansbury, W. K. Matthews, J. H. Brady, 
C. W. Iglehart, Herman Ray. 

1936 Annual Meeting: It was voted that the 
date be approximately as in 1935, and that it be 
in Karuizawa. 

A Vote of Thanks: The early furlough of the 
Heckelman family necessitated the election of a 
new Secretary-Treasurer. In view of the services 
to the M.M.A.A. a vote of thanks was extended to 
Dr. and Mrs. F. W. Heckelman. 

The new Secretary-Treasurer is the Rev. Henry 
Topping, whose address in English and Japanese 
is as follows: 

The Rev. Henry Topping, 303 Hyakunin-machi, 
3-chome, Yodobashi-ku, Tokyo. 
3K3Krfr&g^ABTHTB H O H 

Please note that the Furikae chokin will remain 
as at present, though in Mr. Topping s name: 
Osaka 84753. 

Death Benefits, according to this report, were 



294 REPORTS 

paid for the following : James Hind ; H. H. Coates ; 
Frederick Parrott; C. N/oss; J. P. Moore; D. R. 
McKenzie; Miss M. B. Moon; Mrs. E. H. Jones; 
and C. K. Gumming a total of 9,000.00. 

Please note that the financial report was duly 
audited. 

Financial Statement for 1934-35 

INCOME: 

Balance 1933-1934 4,959.64 

Income 1934-1935: Furikae fees 6,681.87 

Interest 75.19 

Bank fees 3,371.78 

Interest 5.56 

Interest additional . 10.00 



15,104.04 
EXPENDITURE: 

Benefits 9,000.00 

Transfer 152.48 

Honorarium 200.00 

Special Help 95.00 

Incidentals 278.10 

Cash-Stamps 8.65 

Balance 5,369.81 



15,104.04 
BALANCE: 

Furikae fees 4,360.99 

Interest 75.19 

Bank fees 918.07 

Interest 5.56 

Additional Interest 10.00 933.63 

5,369.81 



MISSIONS MUTUAL AID ASSOCIATION 295 

In Furikae 4,436.18 

In Bank 933.63 

5,369.81 



No. 8 

THE MISSIONS MUTUAL FIRE PROTECTIVE 
ASSOCIATION 

Herbert V. Nicholson 

The Missions Mutual Fire Protective Associa 
tion went through its third year without a fire and 
is now, in the fourth year with a reserve fund of 
about twelve thousand Yen in the bank. While 
there have been considerable withdrawals of pro 
perty that has been sold, the new property placed 
with the Association has more than made up for 
this so that the total is well 1 ahead of last year. 

The present list of property according to groups 
is as follows: 

Baptist (North) 105,000 

American Board 25,000 

C. M. S 81,200 

Missionary Society of C. of E. Canada 23,800 

Independents, etc 182,000 

Wesleyan Methodist, etc 35,500 

Pentecostal 52,300 

Methodist (North) 14,000 

Methodist (South) 213,740 

Methodist Protestant 184,250 

Presbyterian (North) 62,900 

Presbyterian (South) 8,400 

Reformed Church in U. S. A 118,450 

Omi Brotherhood 75,000 

Seventh Day Adventist 5,000 

Friends 116,700 

Baptist (South) 29,000 



298 REPORTS 

United Church of Canada *(Men) 215,385 

United Church of Canada (Ladies) 22,000 

United Brethren ..-. 281,000 

Women s Union Missionary Society 14,000 

Y. W. C. A. Secretaries 50,000 

Y. M. C. A. Secretaries 59,250 

Yotsuya Missions 88,500 



Total 2,062,375 

At present everyone pays 2 per thousand, ex 
cepting in the case of fire proof buildings when it 
is 1. We believe wa are in a safe position now 
and that many more groups will be joining up as 
their present policies expire. Besides being an 
economical form of fire protection this Association 
is a good example of what can be done by friendly 
cooperation. 

The present officers are: 
L. S. Albright, President, 
H. K. Miller, Vice-President, 
J. F. Gressitt, Treasurer, 
Roy Smith, Miss O, I. Hodges, 
B. F. Shively, members of Executive Committee, 
H. V. Nicholson, Secretary. 



No. 9 
THE JAPAN CHRISTIAN NEWS AGENCY 

M. S. Murao 

On June 11, 1936, an unusual sort of publica 
tion, the first of its kind in Japan, had its first 
birthday. It is the Christian Daily News. The 
paper 1 is seeking to perform a threefold function : 
(1) It represents a development of the Daily Neivs 
Bulletin, which had been in existence for two 
years. This Bulletin had been distributed to the 
secular newspapers, supplying them with in 
formation on Christian activities and with some 
short articles written by Christian writers. The 
Daily Neivs still continues this form of work. (2) 
In its present form, however, our paper is seeking 
to supply the long felt need of giving news to 
Christians regarding the activities of their breth 
ren, and of acting as the channel through which 
their public opinion may be circulated. It now 
carries a daily "leader" on current topics by Mr. 
Tagawa, M.P., and Daily Meditations written by 
Dr. Kagawa and Mr. Homma Shumpei. Thus the 
paperTTas become a welcome daily visitor in 
nearly two thousand Christian households. (3) 
By the steady increase in circulation, the News is 
paving the way for the financial self-support of 
the Japan Christian News Agency, its publisher. 

When the Japan Christian News Agency start 
ed its work about eight years ago, there was only 
one daily newspaper having a religious column, 
and our workers were able only with difficulty to 
induce papers to take articles on religion. Now, 



300 REPORTS 

however, influenced by the rising tide of Buddhist 
journalism, many of the leading newspapers are 
giving space to religious material, of which Chris 
tians contribute their full share. 

When the Japan Christian News Agency en 
larged its work three years ago with help both 
from Japan and England, but chiefly from the 
latter, it purposed to become self-supporting by 
selling articles and news to the newspapers. But 
it was soon discovered that owing to the peculiar 
nature of the Japanese newspapers syndicated 
articles could not be a success. Both the papers 
and the writers preferred direct dealing with each 
other. The only possibility left for the Agency 
was to become a sort of "broker" between the 
writer and the publisher. This is being done, but 
it is hopeless to aim at financial self-support in 
this way. Hence the publication of the Daily 
Christian Neivs, as an enterprise. 

The Japan Christian News Agency is an organ 
ization created by the Newspaper Evangelism 
offices in Japan, now numbering thirty, for co 
ordinating their work and for cooperative work 
relative to the News Agency. Each of these offices 
is carrying on the work of receiving applicants and 
introducing them to the churches. The following 
report from one of these offices will give a glimpse 
of the kind of work done by this Agency even in 
the face of declining mission support and the ris 
ing tide of totalitarianism in this country. 

We newspaper evangelists should count our 
selves fortunate that even in the dark days pre 
ceding the dissolution of the Diet, when the cold 
wind of Chauvinism was blowing against us, this 
office showed the following statistics: 



THE JAPAN CHRISTIAN NEWS AGENCY 301 

1. Number of Applicants 3130 

2. Number of new members joining for 

further study 331 

3 Baptisms 29 

4. Members at the end of year 902 

5. Magazine monthly circulation 1900 

Although rather lower than the figures for the 
year preceding, we feel gratified with the fact 
that we could hold our line even thus far. With 
the new situation and under God s guidance, we 
can now hope for a more steady advance. 

Unfortunately statistics for all the offices con 
nected with the Agency are not available at the 
moment of writing, but if the figure in the above 
report is counted as representing about one-fifth 
of the total, it may not be too far from the actual 
figure. 

Early in February I attended a baptism at Na- 
goya, the third largest city of the country. The 
recipient was the head of a big bank there. 1 
made a ten hours journey there to be his God 
father, although he was several years my senior 
in age. Before moving to Nagoya he lived in 
Tokyo. His wife was an earnest Christian, and 
she tried hard to lead him to Christ, but her efforts 
were not successful. She became a member of a 
church in Tokyo which I served for! several years 
as the priest in charge. When I had at last suc 
ceeded in getting him to church, he was transfer 
red to Nagoya. There I succeeded in keeping in 
touch with him through the Newspaper evangel 
ism. The study course, the magazine, and cor 
respondence, finally led him to see the light, ana 



302 REPORTS 

with the collaboration of the local clergy he was 
prepared for baptism. He writes: 

"The question of decision had been hanging over my 
spirit, rather oppressing me. But now, I feel as if I 
am living under the blue sky, and am prepared for 
the testing times which may be lying ahead of me. 
Thank you very much for coming down a long dis 
tance to be my God-father." 

Recently our office secured a very good assist 
ant to relieve me of worries relating to the man 
agement. He is only about 25 years of age. When 
he came to me for a job, my only motive for tak 
ing him in was the pity I felt for him. But witi. 
further investigation I discovered he was one of 
the fruits of newspaper evangelism. He is a son 
of a Buddhist priest in Kyushu, and is entitled to 
a secure livelihood in a temple now held by his 
father. But through newspaper evangelism he 
came to know his Saviour, and when Dr. Kagawa 
had a preaching tour in his neighbourhood he de 
cided for Christ. He was disinherited as a result. 
He left home and received baptism at Kobe (an 
important sea-port where Kagawa started his 
great work) . He came to me with an introduction 
from the secretary of the Kobe Y.M.C.A. and is 
justifying his recommendation. This Yamaguchi 
San, however, may not stay very long with us, for 
his life ambition is to become a film producer of 
Biblical themes with Japanese interpretation. 

In the spring of 1934, our office planned new 
rural work. The idea was to ask our New Life 
Society members (non-Christians as yet) to send 
in applications, if they desired to have a visit from 
Theological students during their spring holidays. 



THE JAPAN CHRISTIAN NEWS AGENCY 303 

We also made appeal to the students of the Cen 
tral Theological College of our Church to volun 
teer for such service. Ten of them responded. We 
paid their travelling expenses. They were to be 
entertained by the members they visited. One of 
the seven members who asked us for student 
evangelists was a young wife living in a very re 
mote country place. She had previously written 
the following letter: 

"You sent me a copy of Dr. Kagawa s Meditation on 
The Cross before I joined as a member. I read it 
over but could not make head nor tail of it. Then, 
I decided to become a member. I read your monthly 
magazine New Life, and other pamphlets you sent to 
me. Then I felt like reading the Meditations again. 
I took the book to the field where I worked, and 
snatching a few moments of recess from work, I 
read on. It took me about a month to finish it. But, 
strange to say, the book which had been very diffi 
cult to understand, and had left me groping in black 
darkness, now seemed to be quite intelligible." 

One of the students writes about her village 
and her family in the following terms: 

"Our village is a striking example of poverty. The 
fact that the sale of sweets is prohibited will show 
you the extremity to which the villagers are put." 

Her husband is away at Kure serving the air 
force of the navy. She is living with her husband s 
parents and a sister and a brother. Her maiden 
life was the unhappy one of an orphan, and her 
marriage did not bring any decided change in her 
spirit, although all the members of the household 
were kind to her. Then she found an advertise 
ment of the "New Life Hall" in the Houseivife s 



304 REPORTS 

Journal. Gradually she discovered the light for 
which she had hitherto been seeking in vain. In 
May, 1935, she wrote to us: 

"... After the visits of those two student-teachers 
last April, I seem to have got something firm in my 
spirit. After the glowing joy of that time, I had to 
experience loneliness, and suffer trouble. At times 
I seemed to be losing my faith, but membership in 
the New Life Society kept me on .... Now I want 
to introduce two of my neighbors to be your mem 
bers " 

Soon after this she wrote to us to say that she 
joined her husband at Kure, one of the chief 
naval ports. We introduced her to the pastor 
there, and on July 26th, she received baptism, 
having been found quite prepared for the rite. 

A young man (he failed to file the "Connection 
Cards," so we do not know his exact age) was 
baptized at the church at Obihiro in Hokkaido 
(the northernmost island of the Japanese archi 
pelago) on Easter Day, this year. His name is Oba 
Asakichi. 

It! was in September, 1933, that ho wrote to us, 
inquiring about Christianity. At that time, he was 
living in Akita-ken, at the northwest end of the 
main island. To our request to file the "Connec 
tion Card" he replied that he was working at a 
place two miles from his home, making charcoal, 
and was unable to meet our request. 

In February, 1934, he wrote, to us asking us to 
find a job for him in Tokyo, to which we answered 
that it was not wise for him to como up to the 
capital. In spite of our advice he came to Tokyo, 
and was introduced to St. John s Church, where 



THE JAPAN CHRISTIAN NEWS AGENCY 305 

he found an old member of New Life Hall, who 
helped him and encouraged him. 

He was going on satisfactorily towards finding 
the true faith, but after a year, he fell ill and had 
to go back to his native village. Then he dis 
continued his membership with us, though we 
continued writing him from time to time. 

Then, in September, 1935, he informed us that 
he had moved to Hokkaido, and he renewed his 
membership with us. The following is the letter 
he wrote to us at that time : 

"The summer heat has not gone away yet, but I hope 
all the teachers at the New Life Hall are keeping 
well. To speak about myself, as you know, I went 
back to my native village giving up the hope of 
working in Tokyo because of my ill health. I came 
here to do agricultural work, hoping I might regain 
my health. I am sorry I have not been paying in my 
membership fees for so long. This place is far away 
from any church (I went through the names of the 
churches listed in the "Church Handbook" you sent 
me), and nobody can be found near by who knows 
anything about Christianity. I shall be very grate 
ful to you, therefore, if you kindly renew my member 
ship. If there is any church to which you "could in 
troduce me, I will make connections with it as soon 
as I can find a chance." 

We introduced him to Obihiro church, the 
nearest one to him, more than ten miles away. 
Dated April 7th, 1936, we received a card from 
him, saying: 

"Please forgive my long silence. In November of 
last year, I lost my job, and came out to Obihiro 
City. I found both a job and a church here. I am 



306 REPORTS _ :: 

ready to receive baptism on Easter Day. I am sorry 
I failed to report this before because of the pressure 
of my work. You will receive my report after bap 
tism." 

We received his report, and we join him giving 
praise to our common Saviour. He says : 

"On the sacred day when our Lord was risen again, 
I received baptism from Rev. S. Kimura, who came 
the long way from Sapporo. Forgiven of my sins, I : 
received the new name of Timothy. I thank you all 
at the New Life Hall for guiding me to this. I am 
determined to go oh studying the Word and keeping 
my vow made at baptism; I will go on in the way of 
Faith." 



PART IV 

MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 
19354936 



PART IV 
MISSIOiNARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 

A. Oltmans 

George Allchin 

Rev. George Allchin, D.D., was born January 
10, 1852, at Plumstead, Kent, England, and died 
at Pelham, New York, on November 28, 1935. 

For some time he labored as Y.M.C.A. Secretary 
in Ontario, Canada. After removing to the United 
States he graduated from Williams College and 
Bangor Theological Saminary. 

In 1882 Mr. Allchin married Miss Nellie Strat- 
ton of Boston and in that same year they came to 
Japan as missionaries of the American Board of 
Foreign Missions. They were located in Osaka 
where they continuad to live during all their mis 
sionary career, which lasted till 1920. 

Mr. Allchin is credited with having introduced 
into Japan the stereopticon in connection with 
evangelistic services. His Japanese Prodigal Son 
lecture was specially welcome. 

Church music was Dr. Allchin s central interest 
throughout his entire life. He introduced into 
Japan the Tonic Solfa system and thereby pop 
ularized the reading of western music among 
churches and groups in the city of Osaka. He 
had an active share in the production of the first 
Union Hymnal in 1904, which for a quarter of a 
century was the common book of praise for most 
of the Protestant churches in Japan. 



310 MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 

Dr. Allchin was also very fond of landscape 
gardening and laid out several schools and com 
pounds, and helped to beautify roads and grounds 
in Karuizawa. When in 1931 he returned to Japan 
on a visit he spent some weeks at the new site of 
the Kobe Woman s College helping in the land 
scaping of its beautiful grounds. Also the grounds 
of the American College in Sophia, Bulgaria, 
were laid out by him when there on a visit to his 
daughter. 

After the death of Mrs. Allchin in 1921 Dr. 
Allchin made his home with his daughter, Mrs. 
Bristol, in Pelham, New York. 

During the war Mr. Allchin volunteered for 
service with the American Red Cross and served 
in Vladivostok. In years he was a fulli generation 
separated from most of the other staff members 
but as "Daddy Allchin" he was affectionately 
known throughout the region. 

John C. Berry, M.D. 

Dr. J. C. Berry was born on January 16, 1847, 
at Small Point, Maine. He received his ordinary 
education at Monmouth Academy and Bowdoin 
College after which he entered Jefferson Medical 
College in Philadelphia, from which he was grad 
uated in 1871. In 1872 he married Marie Eliza 
beth Gove of Bath, Maine^ and in that same year 
they came out to Japan as missionaries of the 
American Board of Foreign Missions. 

"As a pioneer in modern medicine in Japan, 
Dr. Berry soon established a wide reputation. By 
working in the Government hospital at Kobe and 
by establishing outlying clinics in the province he 
was able to form contacts with many of the native 



MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 311 

doctors and so instructed them in Occidental 
methods." 

As a result of visiting Japanese prisons and re 
porting on existing conditions of Japanese prison 
life Dr. Berry was enabled to contribute greatly 
to their improvement. 

From 1879 to 1885 Dr. Berry labored in Oka- 
yama where he carried on extensive clinical work 
treating as many as 10,000 patients annually. 

In 1885 he was transferred to Kyoto. Here he 
founded the Doshisha hospital and the first train 
ing school for nurses in Japan. 

In acknowledgment of his splendid services 
along medical and other humanitarian lines His 
Majesty the Emperor bestowed upon him the 
Imperial Order of the Sacred Treasury of the 
Third Class, the highest honor that can be con 
ferred on a civilian. 

In the Proceedings of the Osaka Missionary 
Conference in 1883 there is found a paper read by 
Dr. Berry on "Missionary Health, Vacations and 
Furloughs" which is even at this day very useful 
reading for missionaries in Japan. 

Dr. Berry retired from the foreign field in 1893 
and established himself with his family at Wor 
cester, Massachusetts, where he founded the 
Worcester Memorial Home for the Blind, and in 
many other ways gave his life in service for his 
fellow-men. 

W. J. Callahan 

Reverend William Jackson Callahan was born 
at Whitesville, Georgia, July 27, 1866. He was 
graduated from Emory College in 1891 and 1 came 



312 MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 

to Japan as a teacher in a Government Middle 
School in the same year. 

He was accepted as a missionary by the Board 
of Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, in the spring of 1893. He was appointed 
to labor in Nakatsu during the summer of 1893. 
He married Miss Martha Taylor the same fall and 
together they served many stations in the South 
ern Methodist Mission until the summer of 1934, 
a period of forty-one years. 

Mr. Callahan served with great faithfulness, 
consecration and efficiency in the evangelistic 
work. In the fall of 1931 he enterprised a new 
phase of evangelistic work by tent campaigning 
throughout his large circuit; this he carried on by 
intense precultivation work and with a capable 
staff of helpers achieving marked success. By this 
method new towns were opened up and new con 
gregations were started and developed. Unlike 
the usual tent work done by others, Mr. Calla- 
han s tent movement was confined to his field of 
appointment. In this kind of evangelism he prov 
ed to be a successful pioneer. 

Mr. Callahan also enterprised and conducted 
for a few years a rural work among and for farm 
ers. He purchased more than 2,000 tsubo of land, 
provided necessary buildings, managed an exten 
sive set-up and employed a suitable worker to 
take charge. Before he retired he passed this work 
over to the Japan Methodist Church for further 
experiments and for continuous developments. 

A cable message from his Board of Missions in 
Nashville, Tennessee announced his death on 
April 16, 1936 at his home in San Antonio, Texas. 

His record is large and full of inspiration. He 



MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 313 

is survived by Mrs. Callahan, a son, two daugh 
ters and several grandchildren. 

Harry Montfort Gary 

Harry Montfort Gary was born in Burlington, 
Iowa, February. 14, 1878. His family moved to 
Canada in 1880 and then to Brooklyn, New York, 
where he was educated in the public schools. His 
higher education he received in a Catholic Semi 
nary in Louisville, Kentucky. Upon graduation he 
was sent as a missionary of the Passionists Broth 
erhood to Argentina where ho labored for six 
years. During this period of missionary service 
he passed through a great spiritual struggle 
which resulted in his return to the United States 
and, after a short term of service as curate of a 
church in Bernardsville, N. J., in his break with 
the church of his fathers. 

In 1907 Mr. Gary was married to Maude Lyons. 
The same year he accepted an invitation to be 
come pastor of a community church at Cragsmoor, 
N. Y. This was followed by pastorates in Con 
gregational churches at Clayton, Syracuse, and 
Ellbridge, N. Y. In 1914 he became pastor of a 
Universalist church at Auburn, N. Y., and then 
served for seven years as pastor of a Universalist 
church at Little Falls, N. Y. While in this pastor 
ate he received a call to become chairman of the 
Universalist Mission in Japan, the acceptance of 
which brought him and his family to this land in 
September, 1924. It is here that he labored until 
his death on April 30, 1936. In 1926 Lombard 
College, Illinois, conferred on him the degree of 
D. D. in recognition of his faithful and effective 
service. One of his last accomplishments as a mis- 



314 MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 

sionary in Japan was the erection of a church in 
Tokyo which was unusually well equipped for a 
ministry in sacred music. 

Outstanding characteristics of Dr. Gary s lifa 
were his steady upward struggle to higher levels 
of freedom and spiritual certitude and his catho 
licity of spirit* that made him a wonderful friend 
to many in all walks of life including always 
priests of the church with which he had broken 
ecclesiastically. He was handicapped with a frail 
body but this only brought out all the more the 
courage of his spirit and made him the sympathe 
tic and helpful friend of many other sufferers. In 
the pulpit he had few his equal for he had not 
only a remarkable command of language but also 
the power to impress others with the reality of 
things spiritual. 

Calvin Knox Gumming 

Calvin Knox Gumming, D.D., was born in 
Hampton Virginia, of Scottish parentage, on July 
1, 1854. He was educated at the University of 
Maryland, Princeton University, the University of 
Virginia, and Union Theological Seminary of 
Richmond, Virginia. He came to Japan as a mis 
sionary of the Southern Presbyterian Church in 
1889, and worked for thirty six years, retiring in 
1925. 

Dr. Gumming worked in Tokushima, Nagoya, 
Gifu, Kobe and Toyohashi. Although physically 
handicapped for many years by a stiff knes, he 
was an earnest country evangelist travelling far 
into the mountains in a jinrikisha. He also taught 
for many, years in governmnet middle schools, 
and is remembered today by many young men 



MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 315 

who keep with them the copies of the New Testa 
ment, which he gave, one to each graduate ot 
every class he taught. 

Dr. Gumming was a man of marked sweetness 
and gentleness, while at the same time, of great 
firmness of character. He was sincerely loved by 
all those who were associated with him, whether 
Japanese or foreigners, and through the power of 
love, his character and faith have entered into 
many hearts. 

Upon his retirement, he went to live in David 
son, North Carolina, where the same traits of 
character impressed all those who knew him. 
After 1 years of increasing bodily infirmity, he was 
called home on March 25, 1935. He is survived by 
his widow, who was Miss Ona Patterson of Hope- 
well, North Carolina, and whom he married in 
Nagoya in 1894. Two sons also survive, Samuel 
Calvin, an officer in the United States Marine. 
Corps, and William Patterson, a professor in 
Davidson College. 

Mrs. Mira Draper 

Mrs. Draper was born in Walden, Massachu 
setts, on May 6, 1859, the daughter of Bishop E. 
O. and Mrs. Haven. 

In January, 1880, she was married to the Rev. 
G. F. Draper and in March of the same year they 
arrived in Yokohama as missionaries of the Meth 
odist Episcopal Church. More than one half of 
Mrs. Draper s missionary life was spent in Yoko 
hama where she was engaged in various activities. 
These activities were not confined to her own Mis 
sion. She had wide and variegated interests 
connected with inter-mission movements such as 



316 MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 

the National Mothers Association, the inaugura 
tion of "Mothers Day" in Japan, the Women s 
Christian Temperance Union, the Yokohama 
Christian Blind School, etc. Her tract on "Moth 
ers Day," translated into Japanese, was widely 
distributed and largely instrumental in giving that 
day the place in the Christian world of Japan 
which it occupies at the present time. 

Speaking in Old Testament language Mrs. 
Draper might well be called a "Mother in Israel." 
Her interest in and cooperation with the Yoko 
hama Union Church and other cooperative efforts 
in the sea-port gave her the kind of influence that 
is of incalculable good both to permanent resi 
dents and to transient guests. 

The end of Mrs. Draper s long and useful life 
came on the 29th of October, 1935, from a very 
sudden heart attack, as she was recovering from 
some weeks of other illness. 

She is survived by her husband, two sons and 
three daughters. All of the latter 1 are in mission 
ary service in Japan. 

Dora Eringa 

Miss Dora Eringa was born near Springfield, 
South Dakota, on May 1, 1896. Sh-e graduated 
from Central College, Pella, Iowa, in 1921, and 
came to Japan in 1922. After a period of language 
study she became a teacher in Ferris Seminary, 
Yokohama, in 1924, in the period of readjustment 
following the great earthquake. Following a fur 
lough in 1927-28 her desire to engage in evangel 
istic work led to her assignment to Kurume. Here 
her strong religious spirit found expression in 
various avenues women s meetings, Bible class- 



MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 317 

es, Sunday Schools, church work, and teaching in 
a government school so as to gain contacts for 
Christian work. 

After three years in Kurume exigencies of mis 
sion personnel called her back to Ferris Seminary 
in 1933, where her main work was the teaching of 
English. But her earnest spirit found expression 
also in Sunday School and Y.W.C.A. work, in act 
ivity in Yokohama Union Church, and in calling 
in the homes of students. 

With a furlough approaching in 1936, she 
hoped upon her next return to Japan to give more 
of her time to religious work among the Ferris 
Seminary alumnae. But her Heavenly Father had 
other plans for her, and the nervous affection 
which came upon her late in August 1935, led to 
her return to America in October, where she 
passed away on February 11, 1936, following an 
attack of pneumonia. 

Miss Eringa was fond of athletics, wholesome 
and friendly in her relations with others, entering 
naturally and unselfishly into the life of school, 
church and community. She was loved by foreign 
ers and Japanese alike, winning their confidence 
and affection by her open, trustful nature and her 
self-effacing service for others. Eager to make 
herself useful in the Master s work, she gave 
much time to the study of the Japanese: language 
and to Bible study. Her strong devotional and 
religious spirit expressed itself even- to the last in 
search for fullest measure of Christian experi 
ence. The fragrance of her life remains t<> bless 
the lives of a host of friends. 



318 MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 

Mrs. Eleanor Fyson 

Mrs Eleanor Fyson came to Japan with her 
husband in 1874. They were stationed for ten 
years at Niigata, then an isolated place which 
gave no opportunity for the companionship of 
other; English women. Her kindly and genuine 
nature won the friendship of many Japanese. 
After Niigata came terms of service in Tokyo and 
Osaka, and finally in the Hokkaido of which her 
husband became Bishop. Upon their retirement 
from the Mission Field they lived for some years 
at Elmley Levett in Worcestershire. There Mrs. 
Fyson won the same love and friendship as she had 
done in Japan. Her clear insight and originality 
of thought added to the attractiveness of a loyal 
nature. Of her five sons two were killed in the 
War and a third permanently invalided by 
wounds. She, died on August 24, 1935 in her 
eighty-fifth year. 

Harvey Hugo Guy 

Dr. Guy was born November 9, 1870, in Osage 
City, Kansas, and died in Alameda, California, on 
January 30, 1936. 

After graduating from Howard High School 
Kansas in 1888 he attended Garfield University 
from 1888 to 1890, and Drake University, Des 
Moines, Iowa, from 1890 to 1893 where he re 
ceived the A.B., A.M. and B.D. degrees. 

Following his graduation he married Miss Mar 
tha Andrews, a graduate of Drake University, 
and together they came to Japan in the fall of 
1893 and took up work in Tokyo under the For 
eign Christian Missionary Society of Disciples of 
Christ. 



MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 319 

Dr. Guy spent the first 1 year of his furlough at 
the Chicago University and in the fall of 1901 he 
entered Yale University where the Ph.D. degree 
was conferred upon him in 1902. That same 
autumn he came to Japan a second time and was 
assigned by his Mission to organize its education 
al work. Early in 1903 he, with two Japanese 
assistants, opened a Bible Training School for 
men in a Church building facing the Imperial 
University in Kongo, Tokyo. That year the pre 
sent campus of Sei Gaku-in, Takinogawa, Tokyo, 
was purchased and by September, 1904, the first 
building was completed and what was then known 
as Drake Bible College began its sessions in its 
new quarters under the leadership of Dr Guy. 

Owing to Mrs. Guy s illness Dr. Guy resigned 
his position in 1907, when they returned to Amer 
ica. He maintained, however, his deep interest 
in Japan and the Japanese people and spent the 
next twenty years in various forms of activity 
along the Pacific coast particularly on behalf of 
second generation Japanese and Japan-American 
relations. 

They revisited Japan in 1927 and again in 1930 
when Dr. Guy was at the head of the Japanese 
section of the fact-finding Commission of the Lay 
men s Inquiry into Foreign Missions. 

Besides Mrs. Guy and their daugter Mrs. Henry 
Finke, the deceased is survived by a son Bernard, 
who is in business in Los Angeles. 

Mrs. Ephraim H. Jones 

Mrs. Jones arrived in Japan with her husband 
in 1884. They retired in 1920 and went to 
California to live and continue their work among 



320 MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 

the Japanese; Mrs. Jones died in Pasadena, 
March 2, 1935. 

Mrs. Jones first met Mr. Jones, who was then 
under appointment to Japan, at the annual meet 
ing of Northern Baptists, where she was seeking 
appointment as a missionary. Soon they were on 
their way to Japan, where, as a friend said, "she 
proved to be just the right wife for a pioneer mis 
sionary. She had the courage to start her new 
home in Sendai in a Japanese house, among Jap- 
enese neighbors, all of whom soon became her 
friends. She had the courage through all the 
years to carry the family burdens, looking after 
the education of the children and all the details of 
the home, thus leaving Mr. Jones free to give his 
entire time and strength to that wide and constant 
evangelism for which he became so well known 
throughout the North. Coming in from time to 
time, he found rest and strength in the well order 
ed home and in the companionship of the well 
trained children and their brave, cheerful mother. 
One of the things that we cannot forget about Mrs. 
Jones was that inimitable sense of humor that 
helped her and all of us through many difficult 
times." 

Amid her household duties, Mrs. Jones remem 
bered the need of those nearest her. Cook, stu 
dent, nursemaid she led them and many others 
to Christ. With her help the little maid became 
a beautiful, cultured, Christian woman. Quoting 
again: "We often called Mr. Jones a saint, and 
just as truly could Mrs. Jones have been called an 
angel a ministering spirit rejoicing in service 
for all in the name of her Master." 



MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 321 

Mrs. H. M. Landis 

Emma S. Landis, widow of the Rev. H. M. 
Landis, was born October 21, 1859, at Kamenz, 
Saxony. Her family name was Stiefler. She 
was married to Henry M. Landis on July 16, 1888, 
and they arrived in Japan at the end of Septem 
ber of that same year under appointment of the 
Board of Foreign Missions of the Northern Pres 
byterian Church. 

Their entire missionary life in Japan was spent 
on the campus of Meiji Gakuin, Shiba Ku, Tokyo, 
at which institution Mr. Landis was Professor. 
For a number of years Mrs. Landis taught German 
in Meiji Gakuin and also in the American School. 
But her most telling and best remembered work 
was in her home which she had the special grace 
and gift to make a place of welcome and of de 
lightful fellowship for a large number of students. 
In this voluntary and deeply appreciated labor of 
love she was for several years ably assisted by her 
daughters who graciously used their musical 
talent for* this purpose. 

The name, "Mother of Meiji Gakuin," given to 
Mrs. Landis by her student friends and proteges, 
was fully deserved. Those of them living now 
hold her in grateful and affectionate remem 
brance. 

After the death of Mr. Landis in 1921, Mrs. 
Landis remained for three years in active service, 
retiring in 1924. From that time on she lived with 
one or other of her children either in America 
or in Shanghai. It was at the latter place, in the 
home of one of her daughters, Mrs. M. P. Waker 
of St. John s University, that Mrs. Landis passed 



322 MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 

away on September 12, 1935. Her ashes were 
brought by her daughter and her son-in-law to 
Tokyo and deposited in the grave of her husband 
on 1 the missionary plot of the Zuishoji cemetery 
near Meiji Gakuin. 

Besides Mrs. Walker there are two daughters 
and two sons surviving their mother, all residing 
in the United States. 



The Right Reverend John McKim 

Bishop McKim was born in Pittsfield, Mass 
achusetts, on July 17, 1852, was educated at 
Griswold College and Nashotah Theological Semi 
nary, and upon graduation applied immediately 
for appointment as a Missionary to Japan. He 
was duly appointed, and arrived in Japan on 
March 1, 1880. After a short stay in Tokyo, 
where he taught in St. Paul s College, he was 
stationed in Osaka for evangelistic work in that 
City and in the province of Yamato. His varied 
experiences in those early days of missionary 
work in Japan included being stoned and hooted 
at while attempting to preach in the town of Kori- 
yama. 

He was elected second Bishop of Yedo, in 1892, 
by the American Church, and removed to Tokyo. 
His jurisdiction at this time included what is now 
the Missionary District of Kyoto and half of 
Osaka, as well as half of Tokyo and all the ter 
ritory north as far as Aomori. From this territory 
there have been set off two Missionary Districts 
Kyoto in 1898 and Tohoku in 1919; in 1923 that 
part of Tokyo City under his care was handed over 
to the Japanese Bishop of Tokyo, and Bishop Me- 



MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 323 

Kim became the Bishop of the District of North 
Tokyo. 

He received the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
from Nashotah in 1893, from Trinity College, 
Hartford, in 1895, and from Oxford University in 
1928; that of Doctor of Laws from Nashotah in 
1928 ; was decorated with the Fourth Order of the 
Sacred Treasure by the Emperor of Japan in 1925, 
and with the Third Order of the same decoration 
in 1936. 

In November, 1935, when he retired, he was 83 
years old, the senior Bishop in active service in the 
American Church, and had served 55 years in 
Japan, 33 of them as Bishop. He left Japan for the 
last time on November 1, 1935, and entered into 
Life Eternal on April 4, 1936, at Honolulu. 

Faithful to every trust, with a deep and abiding 
faith in his Saviour and devotion to the Church, 
his labors in Japan spread to every department of 
life except the political. His memorials remain, 
not alone in the Nippon Seikokwai in the establish 
ment and development of which his part was the 
greatest, nor in the two self-governing Japanese 
Dioceses and two other; Missionary Districts 
carved out of his original field, nor in the three 
Japanese Bishops whom he consecrated, but also 
ini the medical and educational institutions and in 
the many churches throughout Japan which grew 
up under his care, the many clergy whom he or 
dained and the thousands of souls of those on 
whose heads he laid his hands in benediction. 

Henry Keller Miller 

Henry Keller Miller was born in Lebanon, 
Pennsylvania, on November 9, 1866. He spent the 



324 MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 

years of his childhood and youth in Reading, to 
which his parents, Daniel and Sarah Keller Miller, 
removed two years after his birth. He gradu 
ated from the Reading High School in 1884 with 
high honors. He then entered Franklin and Mar 
shall College, Lancaster, from which he graduat 
ed in 1888, again with honors, one of which was 
the receiving of a gold medal for proficiency in the 
German language. He was a member of the Phi 
Beta: Kappa fraternity. 

In September 1889 he entered Union Theologi 
cal Seminary, New York, from which he gradu 
ated in 1892. While in New York he took special 
work in Comparative Religion under Dr. E. E. 
Ellinwood of the University of the City of New 
York, from which institution he received the de 
gree of M.A. in 1892. The Doctor of Divinity de 
gree was conferred upon him by Franklin and 
Marshall College in 1922. 

In 1892 he arrived in Japan as a missionary of 
the Reformed Church in the United States. For 
four years he taught Ethics, Apologetics, and 
English in Tohoku Gakuin, Sendai, at the same 
time also carrying responsibility for evangelistic 
work in Sendai and vicinity. He founded the 
Higashi Rokubancho Church of Sendai. 

From ; 1896 to 1908 he was stationed in Yama- 
gata where he devoted himself to evangelistic 
work in Yamagata and Akita prefectures. On 
April 12, 1898, he was married to Miss S. Sprague 
of the Protestant Episcopal Mission. In 1908 he 
was appointed Acting-Principal of Miyagi College 
in Sendai. From 1911 to the time of his depar 
ture he lived in Tokyo, where he had charge of 
the work of his Mission both in the city and in 



MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 325 

Saitama prefecture. During the summer of 1935 
symptoms of illness appeared, and he was unable 
to regain his strength. He died at the Tokyo 
Sanitarium on February 28, 1936. He is survived 
by his wife, who through nearly forty years of 
married life, and especially during these long 
months of illness, was a faithful helpmate. 

Rufus Benton Peery 

Rufus Benton Peery Ph.D., D.D., was born in 
the Valley of Virginia in 1868 and received his 
education at Roanoke College, Salem, Virginia 
and Gettysburg College and Seminary, Gettys 
burg, Pennsylvania. Both of these institutions later 
honored him with Doctor s degrees. He came to 
Japan in 1892, as one of two pioneer missionaries 
from the United Synod of the South, Lutheran. 
He, with his colleague, opened the Lutheran work 
in Saga, Kyushu, and lived in that city till 1903 
with only a few months furlough. During his 
furlough he was married to Miss Letitia Rich of 
Virginia. Although his work was essentially 
evangelistic, Dr. Peery also prepared men for the 
ministry, and did some valuable translation work. 
He was very literary and during his time in Japan 
wrote "The Gift of Japan," a book which proved 
popular and is still widely used. He also publish 
ed "Lutherans in Japan," a book that did much to 
inform the home church of work on this field. 
Dr. Peery was noted for his fluent and natural use 
of Japanese and is still remembered by old resi 
dents of Saga ken. 

In America Dr. Peery had served as pastor in 
churches in Pennsylvania, Colorado, Illinois, 
Ohio and North Carolina. He was president of 



326 MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 

Midland College, Atchinson, Kansas, from 1912 to 
1919, and College Pastor at Lenoir Rhyne College, 
Hickory, North Carolina, some years later. Dr. 
Peery never ceased to be a missionary and was in 
demand at summer schools and conferences as a 
teacher of Bible and Missions. 

After an illness of more than two years he pass 
ed into life, at Raleigh, North Carolina, on Octo 
ber 25, 1934, being in his sixty-seventh year. Mrs. 
Peery and six sons survive him. One son is in the 
ministry, one an educationalist, and his third 
son, Rob Roy Peery, is a well known song writer 
and musician. 

Dr. Rachel Read 

Miss Rachel Read was born at Clearfield, Penn 
sylvania, on October 19, 1861, and died at Nojiri, 
Nagano Ken, Japan, on August 25, 1935, -at the 
home of Dr. and Mrs. Outerbridge where she was 
visiting at the time. Her passing came most sud 
denly and unexpectedly as a result of apoplexy. 
Funeral services were held at Nojiri and also at 
Karuizawa where Dr. Read had her summer 
home. 

Miss Read came to Japan in 1894 in response to 
a request from Mrs. Nitobe for a foreign nurse in 
her serious illness. After spending four years in 
the Nitobe home at Sapporo she returned to the 
United States, where she took up the study of 
osteopothy. In 1902 she came back to Japan and 
till the time of her demise practised as an osteo 
path at her home in Reinanzaka, Tokyo, and 
during the summers at her cottage in Karuizawa. 

Her work brought Dr. Read in contact with a 
large number of foreign residents in Tokyo as she 



MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 327 

had a wide clientele. She made also many con 
tacts in a social way, being interested and active 
in various activities of the ladies of the foreign 
community. She was a regular attendant at the 
Tokyo Union Church and a supporter of the work. 
Dr. Read will be missed by a host of friends as 
well as by a large number of people that were 
helped by her healing art. Though not a mis 
sionary in name, she was one in deed and hence 
has a rightful place on the roll of missionaries 
that have been called to higher service. 

Miss Eliza Ritson 

Miss Eliza Ritson, who died at Sunderland, 
England, on August 25, 1935 was 25 years a mis 
sionary of the C. M. S. in Japan. Except for 
three months on arrival in Osaka the whole of 
that time was given to Tokushima, where she serv 
ed the church devotedly by work, prayer, and 
gift. There are many in Tokushima who remem 
ber her with thankfulness to God for the light 
which she was the instrument of bringing into 
their lives. "Only God can measure how much 
her love and prayer have done both for individu 
als and for the church." She retired from Japan 
about eighteen years ago and lived in England un- 
till her death. 

Mrs. H. W. Schwartz 

Lola Reynolds Schwartz was born near Syra 
cuse, New York, in 1864. Her parents were God 
fearing people who gave her her religious back 
ground and training. She attended Syracuse 
University and was a member of the Alpha Phi 



328 MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 

Sorority there. On the 22nd of August, 1884, she 
married Dr. Herbert W. Schwartz. They came 
to Japan the same year and spent their first years 
as missionaries of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, in Tokyo. After this they moved to 
Sendai to begin their active work in the field. It 
was in Sendai that Mrs. Schwartz learned to know 
and to love the Japanese people. In Sendai two 
of her children were born and another, her young 
est, passed away. 

Hirosaki was Mrs. Schwartz home at two dif 
ferent times, the first being when the three oldest 
children were very small. In those days Hiro 
saki was very inaccessible and life was hard in 
that city. Here Mrs. Schwartz had to struggle 
against illnesses and the severity of the climate 
and finally was forced to leave, after the death of 
her second child, going back to the port of Ao- 
mori on horse-back in mid-winter. From there 
they embarked for Tokyo for the burial of their 
child. 

From 1898 till about 1905 Mrs. Schwartz lived 
in the United States owing to the return there for 
her husband s health and change of work. But 
Japan ever held the warmest place in her affec 
tions and she found her way there again with her 
three youngest children a year following Dr. 
Schwartz return. They lived again in Hirosaki, 
then in Sendai and finally in Yokohama. 

In 1921 her husband died. The last fifteen 
years before her passing Mrs. Schwartz lived in 
America with her eldest daugter and on Novem 
ber 2, 1935, she quietly and confidently went to 
rest with great peace of mind and heart. Her 



MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 329 

children can say of her, "thy gentleness hath 
made me great." 

Charles Buckley Tenny 

Rev. Charles Buckley Tenny, D. D., whoso 
death occurred January 11, 1936, was born at 
Hilton, New York, September 10, 1871. Of stur 
dy, pioneer stock, he spent his boyhood days bat 
tling with the rocky soil of western New York. 

Feeling the pioneer urge to possess a larger 
world, he matriculated as a student in the State 
Normal School at Brockport, New York. After 
graduation, he completed the arts course in the 
University of Rochester and then was graduated 
from the Rochester Theological Seminary. He 
had the mind and mood of a scholar. On his 
graduation from the Seminary, he was offered the 
position of Associate Professor in its Greek New 
Testament Department, his work in Greek having 
been exceptional. The Temple Baptist Church 
of Rochester sought to secure him as assistant 
pastor and director of religious education. Dr. 
Tenny had, however, early heard the call to the 
mission field and shortly after graduation from 
the Seminary he sailed 1 for Japan, arriving in 
1901. His early years were^ spent in evangelistic 
work in Kobe and Kyoto. 

In 1908 he was elected to the Chair of Greek 
New Testament Exegesis at the Yokohama Bap 
tist Theological Seminary and in 1913 became 
president. Later, when the Yokohama school 
united with Duncan Academy in Tokyo, he was 
chosen president of the union school. Impressed 
by the need of a Christian school for young men in 
the Yokohama-Kanagawa, Prefecture and encour- 



330 MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 

aged by Governor Ariyoshi, with the assistance of 
Principal T. Sakata, he founded Kwanto Gakuin, 
Yokohama, in 1919. After the earthquake of 
1923, undaunted, he threw himself into the work 
of reconstruction, and in 1927, when Greater 
Kwanto Gakuin was organized with Middle, Com 
mercial, Literary and Theological Departments, 
he was appointed President. 

Dr. Tenny had a rugged personality which not 
only inspired confidence but kept impelling him to 
attempt difficult things. With it all there was a 
geniality about him which won for him a large 
circle of friends. In Dr. Tenny there was the 
rare combination of the keen scholar and the fer 
vent evangelical, a wonderful balance of 1 mind 
and heart. Although he spent most of his thirty 
years in Japan in educational work, his interest in 
building a strong, aggressive, Japanese Christian 
church deepened with the passing of the years. 

Illness brought on by overwork compelled Dr. 
Tenny to return to the United States in 1930, and 
he never fully rallied from this breakdown. In 
a very true sense it may be said that he was a mar 
tyr to the cause of Christian education in Japan. 

Dr. Tenny is survived by his wife, his daughter 
Mrs. Fredrick Hall, and his son Frank. 

Gertrude Willcox Weakley 

Gertrude May Willcox was born into a parson 
age home in New London, Connecticut, on Octo 
ber 28, 1864. From her earliest childhood she was 
surrounded by influences which led her into a 
highly cultured womanhood. After graduating 
from Wellesley in 1888 she went abroad for fur 
ther study, spending one winter in the art schools 



MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 331 

of Paris, and touring Europe, before her return to 
her home in Chicago, Illinois. For several years 
she taught in girls school in St. Charles, Missouri, 
and in Chicago. 

On her return from Europe she had volunteered 
for missionary work in a foreign land. Her pre 
paration fitted her admirably for a, position in 
Kobe College which she accepted, coming to 
Japan in 1897. After two years of teaching the 
girls in this mission school she became missionary- 
at-large to the girls of Japan through her mar 
riage to the Reverend William R. Weakley, then 
working in the city of Oita. From the time of her 
marriage until 1927 the years were spent in con 
secrated service in Oita, Hiroshima, Osaka, and 
Yamaguchi Prefecture. Wherever she and her 
husband went they threw themselves into the 
work of establishing the Kingdom of God in the 
field allotted them. 

The qualities that made Mrs. Weakley a good 
missionary were many. Her love of children led 
her to be interested always in Sunday School 
work. Today many of the Sunday Schools which 
she started and encouraged have grown into 
flourishing churches. One of the last pieces of 
work she did in Japan was to establish a chil 
dren s library from which scores of children bor 
rowed books daily. Her unfailing hospitality made 
her home open at all hours to any who came for 
pleasure, for comfort, or for knowledge of the life 
more abundant. She inspired all with whom she 
came into contact with her vitality, her enthus 
iasm, and her tirelessness in effort. It was impos 
sible to be closely associated with her without 



332 MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 

catching new visions and having one s horizons 
broadened. 

From the time of her serious illness in 1928 
until her death on September 8, 1935, she was 
unable to take any active part in the work she 
loved, but her thoughts centered always around 
Japan and the Japanese people for whom she had 
given her life. God has established the work of 
her hands and will cause it to bring forth fruit for 
many years to come. 

Miss Ida M. Worth 

Miss Ida M. Worth came to Japan as a mission 
ary of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
August, 1896. She died in St. Louis, January 17, 
1936. 

Miss Worth s first work centered in the day 
school for neglected Eurasian children that had 
been opened in Kobe by Mrs. M. I. Lambuth and 
in a school that later developed into the training 
school for women evangelists and is now the Bibl 
ical Department of the Lambuth Training School 
for Christian Workers, in Osaka. Miss Worth 
served for several years as principal and was most 
enthusiastic in planning for the development of a 
body of trained women for the work of the church. 
Realizing the importance of working through the 
home as a center, she early organized a kinder 
garten which was patronized by influential 
homes. In these homes she was soon a welcome 
visitor. 

In 1907, Miss Worth was transferred to Oita 
where the mission opened a center for women s 
work, and soon a kindergarten was reaching 



MISSIONARY OBITUARIES 1935-1936 333 

homes in that section. From Oita she worked out 
to Beppu and other towns. 

In 1921, Miss Worth was appointed to Kure 
and later to Kyoto. For health reasons she had 
to return to the U.S.A. in 1928. There for months 
she devoted herself to the care of a sister who was 
losing] her sight. 

Physically she was removed from Japan but her 
heart ever turned this way and to the end she was 
loyal to the many friendships that had been made. 
Loyalty to friends, a high sense of honor, a love of 
the beautiful in nature, art and people, a sympa 
thy and understanding of younger missionaries to 
whom she was willing to trust the work and an 
unswerving faith in God were the outstanding 
characteristics of this true fellow-worker and 
friend. 



PART V 
DIRECTORIES 

AND 

STATISTICS 



PART V 
DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



English Speaking Congregations 



1. TOKYO 

HOLY TRINITY CHI RCII (American Episcopal), Aoyama, 1 Cho 
me. 

Chaplain?: (Vacant) (Bishop Reifsnider in charge) 
Treasurer: Rev. C. H. Evans, American Church Mission, 

Ikebukuro, Tokyo. 
Sunday Services: 

8:00 a.m.; Holy Communion 

11:00 a.m., Morning Prayer and Sermon. On the first Sun 
day in the month, Holy Communion and Sermon. 
Holy Days: Holy Communion at 8:00 a.m. 

ST. ANDREW S CHURCH (Anglican) ligura 1 Chome, Shiba 
Park, Tokyo. 

Chaplain: Rev. C. K. Sansbury, Seikokwai Shingakuin, 1612 
Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo. 

Chairman of the Church Council: H. E. The Canadian Min 
ister. The Canadian Legation, Tokyo. 

Secretary: Mr. G. S. Carey, 19 Hirakawa cho, 2 Chome, Koji- 
machi-ku. 

Treasurer: Mr. L. V. Allen, 25 Daimachi, Akasaka-ku, Tokyo. 

President Ladies Guild: Lady Clive, The British Embassy, 
Tokyo. 

Regular Services: 

On Sundays: 8:00 a.m., Holy Communion. 

11:00 a.m. (in winter), 10:00 a.m. (in summer), 
Morning Prayer and Sermon. Holy Communion 
ori first and third Sundays at noon. 



338 DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Other Days: Holy Communion on Tuesdays at 7:30 a.m., and 
on Saints Days at 8:00 a.m. 

(Evensong is said every Sunday at 5:30 p.m., in 
Central Theological College Chapel at Ikebukuro) 

TOKYO I XIOX CHURCH, 4 Onden, Meiji Jingu Dori, Aoyama, 
Tokyo. 
Acting Minister and Chairman of the Board: Rev. Willis 

Lamott, 1 Meiji Gakuin, Tokyo. 
Clerk of the Board: Mr. R.L. Durgin, Y.M.C.A., Mitoshiro Cho, 

Kanda, Tokyo 

Treasurer: Mr. F. S. Thomas, 665 Marunouchi Bldg., Tokyo. 
Supt. Church School: To be supplied. 

Regular Services: 

2:45 p.m., Church School. 
4:00 p.m., Service of Worship. 

(During July and August, Vespers at 5:00 p.m.) 
President Women s Society: Mrs. Darley Downs. 

2. YOKOHAMA 

CHRIST CHURCH (Anglican) 234 Bluff, Yokohama. 

(Telephone: Honkyoku (2) 6128) 

Chaplain: Rev. R. P. Pott. 

Chairman of the Board: Mr. H.A. Champan. 

Treasurer: Mr. H. A. Champan. 

Secretary: Mr. W. Haywood. 

Regular Services: 

8:00 a.m., Holy Commnion. 
10:00 a.m., Children s Own Service. 
11:00 a.m., Morning Prayer. 

12:00 m., Holy Communion (1st and 3rd Sun 
days). 
6:00 p.m., Evensong. 

July-August: 

7:30 a.m., Holy Communion. 
9:00 a.m., Children s Own Service, 
9:30 a.m., Morning Prayer. 

10:15 a.m., Holy Communion (1st and 3rd Sun 
days). 

Saints days and Thursdays (except July- August). 
7:00 a.m., Holy Communion. 
5 :00 p.m., Evensong. 

YOKOHAMA UXION CHURCH, 66-B Bluff, Yokohama. 

Pastor: Rev. Harold W. Schenck (residence adjoining church). 



ENGLISH SPEAKING CONGREGATIONS 339 



Chairman of the Board: Dr. D. C. Holtom, 1 of 4 Miharu Dai, 
Yokohama. 

Treasurer: Mrs. Lamb, 90 Bluff. 

Secretary of the Board: Rev. H. V. E. Stegeman, Ferris Semi 
nary, Yokohama. 

President Women s Auxiliary: Miss Olive I. Hodges, 124 Mal 
ta Machi, Yokohama. 

Supt. Church School: Rev. H. W. Schenck. 
Regular Services: 

9:30 a.m., Church School 

11:00 a.m., Service of Worship 

(The Sacrament of the Lord s Supper is observed 
on the second Sunday of October, January and 
April, and the fourth Sunday of June). 

3. KOBE 

ALL SAINTS CHFRCH (Anglican- American Episcopal), Tor Hotel 
Road. 

Chaplain: Rev. J. C. Ford, M.A., 53 Nakayamate Dori, 3 Cho- 
me, Kobe. 

Chairman of Directors: Capt. F. H. Fegen. 
Hon. Treasurer: G. W. Land, Esq. 
Sunday Services: 

Holy Communion, 7:15 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. 
1st and 3rd Sundays also at 11:45 a.m. 
Children s Service, 9:45 a.m. 
Morning Prayer & Sermon, 11:00 a.m. 
Evensong and Sermon 6:00 p.m. 

Weekday Services: 

Morning Prayer, 8:00 a.m. 
Evensong, 5:30 p.m., 
Fridays & Saint s Days, 
Holy Communion, 7:00 a.m. 

KOBE ITNION CHURCH, 34 Ikuta Cho, 4 Chome (Near Kano-cho, 

2 Chome, Car-stop). 
Pastor: Rev. W. J. M. Cragg, D.D., Kwansei Gakuin, Nishino- 

miya (Telephone: Nishinomiya 620) 

Secretary: Rev. H. C. Ostrom, D.D., 51 Shinohara, Nada-ku. 
Supt. Sunday School: Rev. G. K. Chapman. 
Treasurer: R. L. Macdonald, 2190 Kitano-cho, 4-chome. 
Assistant Treasurer: Mr. C. Macpherson, 85 Kitano-cho, 1- 

chome. 
President Women s Auxiliary: Mrs. K. Kreutz. 



340 DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Regular Services: 

9:45 a.m., Sunday Scuool 
11:00 a.m., Morning Worship 
6:00 p.m., Evening Worship 
5:00 p.m., (Thursday) Prayer Meeting 
The Lord s Supper is observed (Morning) first 
Sunday of each month; (Evening) third Svinday 
of each month. 

The Women s Auxiliary meets the fourth Friday, 
3:00 p.m. 

The Church Committee meets the last Wednes 
day, 8:00 p.m. 

4. NAGASAKI 

NAGASAKI UNION CHURCH: The Nagasaki Episcopal Church 
The Nagasaki Union Church (Services at the Seaman s Home 
Chapel, 26 Oura, Nagasaki). 
The Union Church: 

Chairman: Rev. F. N. Scott, D.D. 

Secretary :Miss Vera Fehr. 

Tresurer: Miss Taylor. 
The Episcopal Church:. 

Hon. Chaplain: Rev. Canon A. C. Hutchison 

Secretary-Treasurer: Mr. E. R. S. Pardon. 
Sunday School Superintendent: Miss Taylor 
Regular Services: 

Sundays, Seaman s Horns: 4:30 p.m. 

First and third Thursdays: 8:00 p.m. 

Sunday School, Seaman s Home: 9:30 a.m. 

English Communion Service, Seaman s Home, 

first Sunday: 8:00 a.m. 

5. NAGOYA 

A union service of worship is held every Sunday at 3:45 p.m. 
in the St. John s Episcopal Church (Yohane Kyokai), Higashi- 
katahaha Machi, Higashi-ku, Nagoya. 

6. KYOTO 

ST. MARY S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, Maruta Machi, Hiromichi, 
Kado. 
Acting Pastors: The Bt. Rev. S. H. Nichols and Rev. B. F. 

Shively. 
Regular Services: 

4:00 p.m., Service of Worship 

8:00 p.m., (Wednesday) Prayer Meeting. 

7. OSAKA 

A union service of worship is held in the Lambuth Training 



ENGLISH SPEAKING CONGREGATIONS 341 

School Chapel opposite the Daiki terminal in Tennoji-ku. 
Pastor Chairman: Rev. A. F. Randall, P.O. Box 7 Ikoma, Nara- 

ken 

The services are held the first and third Sundays of each 
month at 4:00 p.m. from October to June inclusive. 

8. SEXDAI 

SEXDAI: Rahauser Memorial Chapel of Tohoku Gakuin. 
Chairman: Mr. Donald L. Zoll, 79 Kita Nibancho, Sendai. 
Regular Services: 

Service of Worship on the second and fourth 
Sundays of each month at 3:30 p.m.. from Sept 
ember to June inclusive. 

German Speaking Congregations: 

i. 

DEI TSCHE EVAXGELISCHE KIRCHENGEMEIXDE, TOKYO- 
YOKOHAMA. 

Kirche: Kojimachiku, Nakarokubancho 28, Ecke Togozaka. 
Gottesdienste: Predigtgottesdienste alle 4 Wochen meist am 

ersten Sonntag im Monat. Perner Bibslstunden 

jeden Sonntag. 
Pfarrcr: Pfarstelle Z. Z. unbesetzt. Auskunft uber die Gemeihdo 

erteilt der Vorsitzende. 
Vorsitzender: Kurt Meissner, % Leybold Shokwan, Tokyo 

Tatemono Bldg., Nihonbashiku. 
Kassenwart: W. G. Fritzke. 

2. 
DEUTSCHE EVAXGELISCHE KIRCHENGEMEIXDE, KOBE. 

Kirche: Unierte Kirche Kobe (Union church) 34 Ikuta Cho 4 

Chome (Haltestelle: Kanocho Nichome). 
Gottesdienste: 

a) Predigtgottesdienste: vierwochentlich meist 
am letzeten Sonntag im Monat vorm. 9 :30 Uhr. 

b) Kindergottesdienste : An den Predigtsonn- 
tagen um 8:30 Uhr vorm. 

c) Bibelstunden: wochentlich jeden Mittwoch- 
abend um 7:30 Uhr. 

Pfarrer: Pfr. E. Hessel, Missionar der Ostasienmission, Zwin- 
glihaus, Kyoto, Shogoin Higashimachi 10. 
Tel. Kami 5754. 

Vorsitezender: H. Suss, P.O.B. 165, Kobe Tel.Fukiai 3096. 
Kassenwart: H. Heinze, c/o Winckler & Co. P.O.B. 75 Kobe. 

Beide Gemeinden sind der Deutchen Evangelischen Kirche, 
Kirchliches Aussenamt Berlin, angeschlossen. Sie stehen alien 
Deutschsprechenden also auch Nicht-Reichsdeutschen offen. 



M. Takumi 



The list is classified as fol 
lows: 

I. Universities 

II. Colleges 

A. For Men 

B. For Women (Sem- 
mon Bu of Koto 
Jo Gakko includ 
ed) 

III. Theological Schools 

A. For Men (Coedu 
cational includ 
ed) 

B. For Women (Bible 
Training Schools 
included) 

IV. Normal Schools 

A. For Men (See also 
under II A) 

B. For Women 
(Teacher Train 
ing and Kinder 
garten Schools in 
cluded) 

V. Middle Schools 

A. For Boys (Chuto 
Gakko) 

B. For Girls (Koto 
Jo Gakko) 

VI. Night Schools 

VII. Special Schools 

VIII. Primary Schools 

IX. Kindergartens 

Note: The initials, given 
after the name of each insti 



tution, are taken from the list 
of Mission Boards and Churchs 
in this volume and are used to 
indicate the Church and Mis 
sion, to which the School is 
related, either officially or in 
formally. 

I. UNIVERSITIES 

Doshisha University. 

KK, ABCFM. 

612 Shinkitakoji Cho, Kami- 

kyo KUJ Kyoto. 
Tel. Kami 430 to 434. 
Mr. Hachiro Yuasa, Ph.D., 

Sc. D., President. 
Faculty of Law and Econo 
mics, Mr. Masakatsu Ka- 

wara, Dean. 
Faculty of Theology and 

Literature, Rev. Setsuji 

Otsuka, Dean. 
Preparatory College, 

Mr. Masumi Hino, Dean. 

Kwansei Gakuin University. 

NMK, MES, UCC. 
Nishinomiya Shigai, Hyogo 

Ken. 

Tel. Nishinomiya 620. 
Rev. C. J. L. Bates, D.D., 

President. 
Faculty of Literature and 

Law, Rev. H. F. Woods- 
worth, Dean. 
Faculty of Commerce and 

Economics, Mr. K. Kan- 

zaki, Dean. 
Junior College, Mr. S. Kiku- 

chi, Dean. 



344 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Rlkkyo Daigaku (St. Paul s 
University). 
PE 
1273 3 Chome, Ikebukuro, 

Toshima Ku, Tokyo. 
Tel. Ohtsuka (86) 0404, 1223. 
Rt. Rev. C. S. Reifsnider, D. 

D., President. 
Rikkyo Daigaku, 

Mr. Shigeharu Kimura, 

LL.D., Director. 
College or Arts, Rev. Shigeo 

Kojima, Ph.D., Dean. 
College of Economics, Mr. 

Shigeharu Kimura, LL.D., 

Acting Dean. 
Preparatory Department, 

Rev. Enkichi Kan, M.A., 

Dean. 

Tokyo JoshI Daigaku (Wom 
an s Christian College). 
ABF, MEC, PN, RCA, UCC, 

, CJCMS. 
3 Chome, logi, Suginami Ku, 

Tokyo. 

Tel. Ogikubo 2049 
Miss Tetsu Yasui, Litt, D., 

President. 

Department of English Liter 
ature, Mr. Rinshiro Ishi- 
kawa, Dean. 

Department of Japanese Lit 
erature, Mr. Kenji Shuzui, 
Dean 

Department of Philosophy, 
Mr. Saburo Funada, Dean. 
Junior College, Mr. Goro 
Ishihata, Dean. 

II. COLLEGES 
A. For Men 

Aoyama Gakuin, Koto Shogyo 
Gakubu, Koto Bungaku bu. 
NMK, MEC. 
Midorigaoka, Shibuya Ku, 

Tokyo. 

Tel. Aoyama (36) 2008. 
Rev. Y. Abe, D.D., President. 
Mr. Kosaka, Dean. 
Mr. Murakami, Dean. 



Doshisha Koto Shogyo Gakko 

(Doshisha College of Com 
merce). 
ABCFM. 

Iwakura Mura, Kyoto Fu. 
Tel. Kami 1327. 
Mr. Kenji Washio, Principal. 

Doshisha Semmon Gakko (Do 
shisha College for Vocatio 
nal Training). 
ABCFM. 

Tel. Kami 430-434. 
Mr. Monkichi Namba, Prin 
cipal. 

Department of English 
Teaching, Mr. Takaoki Ka- 
tsuta, Dean. 

Department of Law and Eco 
nomics, Mr. Monkichi Nam 
ba Dean.- 

Kanto Gakuin. 

ABF. 

Miharudai, Naka Ku, Yoko 
hama. 

Tel. Chojamachi (3) 0201. 

Mr. Tasuku Sakata, Princi 
pal. 

Koto Shogyo Gakubu (Com 
mercial Course), Mr. G- 
Shirayama, Dean.. 

Kwansei Gakuin Koto Shogyo 
Gakko, (Kwansei Gakuin 
Higher Commercial School). 
| TMKj MEB, UCC. 
Nishinomiya Shigai, Hyogo 

Ken. 

Tel. Nishinomiya 620. 
Mr. K. Kanzaki,, Principal. 

Kwansei Gakuin, Semmon Ga 
kubu. 

NMK, MES, UCC. 
Nishinomiya Shigai, Hyogo 

Ken. 

Tel. Nishinomiya 620. 
Rev. C. J. L. Bates, D.D., 

President. 
Literary Department, Rev. 

H. F. Woodsworth, Dean. 

Mei i Gakuin 

NKK, RCA, PN. 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



345 



Shirokane, Shiba Ku,. Tokyo. 

Tel. Takanawa (44) 3666-8. 

Rev. W. G. Hoekje, D.D., 
Acting President. 

Koto Shogyo Bu (Commer 
cial Course), Mr. C. Ishi- 
bashi, Dean. 

Koto Gakubu (English Lit 
erature and Social Train 
ing), 
Mr. M. Nakayama, Dean. 

Seinau Gakuin 
SBC. 

Nishi Jin Machi, Fukuoka. 
Tel. 3170. 

Mr. Y. Mizumachi, President. 
Literary Department, 

Mr. K. Sugimoto, Dean. 
Commercial Department, 
Mr. T. Omura, Dean. 

Tohoku Gakuin, Koto Gakubu. 
History, English and Com 
mercial Course). 

NKK, ERC. 

1 Rokken Cho, Sendai. 

Tel. 363. 

Mr. Teizaburo Demura, Ph. 
D., President. 

B- For Women (Semmon Bu 

of Koto Jo Gakko Included) 

Aoyania Gakuin, Joshi Sem 
mon Bu, (Household Eco 
nomics) 

MEG. 

22 Midorigaoka Shibuya Ku, 
Tokyo. 

Tel. Aoyama (36) 2011. 

Miss A. B. Sprowles, Dean. 

Baika Joshl Semmon Gakko. 

KK, ABCFM. 

Toyonaka Cho, Osaka. 

Tel. Okamachi 206. 

Rev. Kikujiro Iba, Principal. 

Doshisha Joshi Semmon Gak 
ko, (Doshisha Woman s 
College). 
ABCFM. 



Imadegawa Dori, Tera Machi, 
Kamikyo Ku, Kyoto. 

Tel. Kami 434. 

Mr. Tetsu) Katagiri, 
Principal. 

Ferris Wael Jo Gakko, (Ferris 
Seminary), Koto Bu (Eng 
lish literature and House 
hold Economics). 

RCA. 

178 Yamate Cho, Naka Ku. 
Yokohama. 

Tel. Honkyoku (2) 1870. 

Rev. H.V.E. Stegeman, D.D., 
Principal. 

Miss Sada Hayashi, Vice- 
iPrincipal. 

Hoian Jo Gakuin (St. Agnes 
School)," Seiiko Bu, (Eng 
lish Literature and House 
hold Economics). 

NSK. 

Shimotachiuri, Karasuma- 
ru, Kamikyo Ku, Kyoto. 

Tel. Nishijin 330. 

Rev. Kishiro Hayakawa, D. 
D., Principal. 

Hiroshima Jo Gakuin, Semmon 
Gakko, (English Litera 
ture, Household Economics 
& Home-making Courses). 

NMK, PN. 

46 Kaminagaregawa, Hiro 
shima. 

Tel. 506, 3860. 

Rsv. Zensuke Hinohara, Pre 
sident. 

Miss Katherine Johnson. 
Dean. 

Hokusei Jo Gakko, Senko Ka, 
(English and Household 
Economics). 

PN. 

Minami 5 Jo, Nishi 17 Cho- 
me, Sapporo. 

Dr. Yoshinao Niijima, Prin 
cipal. 

Miss Alice M. Monk, Council 
lor. 



346 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Kelsen Jo Gakuin, Koto Bu. 
NKK. 

Funabashi, Chitose Mura. 
Kita Tamagun, Tokyo Fu. 

Tel. Matsuzawa 73. 

Miss Michiko Kawai, Prin 
cipal 

Kinjo Joshi Semmon Gakko 

(English Literature, Jap 
anese Literature and 
Household Economics). 

NKK, PS. 

4 Chome, Shirakabe Cho, 
Higashi Ku, Nagoya. 

Tel. Higashi 5620. 

Mr. Yoichi Ichimura, Prin 
cipal. 

Kobe Jogakuin (Kobe College) 
ABCFM. 
Nishinomiya Shigai, Hyogo 

Ken. 

Tel. Nishinomiya 2264, 2265. 
Miss Charlotte De Forest, L. 

H.D., President. 
Rev. Hiroshi Hatanaka, B.A., 

B.D., Vice-President. 
Dai Gakubu, (English Liter 
ature), 

Rev. H. Hatanaka, Dean. 
Koto Bu, (English .Course) 

Miss C.B. De Forest, L.H.D., 

Dean. 
Musical Department, Miss C. 

B. De Forest,, L.H.D., Dean. 

Kwassui Joshi Semmon Gakko. 

NMK, MEC. 

13 Higashi Yamate, Nagasaki. 
Tel. 1416. 

Miss Anna Laura White, 
Principal. 

Miyagi Jo Gakko, Senko Bu. 

(Music, Home Economics, 

Engilsh and Bible). 
NKK, RCUS. 
168 Higashi Sanban Cho, 

Sendai. 
Tel. 912. 
Rev. Carl, D. Kriete, D.D., 

Principal. (Tel. 4395) 



Musical Department, Miss K. 

I. Hansen, Mus. Doc.. 

Dean. 
English Department. Miss L. 

A. Lindsey. M. A., Dean. 
Home Economics Depart 
ment, Miss M.. E. Hoffman, 

B. S., Dean. 

Shokei Jo Gakko (Domestic 
Science, Sewing and Cook 
ing, English, Commercial, 
Kindergartners Training). 
ABF. 

2 Nakajima Cho, Sendai. 
Tel. 1192. 

Mr. Kensuke Ando, Prin 
cipal. 

Soshin Jo Gakko, Semmon Ka 
(Household Economics and 
English Literature) 

ABF. 

8 Nakamaru, Kanagawc, Ku, 
Yokohama. 

Tel. Honkyoku (2) 2176. 

Mr. Tasuku Sakata, Princi 
pal. 

Tokyo Joshi Daigaku (Wom 
an s Christian College), 
Senmon Bu (English, Jap 
anese Literature, Mathe 
matics). 

ABF, MEC, PN, RCA, UCC, 
UCMS. 

3 Chome, logi, Suginamiku, 
Tokyo. 

Tel. Ogikubo 2049. 

Miss Tetsu Yasui, Litt.D., 

President. 
English Course, Mr. Rinshi- 

ro Ishikawa, Dean. 
Japanese Literature Course, 

Baron Kunisada Imazono, 

Dean. 
Mathematical Course, Dr. 

Motoji Kunieda, Dean. 

III. THEOLOGICAL 
SCHOOLS 

A. For Men (Coeducational 
Included) 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



347 



Aoyama Gakuin, Shin Gaku- 
bu. 

ABF, NMK, MEC, UCC, UCMS. 

Midorigaoka, Shibuya Ku, 
Tokyo. 

Tel. Aoyama (36) 2008. 

Rev. Y. Abe, D.D., Dean. 

Miss Harriet J. Jost, Associ 
ate Dean. 

Chuo Shin Gakko. 

PN,, PS. 

Kumochi Cho 1 Chome, 3 
Banyashiki, Kobe. 

Rev. S. P. Fulton, D.D., Prin 
cipal. 

Doshisha I niversity, Faculty of 
Theology and Literature, 
Department of Theology. 

KK, ABCFM, UB. 

Imadegawa Dori, Karasumaru, 
Higashiiri, Kyoto. 

Tel. Kami 430. 

Rev. Kyoji Tominomori, Dean. 

Ikonia Seisho Gakuin. 

JAM. 

Tawaraguchi, Ikoma cho, 

Ikoma Gun, Nara Ken. 
Rev. Leonard W. Coote, 

Principal. 

Kytiseigun Shikan (iakko 

(Salvation Army Officer s 

Training School. 
SA. 
31 2 Chome, Jingu Dori, 

Shibuya Ku, Tokyo. 
Tel. Aoyama (36)4163. 
Lieut. Colonel Shizu Sashida, 

Principal. 

Kwansei Gakuin, Semmon Ga- 
kubu, Theological Dept. 

NM-K, MES, UCC. 

Nishinomiya Shigai, Hyogo 
Ken. 

Tel. Nishinomiya 620. 

Rev. C. J. L. Bates, D.D., 
President. 

Rev. M. Hori, Dean. 



Ninon Ruteru Shingaku Sem- 
mon Gakko (Japan Luthern 
Theological Seminary ) . 

LCA. 

921 Saginomiya, 2 Chome, 
Nakano Ku, Tokyo. 

Rev. Edward T. Horn, D.D., 
Principal. 

N ihon Saniku Gakuin. 

SDA. 

Showa Machi, Kimitsu Gun, 

Chiba Ken. 
Mr. Andrew N., Nelson, 

Principal. 

Xihon Shin Gakko. 

NKK. 

100 Tsunohazu, Nichome, 

Yodobashi Ku, Tokyo. 
Tel. Yotsuya(35) 0270. 
Rev. S. Murata, Principal. 

Seikokai Shin Gakuin. 

NSK. 

1612 3 Chome, Ikebukuro, 

Toshima Ku, Tokyo. 
Tel. Otsuka (86)1200. 
Rev. Kichinosuke Ochiai, D.D., 

Principal. 

Seinan Gakuin, Shin Gakubu. 
SBC. 

Nishi Jin Machi, FukuoKa. 
Tel. 3170. 
Rev. K. Shlnoda, Dean. 

Shinkyo Shin Gakuin, 

(Theological Course for 

Graduates Specializing in 

German Theology). 
FFK, OAM. 
% Zwinglihaus, 10 Higashi 

Machi, Shogoin, Kyoto. 
Tel. Kami 5754. 
Rev. T. Ono, Principal. 

Taihoku Shin Gakko, (Taihoku 

Theological College); 
PCC. 

Tamsui, Formosa. 
Rev. J. D. Wilkie, Principal. 

Tainan Shin Gakko (Tainan 
Theological College). 



348 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Tainan, Formosa. 
Rev. W. E. Montgomery, 
Principal. 

Tohoku (iakuin, Shin Gakubu. 

ERC, NKK. 

1 Rokken Cho, Sendai. 

Tel. 1509 

Rev. E. H. Zaugg, Ph.D., Dean. 
B. For Women (Bible Training 
Schools Included). 

Baptist Joshi Shingakko (Bap 
tist Women s Bible Training 
School). ABF. 

50 1 Chome, Minami Dori, 
Moto-Imasato Cho. Higashi 
Yodogawc} Ku, Osaka. 

Kobe Joshi Shin Gakko (Kobe 
Woman s Evangelistic 
School). 

ABCFM, KK. 

Okadayama, Nishinomiya. 

Tel. Nishinomiya 2624. 

Rev. K. Nishio, Acting Prin 
cipal. 

Kyoritsu Joshi Shin (iakko. 

NKK. wu. 

209 Yamate Cho, Naka Ku, 

Yokohama. 

Tel. Honkyoku (2)3003. 
Miss Susan A. Pratt, 

Principal. 

Lambuth Jo Gakuin, Shin Ga- 
kubu, (Lambuth Training 
School for Christian Work 
ers). 

MES. 

Ishigatsuji Cho, Teiinoji Ku, 
Osaka. 

Tel. Minami 1475. 

Rev. Tadashi Tanaka, 
President. 

Bib ical Department, Miss 
Mabel Whitehead, Dean. 

Ninon San Iku Jo Gakuin, 

( Japanese Girls Training 
School). 



SDA. 

171 1 Chome, Amanuma, 

Suginami Ku, Tokyo. 
Tel. Ogikubo 2051. 
Mr. T. H. Okahira, Principal. 

Seshi Jo Gaknin (Training 

School for Women Workers 

of the Church). 
NSK, CMS. 
Sarushinden, Ashiya, Hyogo 

Ken. 

Miss E. A. Lane, Principal. 
Miss Mitsuo Nakamura, 

Vice-Principal. 

Tokyo Seikei Jo CJakuin. 

EC. 

84 Sasugaya Cho, Koishikawa 

Ku, Tokyo. 

Tel. Koishikawa (85) 3546. 
Rev. Gosaku Okada, Principal. 

Women s Bible School, 

(Joshi Seisho Gakko). 
EPM. 

Tamsui, Formosa. 
Miss J. A. Lloyd, Principal. 

Women s School. 
PCC. 

Tamsui. Foromsa. 
Tel; Tamsui 107. 
Miss Alma Burdick, Principal. 

IV. NORMAL SCHOOLS 

A. For Men ;. . 

(See Also Under II A) 

Aoyiima (iakuin, Bun Gakubu. 
NMK, MEC. 
22 Midorigaoka, Shibxiya Ku, 

Tokyo. 

Tel. Aoyaina (36)2008. 
Mr. S. Murakami. Dean. 

Doshisha Semmon Gakko, Eigo 
Shihan Bu, (School tor 
Vacational Training ) . 

ABCFM. 

Shinkitakoji, Kamikyo Ku, 
Kyoto. 

Tel. Kami 430-4. 

Mr. Takaoki Katsuta, Dean. 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATVJKAL INSTITUTIONS 



349 



B. For Women 

(Teacher Training and 
Kindergarten Schools; Included) 

Aoba Jo Gakuln (Kindergarten | 

Training School). 
PE. 

69 Moto Yanagi Machi, Sendai. 
Miss Helen Boyle, Principal. 
Miss Bernice Jansen, 

Kindergarten Supervision. 

Lambuth Jo Gakuin (Lambuth 
Training School lor Chris 
tian Workers). 

NMK, MES. 

Ishigatsuji Cho, Tennoji Ku, 
Osaka. 

Tel. Minami 1475. 

Rev. Tadashi Tanaka, 
President. 

Kindergarten Teacher Train 
ing Department, Miss Mar 
garet M. Cook, Dean. 

Ryu jo Hobo Yoseijo (Ryujo 

Kindergarten , Teachers 

Training School). 
NSK, MSCC. 
5 1 Chome. Shirakatae Cho, 

Higashi Ku, Nagoya. 
Tel. Higashi 3090. 
Miss Nora F. J. Bowman, B.A., 

Principal. , 

Sakurai Joshi Eigaku Jiku, 

(Normal Course, Honka). 
NKK. 
3 Yayoi Cho, Kongo Ku, 

Tokyo. 
Miss Fuki Kuratsuji, 

Principal. 

Shoei Hoiku Senko Gakko 

(Glory Kindergarten Train 
ing School ) . 
KK, ABCFM. 
- 6 Chome, Nakayamate Dorl, 

Kobe Ku, Kobe. . 
Mrs.. Catherine Akana, 
Principal. 
Kindergarten Training 



Tokyo Hobo Denshu Slio 

( Tokyo Kindergarten Train 
ing School). 

ABF 

101 Hara Machi, Koishikawa 
Ku, Tokyo. 

Miss Kiku Ishihara, Principal. 

Toyo Eiwa Jo Gakko, Yochlen 
Shihanka (Toyo Eiwa Jo 
Gakko, Kindergarten Train 
ing Department). 

UCC. 

8 Toriizaka, Azabu Ku, Tok yo. 

Tel. Akasaka (48)1773. 

Miss F. Gertrude Hamilton, 
Principal. 

Miss E. Jost, Dean. 

V. MIDDLE SCHOOLS 

. A. For Boys (Chuto Gakko) 

Aoyama Gakuin, Chu Gakubu. 
NMK, MEC. 
Midorigaoka, Shibuya Ku, 

Tokyo. 

Tel.. Aoyama (36) 2008 
Rev. Y. Abe, President. 
Rev. T. Miyakoda, Dean. 

Chinzel Gakuin, Chu Gakubu. 
NMK, MEC. 
152 Takenokubo Machi, 

Nagasaki. 
Tel. 3261. 
Rev. Noboru Kawasaki, 

Principal. 

Doshisha Chu Gaku. 

ABCFM. 

Imadegawa dori, Karasumaru 
Agaru, Kamikyo Ku, Kyoto. 

Tel. Kami 430. 

Mr. Nisaku Nomura, Prin 
cipal. 

Kanto Gakuin, Chu Gakubu. 
ABF. 

Miharudai, Naka Ku, Yoko 
hama. 

Tel. Chojamachi (3) 2108. 
Mr. T. Sakata, Dean. 

Kwansei Gakuin, Chu Gakubu. 
NMK, MES, UCC. 



S5G 



Nishinomiya Shigai, Hyogo 

Ken. 

Tel. Nishinomiya 620. 
Mr. Y. Manatae, Deon. 

Kyushu Gakuln. 

ULCA. 

Oye machi, Kumamoto. 
Tel. 779. 

Rev. Hajime Inadori, Prin 
cipal. 
Rev. L. S. C. Miller, Dean. 

Meiji Gakuin, Chu Gakubu. 

N KK, PN, RCA. 

Shirokane, Shiba Ku, Tokyo. 
Tel. Takanawai (44) 3666-8. 
Rev. Senji Tsuru, Dean. 

Momoyama Chu Gakko. 

NSK. 

5 Showa Cho, Naka 3 Chome, 

Sumiyoshi Ku, Osaka. 
Tel. Tennoji 5910. 
Mr. Hiizu Koizumi, Principal. 

Xajjoya Chu Gakko. 

MP. 

17 Chokyuji machi, Nagoya. 

Tel. Higasht 87. 

Rev. Paul W. Warner, Pre 
sident. 

Mr. Katsumi Kimura, Prin 
cipal. 

Kikkyo Chu Gakko (St. Paul s 

Middle School). 
PE. 
Ikebukuro, Toshima Ku, 

Tokyo. 

Tel. Otsuka (86) 0405. 
Rev. Shigeo Kojima, Ph.D., 

Principal. 

Sei Gakuin Chu Gakko. 

UCNS. 

275 Nakazato Cho, Taklno- 

ga*a Ku, Tokyo. 
Tel. Koishikawa (85) 0522. 
Rev. Yokichi Hirai, Principal. 

Sei mm Gakuin, Chu Gakubu. 
SBC. 

Nishi Jin machi, Fukuoka. 
Tel. 3170. 
Mr. K. Sasaki, Dean. 



Tainan Chorokyo Chu Gaku. 

Tainan Presbyterian Mid 
dle School). 
EPM. 

425 Goko, Tainan, Formosa. 
Tel. 933. 
Mr. Chotaro Kato, Principal. 

Tamsui Chil Kaku (Tamsui 
Middle School). 

PCC. 

Tamsuigai, Tamsui Gun, 
Taihoku Shu, Formosa. 

Tel. 594. 

Rev. Hugh MacMillan, Prin 
cipal. 

Tohoku Gakuin, Chu Gakubu. 
ERG, NKK. 
40 Higashi Niban Cho, Sen- 

dai. 

Tel. 634. 
Mr. Tadashi Igarashi, Dean. 

To-o Gijiku. 

NMK, MEG. 

2 Shimoshirokane Cho, Hiro- 
saki. 

Tel. 702, 714. 

Mr. Junzo Sasamori, Princi 
pal. 

B. For Girls 

(Koto Jo Gakko) 

Aoyama Gakuin, Koto Jo Ga 
kubu. 

MEC. 

22 Midorigaoka, Shibuya Ku. 

Tokyo. 

Tel. Aoyama (36) 2011. 
Miss A. B. Sprowles, Dean. 

Baika Joshi Semmon Gakko. 

Koto Jo Gaku Bu. 
KK. ABCFM. 
Toyonaka Cho, Osaka. 
Tel. Okamachi 206. 
Rev. Kikujiro Iba, President. 

Dosliisha Koto -Jo Gakubu, 

(Doshisha Girls Academy). 
ABCFM. 
Imadegawa Dori, Tera Machi, 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



351 



Nishi, Kami, Kyo Ku, Kyo 
to. 

Tel. Kami 434. 

Mr. Tetsu Katagiri, Principal. 

Ferris Waei Jo Gakko, Chuto 
Bu, (Ferris Seminary). 

RCA. 

178 Yamate Cho, Naka Ku, 
Yokohama. 

Tel. Honkyoku (2) 1870. 

Rev. H. V. E. Stegeman, D.D., 
Principal. 

Miss Sada Hayashi, Vice- 
Principal. 

Fukuuka Jo Gakko. 

NMK, MEC. 
Yakuin, Fukuoka. 
Tel. 2222. 

Miss Yoshi Tokunaga, Prin 
cipal. 

Fureiido Jo Gakko (Friends 

Girls School). 
TFP. 
30 Koun Cho, Mita, Shiba 

Ku, Tokyo. 
Tel. Mita (45) 3390. 
Mrs. Toki Tomiyama, Prin 
cipal. 

Hinonioto Jo Gakko. 

WABFMS. 

50 Shimotera Machi, Himeji. 
Tel. Himeji 875. 
Mr. Kembi Yamamoto, Prin 
cipal. 

Heian Koto Jo Gakko (St. 

Agnes School). 
NSK. 
Shimotachiuri. Karasumaru, 

Kami Kyo Ku, Kyoto. 
Tel. Nishijin 330. 
Rev. Kishiro Hayakawa, D.D 

Principal. 

Hirosaki Jo Gakko. 
NMK, MEC. 

Sakamoto Machi, Hirosaki. 
Tel. 842. 
Mr. S. Muranaka, Principal. 



Hiroshima Jo Gakuin, Koto Jo 
Gakutau. 

NMK, PN. 

46 Kaminagaregawa, Hiro 
shima. 

Tel. Hiroshima 506, 3860. 

Rev. Zensuke Hinohara, Prin 
cipal. 

Mr. Shigeta Wakiyama, Dean. 

Hokuriku Jo Gakko. 

NKK, PN. 

11 Kami Kakinoklbatake, 

Kanazawa. 
Mr. Shoshichi Nakazawa, 

Principal. 

Hokusei Jo Gakko. 

PN. 

Minami 5 Jo, Nishi 17 Cho- 
me, Sapporo. 

Miss Alice M. Monk, Council 
lor. 

lai Jo Gakko. 

NMK, MEC. 

64 Suginami Cho, Hakodate. 

Tel. 1118. 

Mr. N. Obata, Principal. 

Joshi Gakuin. 

NKK, PN. 

33 Kami Niban Cho, Koji- 

machi Ku, Tokyo. 
Tel. Kudan (33) 1175. 
Miss Tami Mitani, Principal, 

(Tel. Kudan (33) 1393). 

Joshi Sei Gakuin. 

UCMS. 

354 Nakazato Cho, Takino- 

gawa Ku, Tokyo. 
Tel. Koishikawa (85) 0523. 
Rev. Yokichi Hirai, Principal. 

Keisen Jo Gakueii. 

NKK, BC. 

Funabashi, Chitase Mura, 
Kita Tama Gun, Tokyo Fu. 

Tel. Matsuzawa 73. 

Miss Michiko Kawai, Princi 
pal. 

Kinjn Joshi Semmon Gakko, 

Fuzoku Koto Jo Gakko. 



52 



NKK, PS. 

2, 4 Chome, Shirakabe Cho, 
Higashi Ku, Nagoya. 

Tel. Higashi 5620. 

Mr. Yoichi Ichimura, Prin 
cipal. 

Kobe Jo Gakuin (Kobe Col 
lege), Koto Jo Gakubu. 
:ABCPM. 
Nishinomiya Shigai, Hyogo 

Ken. 

Tel. Nishinomiya 2264, 2265. 
Mr. Ichizo Kawasaki, Dean. 

Koran Jo Gakko. 

NSK. 

360 Sanko Cho, Shirokane, 
Shiba Ku, Tokyo. 

Tel. Takanawa (44) 4943. 

Mr. Jinkichi Inoue, D.E., 
Principal. 

Miss L. K. Tanner, Vice- 
Principal. 

Kwassui Jo Gakko. 

NMK, MEC. 

13 Higashi Yamate, Nagasaki. 
Tel. 1416. 

Miss Anna Laura White, 
Principal. 

Kyoai Jo Gakko. 

"KK. 

131 Iwagami Cho, Maebashi. 

Tel. 430. 

Rev. Saishi shiu, Principal. 

Kyoritsu Jo Gakko, (Doremus 
School for Girls). 

WU. 

212 Yamate Cho, Naka Ku, 
Yokohama. 

Tel. Honkyoku (2) 3003. 

Miss Clara D. Lqomis, Prin 
cipal. 

Kyushu Jo Gakuin. 

LCA. 

Murozono, Kumamoto Shi 
gai. 

Tel. Kumamoto 2187. 

Miss Martha B. Akard, Prin 
cipal. 



Matsuyama Shinonoine Koto 
Jo Gakko, (Matsuyama 
Girls High School). 
KK, ABCFM. 

65, 3 Chome, Okaido, Matsu 
yama. 

Tel. 677. 

Miss Olive S. Hoyt, Principal. 

Miyagi Jo Gakko, Koto Jo Ga 
kubu. 

EBC, NKK. 
168 Higashi Sanban Cho, 

Sendai. 
Tel. 912. 
Rev. Carl D. Kriete, D.D., 

Principal. 
Mr. Kiyoshi Ichimi, Dean. 

Oye Koto Jo Gakko. 
KK. 

642 Kuhonji, Oye Machi, 
Kumamoto. 

Tel. 1614. 

Rev. Yasoo Takezaki, Prin 
cipal. 

Poole Koto Jo Gakko (Bishop 
Memorial Girls High 
School). 

NSK, CMS. 

5 Chome, Katsuyama Dorl, 
Higashinari Ku, Osaka. 

Tel. Tennoji 290. 

Mr. Tokuro Toyofuji, Prin 
cipal. 

Miss Katherine Tristram, 
Principal Emeritus. 

Rikkyo Koto Jo Gakko (St. 

Margaret s School). 
PE. 
122. 3 Chome, Kugayama, 

Suginami Ku, Tokyo. 
Tel. Ogikubo 2118. 
Rev. G. H. Kobayashi, D.D., 

Principal. 

Seinan Jo Gakuin. 

SBC 

Itozu, Kokura. 
Tel. 964. 

Mr. Matsuta Hara, Principal. 
Miss C. E. Lancaster, Vice- 
Principal. 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



353 



Shimonoseki Baiko Jo Gakuin 

( Sturges Seminary ) . 
PN, RCA. 

Maruyama Cho, Shimonoseki. 
Tel. 1196. 
Mr. T. Hirotsu, Principal. 

Shizuoka Elwa Jo Gakko. 
NMK, UCC. 
81 Nishi Kusabuka Machi, 

Shizuoka. 
Tel. 1417. 

Miss Isabel Govenlock, Prin 
cipal. 

>li(iiii Koto Jo Gakko. 
SPG. 

3 Chome Aotani, Kobe. 
Tel. Fukiai 3477. 
Mr. I. Asano, Principal. 

Shokei Jo Gakko. 

ABF. 

2 Nakajima Cho, Sendal. 

Tel. 1192. 

Mr. Kensuke Ando, Principal. 

Note : Beginning April 1, 1936. 
The Higher Department will in 
cluded household economics, 
English. Kindergarten training, 
business. 

Soshin Jo Gakko 

ABF. 

8 Nakamaru, Kanagawa Ku, 
Yokohama. 

Tel. Honkyoku (2) 2176. 

Mr. Tasuku Sakata, Princi 
pal. 

Tainan Chorokyo Jo Gakko. 

(Tainan Presbyterian Girls 
School ) . 

EPM. 

Goko, Tainan, Formosa. 

Tel. Tainan 805. 

Miss Jessie W. Gait, Princi 
pal. 

Tansui Jo Gakuin (Tansui 

Girls School). 
FCC. 

Tansui, Formosa. 



Miss Dorothy Douglas, Prin 
cipal (A) 

Miss Georgia M. Newbury, 
Acting Principal. 

Toyo Eiwa Jo Gakko. 

UCC. 

8 Toriizaka, Azabu Ku, To 
kyo. 

Tel. Akasaka (48) 1773. 

Miss F, Gertrude Hamilton, 
Principal. 

\Vilmina Jo Gakko. 

PN. 

515 Niemon Cho, Tamatsu- 
kuri, Higashi Ku, Osaka. 

Tel. Higashi 3220. 

Rev. Kinnosuke Morita, Prin 
cipal. 

Yamanashi Eiwa Jo Gakko. 
NMK, UCC. 
Atago Machi, Kofu. 
Tel. Kofu, 2591. 
Miss Katharine M. Green- 
bank, Principal. 

Yokohama Eiwa Jo Gakko, 

Koto Jo Gakubu. 
MP. 
124 Malta Machi, Naka Ku, 

Yokohama. 

Tel. Chojamachi (3) 6031. 
Miss Olive I. Hodges, 
Principal. 
Rev. Kiyoshi Otake, Dean. 

VI. NIGHT SCHOOLS 

Fraser Eigo Gakko (Fraser In- 

sttitute). 
NMK, MES. 

323 Zakoba Machi. Hiroshima. 
Rev. Weyman C. Huckabee, 
Principal. 

Fukagawa Kaikan Eigo kai. 
5 Nichome, Shirakawa Cho, 

Fukagawa Ku, Tokyo. 
Rev. William Axling, D. D., 

Principal. 

GoM>igijiku Ya Gakko (Gosei- 
gijiku Night School). 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



OBJ. 

Katata Machi, Shiga Ken. 

Rev. S. Nishimura, Principal. 

Hacliiman Eigo Gakko. 
OBJ. 

Ishin Cho, Hachiman, Shiga 

Ken. 

Tel. Omi-Hachiman 420. 
Mr. William Merrell Vories, 

LL. D., Principal. 

Harajiku Eigo Gakko. 

ABF. 

79 3 Chome, Onden, Shibuya 

ku, Tokyo. 
Mr. J. Pullerton Gressitt, 

Principal. 

Kanto Gakuin Eigo Ya Gakko, 

(Kanto Gakuin English 
School). 

ABF. 

Miharudai, Naka Ku, Yoko 
hama. 

Tel. Chojamachi (3) 0201. 

Mr. Tasuki> Sakata, Princi 
pal. 

Katata Night School. 
OBJ. 

Katata Mochi, Shiga Ken. 
Mr. T. Kawakami, Principal. 

Konau Bunka Gakko. 

UB. > 

Young Men s Department 

Higashiura, Otsu, Shiga 

Ken. 
Rev. Toshio Nakamura, 

Principal. 
Young Women s Department. 

Awazu, Ishiyama, Otsu. 
Rev. J. Edger Knipp, D.D., 

Dean 

Kyoto Doitsugo Ya Gakko. 

OAM. 

c/o Fukyu Fukuin Kyokwai, 

20 Yoshida Naka Adachi 

Machi, Kyoto. 
Tel. Kami 5754. 
Rev. E. Hessel, Principal. 



Kyoto Latengo to Girishago Ya 
Gakko. 

OAM, FFK. 

c/o Zwinglihaus 10 Higashi 

Machi, Shogoin, Kyoto. 
Tel. Kami 5754. 
Mrs. Hessel, Principal. 

Kyoto Seinen Kai Eigo Gakko. 

YMCA. 

Sanjo, Kyoto. 

Matsuyama Ya Gakko (Matsu- 
yama Night Schol). 

KK, ABCFM. I 

20 Nagaki Machi, Matsuyama. 

Tel. 1554. 

Mr. Sugao Nishimura, Prin 
cipal. 

Mead Eigo Ya Gakko (Mead 
Christian Center English 
Night Schol). 

ABF. 

50 Moto Imazato Cho, Mina- 
mi Dori, 1 Chome, Higashi 
Yodogawa Ku, Osaka. 

Mr. Sabrow Yasumura, Prin 
cipal. 

Mlsaki Eigo Gakko (Baptise 

Tabernacle). 
ABF. 
2, 1 Chome, Misaki Cho, 

Kanda Ku, Tokyo, 
Tel. Kanda (25) 1628. 
Rev. William Axling, D.D., 

Principal. 

Mejiro Eigo Gakko. 

EC. 

500 1 Chome, Shimo Ochiai, 
Yodobashi Ku, Tokyo. 

Rev. P. S. Mayer, D.D., Prin 
cipal. 

Xagoya Seinen, Gakuin. 

YMCA. 

30 Minami Kawaramachl, 

Naka Ku, Nagoya. 
Tel. Naka (3) 146. 
Mr. C. Kikuchi, Principal. 

Xegishi Eigo Gakko (NegishI 
English Night School). 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



355 



ucc. 

105 Shimo Negishi, Shitaya 
ku. Tokyo. 

Tel. Negishi (87) 0808. 

Rev. G. E. Bott, Principal. 

Mr. Yoshio Kokita, Vice- 
Principal. 

Omi Keiteisha Jo Gakko, (O- 

mi Brotherhood Girls 
School). 

OBJ. 

Hachiman Cho, Gamo Gun, 
Shiga Ken. 

Mr. Etsuzo Yoshida, Prin 
cipal. 

Mr. K. Hiyama Vice-Princi 
pal. 

Osaka Kirisutokyo Joshi Sei- 

nen Gakuin, (Osaka Y.W. 

C.A. Girls School). 
YWCA. 
13 Nishiogi Machi, Kita Ku. 

Osaka. 

Tel. Kita 1300. 
Miss Haruko Asai, Principal. 
Yakan Kojo Bu, Miss K. Ai- 

zawa, Dean. 

Otaru Eigo Ya Gakko. 
ABF. 
5 Nishi 3 Chome, Hanazono 

Cho, Otaru. 
Mr. S. Kobayashi, Principal. 

Palmore Ei Gakuin, (Palmore 
Institute). 

NMK, MES. 

23 Kita Nagasa Dori, 4 Cho 
me, Kobe Ku, Kobe. 

Tel. Fukiai 5504. 

Mr. J. S. Oxford, Principal. 

Palmore Jo.shi Ei Gakuin. 

MES. 

35 Naka Yamate Dori, 4 Cho 
me, Kobe. 

Miss C. G. Holland, Princi 
pal. 

Sendai Y. M. C. A. English 
School. 

YMCA. 



35 Motaraki Cho, Sendai. 

Tel. 2006. 

Mr. G. Demura, Principal. 

Sliiritsu Takulioku Seinen Ga 
kko. 
KK, ABCFM. 

20 Nagaki Machi, Matsuyama. 
Tel. 1554. 

Mr. Sugao Nishimura, Princi 
pal. 

Tokyo Seikei Jo Gakuin. 
EC. 
84 Sasugaya Cho, KoishikavM 

Ku, Tokyo. 

Tel. Koishikawa (85) 3546. 
Rev. Gosaku Okada, Principal. 

Tokyo Y. M. C. A. Eigo Gakko, 

(Tokyo Y. M. C. A. English 
School ) . 

YMCA. 

7 Mitoshiro Cho, Kanda Ku, 
Tokyo. 

Tel. Kanda (25) 2105. 

Mr. Rinshiro Ishikawa, Prin 
cipal. 

VVasetla Eigo Kaiwa Gakko, 

(Waseda English Conversa 
tion School). 

ABF 

550 1 Chome, Totsuka Machi, 
Yodobashi Ku, Tokyo. 

Tel. Ushigome (34) 3687. 

Rev. H. B. Benninghoff, D.D., 
Principal. 

Yokohama Eigo Gakko, (Yoko 
hama Y. M. C. A. English 
School). 

YMCA. 

Tel. Chojamachi (3) 4360, 
3775. 

Tokiwa Cho, Yokohama. 

Mr. D. Tokida, Principal. 

Yotsuya Eigo Gakko, (Yotsuya 
English School). 

ABF. 

48 Minami Tera Machi, Yo 
tsuya Ku, Tokyo. 

Rev. Shigeru Aoyagi, Princi 
pal. 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



VII. SPECIAL SCHOOLS 

Glfu Mo fiakko (School for the 
Blind). 

NSK, MSCC. 

Umekae Cho, Gifu Shi. 

TelJ 1255. 

Mr. Kelgoro Kozaki, Princi 
pal.. 

Gyoko Hoikuen .. (Nursery 

School). 
MP. 
133 1 Chome, Mutsumi Cho, 

Naka Ku, Yokohama. 
Miss Chiyoko Takahashi, 

Director. 

Koc-hi Jo Gakukai (Carrie Mc 
Millan Home). 

PS. 

180 Takajo Machi, Kochl. 

Miss Anniei H. Dowd, Princi 
pal. 

N ansokan, Kyoiku Bu, (Eng 
lish, Cooking). 
KK, ABCFM. 
Nishi Machi, Tottori. 
Tel. 977. 
Mr. S. Shibata, Principal. 

Selruka Joshi Semmon Gakko, 

(St. Luke s International 

Medical Center College of 

Nursing). 
PE. 
Akashi Cho, Tsukiji, Kyo- 

bashi Ku, Tokyo. 
Tel. Kyobashi (56) 6101 to 

6105. 
Bishop N. S. Binsted, Acting 

Director. 

Surugadai Jo Gakuln, (Tokyo 
Y. W. C. A. School). 

YWCA. 

8 1, Chome, Surugadai, Kan- 
da Ku, Tokyo 

Miss Taka Kato, Priucipal. 



Miss Emma R. Kaufman, 
Vice-Principal. 

VIII. PRIMARY SCHOOLS 

Hiroshima Jo Gakuin, Fuzoku 
Sho Gakko. 

NKK, PN. 

46 Kaminagaregawa, Hiro 
shima. 

Tel. 506. 

Rev. Zensuke Hinohara, 
Principal. 

Mr. Shigeto Kamiya, Dean. 

Rikkyo Koto Jo Gakko, Fuzo 
ku Jinjo Sho Gakko. 

PE. 

Kugayama, Suginami Ku, 
Tokyo. 

Tel. Ogikubo 2118. 

Rev. J. H. Kobayashi, D.D, 
Principal. 

Toyo Eiwa Jo Gakko, Fuzoku 
Sho Gakko. 

UCC. 

8 Toriizaka, Azabu Ku, To 
kyo. 

Tel. Akasaka (48) 1496. 

Miss F. Gertrude Hamilton, 
Principal. 

Mr. B. Kashimura, Dean. 

Yokohama Eiwa Jo Gakko, Fu 
zoku Sho Gakubu. 

MP. 

124 Malta Machi, Naka Ku, 
Yokohama. 

Tel. Chojamachi (3) 6031. 

Miss Olive I. Hodges, Prin 
cipal. 

Mr. Tamotsu Kono, Dean. 



IX. KINDERGARTEN S 

More than 300 Kindergartens 
in all parts of Japan connected 
with many Missions and 
Churches. 



CHRISTIAN SOCIAL WORK INSTITUTIONS 



Paul V. Oltman 

Note : Social Work Institutions are grouped 
according to their church or mission affiliation. 
Those listed as "Not Reported Denominationally" 
are non-denominational or have connections with 
several denominations through trustees and (or) 
staff members. 

(A) indicates person in charge, (B) the address, 
(C) the date of opening or founding. 



CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH 

1. Hooii Kai Inubo Kyuyo-Jo 

a. Kiemon Sawada 

b. Inubosaki, Chiba Ken 

c. January, 1909. 

2. Imaltaru Day Nursery 

a. Sajie Ichimura 

b. Taisho-dori Emisu cho, 
Imaharu Shi. 

3. lomo Koji-Iii (Orphanage) 

a. Naoo Kaneko 

b. 149 Iwagami cho, Mae- 
bashi Shi, Gunma Ken. 

c. Juna, 1892. 

4. Katei Gakko (Reform 

School) 

1. Tokyo Honko 

b. 2617 of 2 Chome Suga- 
mo Machi, Toshima, To 
kyo. 

2. Sanabuchi Bunko 

b. Sanabuchi, Hokkaido 

c. August, 1914. 



5. Kobe Ai Rin Kan (For Ex- 

convicts) 

a. Senshiro Muramatsu 

b. 97 Kusuya cho, Hlrano Ku, 

Kobe Shi. 

c. January, 1897. 

6. Kobe Joshl Katel Juku 

a. Tsune Watanabe 

b. 74 of 7 Naka Yamate dori, 

Kobe, Shi. 

c. March, 1912. 

7. Kobe Ko Jl In (Orphanage) 

a. Hatsu Yano 

b. 97 of 7 Naka Yamate dori, 

Kobe Shi. 

c. May, 1890. 

8. Maebashi Yoji-En 

a. Naoo Kaneko 

b. 149 Iwagami cho, Mae 
bashi Shi, Gunma Ken. 

c. July, 1924. 

9. Naiiso Kan 

a. Hikoichi Maeda 

b. Aza Shinzo, Nishi machi, 
Tottori Shi. 



358 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



c. 1927. 

10. Okayama Hakuai Kai 

(Dispensary, Clubs, Sewing 
School, Primary School). 

a. Alice P. Adams 

b. 37 Hanataatake. Okayama 
Shi. 

c. 1891. 

11. Osaka Rotlo Kyorei Kai 

a. Tokusaburo Yatsuhama. 

b. 18 of 2 Matsuno cho, 
Izuo, Minato Ku. Osaka. 

c. 1928. 

12. Osaka Shokugyo Shokal 

Jo 

a. Tokusaburo Yatsuhama. 

b. 116 of 2 Kita Ebisu cho, 
Naniwa Ku, Osaka. 

13. Sandaya Chiryo Kyoiku-in 

a. Kei Sandaya. 

b. Uchide, Seido mura, Hyo- 
go Ken. 

14. Sandaya Chiryo Kyoiku-In 

Osaka Bunin 

a. Kei Sandaya. 

b. 9 of 3 Imabashi, Higashi 
Ku, Osaka. 

c. 1927. 

15. Sone Sakura Hoiku-En 

a. Sonoe Ishida. 

b. 1831 Sone machi, Hyogo 
Ken. 

c. 1928. 

Ifi. Yodogawa Zenrln Kan 

a Sherwood Moran. 

b. 33 of 2 Naka-dori, Honjo, 
Yodogawa Ku, Osaka. 

c. 1925. 

17. Yonen Katel Gakko 

1. Yokohama Katei Gakko. 

a. Sumihiko Arima. 

b. 3124 Mineoka-cho, Ho- 
dogaya Ku, Yokohama. 

c. 1909. i 

2. Kosuge Katei Gakko 

a. Kosuge, Adachi Ku, To 
kyo. 

b. 1906. 



18. Ai Iku En 

a. Sajie Ichimure. 

ta. 455 Aza Betsumiya, Tai- 

sho dori, Imaharu Shi. 
c. February 11, 1922. 

19. Aisci San In (Care of Ex 

pectant Mothers) 

a. Sada Onodera. 

b. 5084 Oi Tachiai machi, 
Shinagawa Ku, Tokyo. 

c. December, 1911. 

20. Alsen Takuji Sho and Yo- 

chien (Day Nursery and 
Kindergarten) 

a. Eiko Tomita. 

b. Kita Nitto cho, Tennoji 
ku, Osaka. 

c. April, 1918 (Takuji Sho). 
September 22, 1927(Yochien) 

21. Matsuyama Ya Gakko 

(Night School) 

a. Kiyoo Nishimura. 

b. Nagai cho, Matsuyama. 

c. January 14, 1891. 

22. Sandaya Jido In (Health 
Work, Employment Bureau, 
Marriage Conference) 

a. Kei Sandaya. 

b. 9 of 3 Imabashi, Higashi 
ku, Osaka. 

c. February 1, 1927. 

23. Tsubomi Hoiku En (Day 
Nursery, Work for Children) 

a. Naotaka Araki. 
c. May 20, 1932. 

EVANGELICAL AND RE 
FORMED CHI RCH 

1. Morioka Zenrinkan 

a. G. W. Schroer. i 

b. 71 Osaka Kawara, Mori- 
oka. 

c. 1931. 

FUKYU FUKUIN KYOKAI 

1. Js k hl Doku Gakkan 

(Student Home) 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



35!) 



a. Jisaburo Nagai. 

b. 39 Kamitomizaka, Koi- 
shikawa Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1900. 

2. Xichi Doku Ryo (Student 

Home ) 

a. E. Hessel. 

b. 10 Shogoin, Higashi Ma- 
chi, Kyoto. 

c. 1932. 

3. Takarazuka Chosenjin Ta- 

kujien 

a. Eitetsu Kin. 

b. 420 Ryogen mura. Muko 
gun. Hyogo Ken. 

c. 1932. 

I. Osaka Kami Fukushima 
Takuji-Sho 

a. Miss An. 

b. 73 Kita Nichome, Fuku 
shima. 

c. 1932. 

5. Kyoto Fukyu Fukuin Kyo- 
kwai Kenkodosan (Health 
Advice) 

a. Tominosuke Ono. 

b. 1. 10 Higashi Machi, Sho 

goin, Kyoto. 

2.20 Nakaadachi, Yoshida, 
Kyoto. 

c. 1935. 

<>. Mito Civic Center 

a. Senjiro Kameyama. 

b. 1002 Izumi Cho, Mitashi, 
Ibaragi Ken. 

c. 1934. 



Fl TABA DOKIRITSU 
CHURCH 

1. Futaba Hoikn-en 

a. Yoshi Tokunaga. 

b. Moto machi. Yotsuya ku. 
Tokyo. 

c. 1900. 

2. Futaba Hoiku-en Bun-en 

a. Yuka Noguchi. 

b. Asahi machi, Yotsuya ku, 



Tokyo, 
c. 1916. 

JAPAN BAPTIST CHURCH 
(ABFMS) 

1. Fukagawa Kaikan 

a. Tota Fujii. 

b. 5 Nichome, Shirakawa 
cho, Fukagawa ku, To 
kyo. 

c. 1924. 

2. Fukagawa Nursery 

a. Tota Fujii. 

b. 5 Nichome, Shirakawa 
cho, Fukagawa ku, To 
kyo. 

c. 1924. , 

3. Joshi (Jakuryo (Young 

Women s Dormitory) 

a. Gertrude E. Ryder. 

b. 51, 1 Chome, Denma cho, 
Yotsuya k,u Tokyo. 

c. 1909. 

4. Mead Shakai Kan 

a. Saburo Yasumura. 

b. 50 of 1 Chome, Minaml- 

dori, Moto Imazato, Hi 
gashi i Yodogawa Ku, 
Osaka, 
c 1923. 

5. Tokyo Misaki Kaikan. 

a. Tota Fujii, Director. 
William Axling D.D. 
Honorary Director. 

b. 3 of 2 Banchi, 1 Chome, 
Misaki cho, Kanda ku, 
Tokyo. 

c. 1908. 

G. VVaseda Hoshi-en (Men s 
Dormitory). 

a. H. B. Benninghoff D. D. 

b. 500 1 Chome, Totsuka 
machi, Yodobashi ku, 
Tokyo. 

c. 1908. 

7. Zenshi Kan. 

a. Kozue Tomoi. 

b. 319 9 Chome, Kanagawa 



360 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



dori, Yokohama, 
c. 1928. 

8. -liei Kan (Poor Relief) 

a. Annie S. Buzzel. 

b. Bozu machi, Sendai. 

c. 1896. 

9. Kwanto Gakuin Settle 

ment. 

a. Yoguro Chiba. 

b. Zenshi, kan, 319 9 Cho- 
me, Kanagawa dori, Yo 
kohama. 

c. 1928. 

JAPAN METHODIST CHUCH 

1. Al Kei Gakuen (Health 

Center). 

a. Mildrer Anne Paine, 

b. Motoki Adachi ku, To 
kyo. 

c. 1920. (Original Work in 
Asakusa from 1883) 

2. Ai Rin Dan (Settlement, 

Relief Center). 

a. G. E. Bott, S. Tanigawa. 

b. 1502 3 Chome, Nippori 
Machi, Arakawa Ku, To 
kyo. 

c. 1920. 

3. Ai Sei Kan (Settlement). 

a. Annie W. Allen. 

b. 47 2 Chome, Kameido, 
Joto Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1915. 

4. Alzawa Takuji Sho (Day 

Nursery). 
a.Tsuneko Hirano. 

b. 3189 Negishi machi, Yo 
kohama. 

c. 1905. 

5. Hlrosaki Takuji En. 

a. Motojiro Yamaga. 

b. Oaza Shashoji-machi, 
Kanagawa. 

c. 1919. 

6. Kanazawa Ikujl-En (Nur 

sery). 



a. Han Shimada. 

b. 27 Kami Takasho machi, 
Kanazawa. 

c. 1905. 

7. Kyorel Kan (Neibourhood 

Settlement Work). 

a. G. E. Bott, T. Misumi. 

b. 95 Nishi 2 Chome, Azu- 
ma Cho, Mukojima Ku, 
Tokyo 

c. 1924. 

8. Nagasaka Home 
a. S. R. Courtice 

ta. 50 Nagasaka machi Azabu 

ku, Tokyo, 
c. 1894. 

f). Nakamura Aiji-En (Day 

Nursery ) 

a. Tsuneko Hirano 

b. 1290 Nakamura cho, Yo 
kohama. 

c. 1897. 

10. Negishi Church Communi- 

ity Center 

a. G. E. Bott, Y. Kokita. 

b. 106 Shimo-Negishi, Shi- 
taya ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1920. 

11. Osaka Gyomei Kan 

a. Kiichi Kanizaki. 

b. 10 Buntoku cho, Shikan- 
jima, Konohana ku, Osa 
ka. 

c. Not reported. 

12. Shirokane Takuji J Sho(Day 

Nursery) 

a. W. H. H. Norman 

b. 14 Nakatakajo machi, 
Kanazawa. 

c. 1919. 

13. Shizuoka Home (Orphan 

age, Day Nursery, Wel 
fare Office) 

a. W. R. McWilliams. 

b. 55 Nishi Kusazuka cho, 
Shizuoka. 

14. Takajo Machi Creche 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



301 



a. John B. Cobb 

b. 323 Kokutaiji machi, 
Hiroshima. 

c. Not reported. 

15. Young Memorial Settle 
ment (Dispensary, Day 
Nursery, Kindergarten, 
Clubs) 

a. Pauline Place . 

b. 11 Oura, Nagasaki. 

c. 1931. 

1<>. Kamakura Hoiku En 

a. Noboru Satake 

b. 607,0-Machi, Kamakura, 
Kanagawa Ken. 

c. 1896. 

JAPAN EVANGELICAL 
CHURCH 

1 . Aisenryo Orphanage 

a. Susan M. Bauernfeind 

b. 72 Sasugaya cho, Koishi- 
kawa ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1910. 

Z. Mukojima Day Nursery 

a. Gertrude E. Kuecklich 

b. ?10 Sumida machi 2 
Chome, Mukojima ku, 
Tokyo. 

c. 1920. 

3. Osaka Suijo Rimpo Kan 

(Work for people living 
on Canal Boats) 

a. H. Thede. 

b. 28 Tempo cho, Minato 
ku, Osaka. 

c. 1931. 

JAPAN EVANGELISTIC BAND 

1. Sunrise Home (Preventa- 
tive work among little 
girls) 

a. Miss I. Webster Smith 

b. Okuradani, Akashi. 

c. 1922. 

JAPAN RESCUE MISSION 

1. Rescue Home for Women 



a. Isabella Torbet 

b. 162 Kita Yobancho, 
Sendai. 

c. 1923. 

2... Rescue Home for Women 

a. Rose Saville 

b. Haze, Higashimozu mura, 
Sempoku gun, Osaka fu. 

c. 1932. 

3. Receiving Home 

a. Minnie Kirkaldy 

b. 1577 Sumiyoshi cho, 
Sumiyoshi ku, Osaka. 

c. 1933. 

4. Japan Rescue Mission Iku- 

jinu (Children s Home) 

a. Bessie Butler 

b. Oaza Tomizawa, Sendai. 

c. 1928. 

5. Janet Dempsie Memorial 

Hospital 

a. Bessie Butler 

b. Oaza Tomizawa, Sendai. 

c. 1928. 

6. Receiving Home 

a. Ellen Hesketh 

b. 18 Nijikicho, Ushigome 
ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1934. 

METHODIST PROTESTANT 
CHURCH 

1. Tokyo Doai Mo Gakko 

a. Hidetoyo Wada 

b. 66 Shiroyama cho, Na- 
kano ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1906. 

NOT REPORTED DENOMINA 
TIONALLY 

1. Aino le (Home for Moth 
ers, Day Nursery) 

a. Yaeko Kemuriyama 

b. 518 Nishigahara machi, 
Toshima ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1923. 



362 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



2. Ai Rin Kan (Lodging 

House) 

a. Kumazo Tanabe 

b. 440 Mimata, Maebashi- 
Shigai. 

c. 1925. 

3. Doyu Kai (For Ex-convicts) 

a. Eizo Yoshida 

b. Santetsu Agaru, Shin- 
machi dori, Kyoto. 

c. 1913. 

4. Friend Home 

a. Not Reported 

b. 1366 Minami Ota-machi, 
Naka ku, Yokohama. 

c. 1932. 

5. Friend Sha 

a. S. M. Hilburn 

b. 53 Baibutsu Amagasaki 
Shi. 

c. 1930. 

6. Hakodate Moa-In (School 

for the Deaf) 

b. 87 Moto machi, Hako 
date. 

c. 1895. 

7. Honjo Sangyo Seinen Kai 

a. Toyohiko Kagawa 

b. 6 of 4 Higashi Koma- 
gata, Honjo ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1923. 

(Clubs, Higake Chokin, 
Shokugyo Shokai - jo, 
Shinyo Kumiai). 

5. Hyuga Kunmo-In (School 
for the Blind) 

a. Kenji Sekimoto 

b. 52 of 2 Chome, Suehiro 
cho, Miyazaki Ken. 

c. 1910. 

9. Ihai-En (Leper Hospital) 

a. Hidetoyo Wada 

b. 956 of 4 Shimo Meguro 
ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1894. 

10. Ishii Kinen Aisen En 

a. Shokichi Tomita. 



b. Kita Nitto cho, Tennoji 

ku, Osaka. 

c. 1917. 

11. Japan Mission to Lepers 

a. Masakane Kobayashi 

b. Tokyo Y.M.Q.A., Mito- 
shiro cho, Kanda ku, 
Tokyo. 

c. 1925. 

12. Klrisuto Kyoeikisha 

a. Kohachiro Miyazaki 

b. 543 Ubagaya, Kamakura 
Machi, Kanagawa Ken. 

c. 1915. 

13. Kobe Fnjin Do jo Kai 

a. Notau Jo 

b. 601 of 2 Chome, Aoyacho, 
Nada ku, Kobe. 

c. 1916. 

14. Kobe Yoro-In (Home for 

Old People) 

a. Yusuke Nishimura 

b. 15 of 2 Chome, Tsuyuno 
cho, Kobe. 

c. 1899. 

15. Koshio Juku (Reform 

School) 

a. Takagaki Koshio 

b. 115 Shoho Machi, Sugi- 
nami ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1933. 

16. Kyoto San-In (Maternity 

Hospital) 

a. Kiichiro Saeki 

b. Naka Choja-Machi-Kado, 
Muromachi dori, Kami- 
kyo ku, Kyoto. 

c. 1891. 

17. Lodging House for Men 

a. Shigenori Ijichi 

ta. Okino, Adachi ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1932. 

18. Maebashi Yoro-In (Home 

for Old People ) 

a. Kumazo Tanabe 

b. 440 Mimata, Maebashi 
Shigai. 

c. 1903. 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



363 



19. 



c. 
20. 



Mojiu Shinko Kai (Work 
for the Blind, Library, 
Lodging House ) 
Umekichi Akimoto 
164 of 3 Omiya-Mae, 
Suginami ku, Tokyo. 
1919. 

Nihon Rona Gakko (Oral 
School for the Deaf) 
Tadaoki Yamamoto 
458 Nichome, Kami- 
Kitazawa machi, Seta- 
gaya ku, Tokyo. 
1920. 

Oguni Sail-In (Maternity 
Hospital) 

Tsurniharu Oguni 
Hon Machi, Himeji Shi. 
1925. 

Osaka Suijo Kinipo Kan 
(Work for people living 
on Canal Boats) 
Haruko Nakamura 
28 Tempo cho, Minato- 
ku, Osaka. 
1930. 

Otate Murj o Shukuhaku- 

Jo (Free Lodging House) 
Tokisaburo Miyazaki 
Otate Machi, Kita Akita 
Gun, Akita Ken. 
1923. 

Sendai Kirisutokyo Ikuji- 

Iu (Orphanage) 
Takaji Osaka 
160 Kita Yobancho, Sen 
dai. 
1896. 



25. Rodosha Shlnryo-Jo (Dis 

pcnsary) 
a. Kan Maima 
ta. 67 of 2 Matsukura cho, 

Honjo ku, Tokyo, 
c. 1922. 

26. S hirakaua Gakuen 

a. Ryokichi Wakita 

b. 1 Kita Takamine cho, 



Senbongashira, 
Kyo ku, Kyoto, 
c. 1909. 



Kami- 



c. 
23. 



c. 
24. 



27. St. Stephens Home 
a. Kumakichi Kusano 

1. Kyojun Ryo (Relief 
Work) 

b. 58 Goten Machi, Ko- 
ishikawa ku, Tokyo. 

2. Dispensary 

b. 41 of 3 Minami Sen- 
ju, Arakawa ku, To 
kyo. 

3. Junshin-Sha (For Ex- 
Convicts) 

b. 31 Tomikawa cho, 
Fukagawa ku, Tokyo, 
c. 1927. 

28. Tokyo Ikusel-En 

a. Hatsu Kitagawa, 

b. 754 1 Chome, Kamiuma 
cho, Setagaya ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1896. 

29. Tottori ;Ikuji-In( Orphan 

age) 

a. Shintaro Ozaki 

b. 1 of 94 Azuma cho, Tot- 
tori Shi. 

c. 1906. 

30. Yokohama Kunmo In 

(School for the Blind) 

a. G. F. Draper 

b. 3413 Takenomaru, |Ne- 
gishi-Machi, Naka ku, 
Yokohama. 

c. 1892. 

31. (iifn Mo (Jakko 

a. Keijiro Kosakai 

b. Umegaeda cho, Gifu Shi. 

c. March, 1894. 

32. Hokusei En 

a. Shinsaku Nakamura 

b. 6 Chome, Higashi 3 Jo, 
Obihiro shi, Hokkaido. 

c. August 1, 1910. 

33. Hoon Kai (Tuberculosis 

Relief) 
a. Kikutaro Matsuno 



Ls (54 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



b. 26 Kasumi cho, Azabu 
ku, Tokyo. 

c. February, 1909. 

a. Kikxitaro Matsumoto 

b. Inubosaki, Choshi Shi- 
gai, Chiba Ken. 

c. August 12, 1824. 

3t. Hoon Kai Kyuyo Jo 

Bu (Relief of Lepers) 

a. Shinichiro Sodeyama 

b. 42 Tanaka Sekida cho, 
Sakyo ku, Kyoto shi. 

c. 1933. 

35. Japan M.T.I. Kyoto Shi 

3. Kansai M. T. L. (Relief of 
Lepers) 

a. Toshihiko Yusa 

b. Osaka Y.M.C.A., 13 Nishi 
Ogi machi, Kita ku, 
Osaka 

c. December, 1931. 

37. Kohoku No En (Tuber 

culosis Relief) 

a. Fukumatsu Kasai (Of 
Kami No Kyokai) 

b. 13 Minami Shikanjima 
machi, Adachi ku, Tokyo. 

c. April 1, 19?.3. 

38. Koigaura Yoiku En 

a. Yae Osaki 

b. Arigawa mura, Minami 
Matsuura gun, Nagasaki 
ken. 

c. October, 1880. 

3!). Kjurpi Tai Jippi KOCIO 
Kishukiisha 

a. Kotaro Kaneko 

b. 64 2 Chome, Kusunoki 
machi, Minato Higashi 
ku, Kobe. 

c. November 23, 1914. 

40. Kyiirel Tai Kobe Jitsugyo 
Oakuin(Care of Children) 
a. Kotaro Kaneko 
. b. Oku Higashi Fukuyama, 

Hiranc Tenncdai. Kobe, 
c. January 29, 1923. 



41. Kyurei Tai Kobe Muryo 

Shokugyo Shokai Jo 

(Employment Office) 

a. Koko Kaneko 

b. 64 2 Chome, Kusunoki 
machi, Minato Higashi 
ku, Kobe. 

c. October 7, 1912. 

42. Osato Ikujl En 

a. Toi Ishiguro 

b. 3 chome, Shirokane ma 
chi, Osato, Moji. 

c. November 2, 1922. 

43. Otate Takuji En (Day 

Nursery) 

a. Takesaburo Miyazaki 

b. Aza Kawanaka Ippon 
Yanagi, Otate machi, 
Akita ken. 

c. March, 1916. 

44. Railway Mission 

a. Miss E. R. Gillett 

b. 123 1 chome, Kashiwagi 
machi, Yodobashi ku, 
Tokyo. 

c. 1889. 

45. Rodosha Shinryo Jo (Me 

dical and Dental Clinic) 

a. Kan Majima 

b. 67 2 chome, Matsukura 
machi, Honjo ku, Tokyo. 

c. November, 1823. 

4(i. Seishin lin Medical 

Work) 

a. Shinzo Taruki 
ta. Kamibayashi inachi, Ku- 
rnamoto shi. 

47. Shizuoka Jinji Sodan Jo 

a. Juzo lino 

b. Otoha Sho, Shizuoka. 

c. February, 1919. 

18. Tailioku Gun.jin Jusan 

Kai (Work for Navy Men) 

a. Taketoshi Nagayama 

b. 2774 Kuee machi, Yoko- 
suka. 

- -c. Augusa, 1822. 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



365 



49. Tetsudo Hoyo In 

a. Kamejiro Tsuda 

b. 145 3 chome, Nishi Oku- 
bo, Yodobashi ku, Tokyo. 

c. May, 1904. 

60. Tobata Baptist Rinko Sha 

a. Naomi Schell 

b. Higashi Naka 2 chome, 
Meiji cho, Tobata shi. 

c. July, 1931. 

61. Uragami Yoiku En (Work 

for Children) 

a. Maki Yuanaga 

b. 358 2 chome, Motohara 
cho, Nagasaki shi. 

c. Augusa, 1874. 

6 J. Yokohama Rikko Sha 

(Home for Delinquent 
Girls) 

b. 160 Maruyama cho, Isogo 
a. Sumihiko Arima 

ku, Yokohama. 

c. June, 1906. 

OMI BROTHERHOOD 

1. Onii Sanitarium 

a. R. Kurimoto & M. Ama- 
kawa, Resident Physici 
ans. 

b. Kitano-Cho, Omi-Hachi- 
man. 

c. 1918. 

2. Personal Problems Confer 

ence 

a. Y. Hiyama. 

b. Omi-achiman Y.MIC.A., 
Omi-Hachiman. 

c. 1921. 

Playground & Children s 
Clinic 

a. Maki H. Vories. 

b. Omi-Hachiman. 

c. 1922 

PRKSBYTKIHAN KEl ORMIlI* 
CHURCH 

1. A i Rin Home 

a. Tsuguo Juji 



b. Nishi-Iru, Nijo, Nishi- 
Oji Kyoto. 

c. Not Reported. 

2. Danshita Settlement 

a. Junji Horii. 

b. Danshita, Shimozato- 
Mura, Kasai-Gun, Hyo- 
go-Ken. 

c. 1930. 

3. Fuji Ikuji Yoro-In 

a. Matsu Watanabe 

b. Shimada - Mura, Fuji- 
Gun, Shizuoka-Ken. 

c. Not Reported. 

4. Gyosei Toshokan 

a. Gosuke Ihara 
ta. Tadaumi-Machi, Hiroshi 
ma-Ken, 
c. 1927. 

5. lesu Dan Yuai Kyusai-Jo 

a. Toyohiko Kagawa 

b. 5 of 5 Azuma, Fukiai, 
Kobe. 

c. 1918. 

6. Ivvate Yoiku-In 

a. Gempachi Ohara. 

b. 200 Kaga-Cho, Morioka. 
c. 

7. Iwate Yoro-In 

a. Gempachi Ohara. 

b. 33 Haru Kiba, Kagano, 
Morioka Shi. 

c. 1906. 

8. -lin.ji Sodaii-Jo 

a. Seiji Nakamura 

b. 26 of 15 Taira Macht 
Fukushima Ken. 

c. Not Reported. 

9. Kirisuto Dendo Gikai 

(Dispensary) 
a. Yoshlro Tamura. 
ta. Ichigaya Dai Machi, 

Ushigome Ku, Tokyo, 
c. 1906. 

10. Kochi Gakusei Rodo Kai. 

a. Tokuji Kawazoe 

b. 611 Kodakazaka. Kochi 



36G 



Shi. 
c. 1906. 

11. Kochi Kyokwai. 

a. Annie Dowd. 

b. 180 Takajo Machi, Ko 
chi Shi. 

c. 1901. 

12. Kyoto Kirisutokyo Seryo- 
In (Free Dispensary) 

a. Shinchiro Sodeyama 

b. 39 Sekita Machi, Tanaka. 
Sakyo Ku, Kyoto. 

c. Not Reported. 

18. Meiji ((iakuin Settlement 

a. Daikichiro Tagawa 

b. Shinrin Kan, 2 Tani- 
Machi, Ichigaya, Ushi- 
gome Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1929. 

14. Nilion Ikuji-In (Orphan 

age) 

a. Kiko Igarashi 

b. 1 of 794 Kano Machi, 
Gifu Ken. 

c. 1895. 

15. Sapporo Ik nji-In( Orphan 

age) 

a. Tokiwa Mishima 

b. Nishi 13, Minami Jujo, 
Sapporo. 

c. 1906. 

16. Seiro No.jo 

a. Genichi Murono 

b. Naka Omi-Mura, /Shiro, 
Tano-Gun, Shizuoka Ken. 

c. 1913. 

17. Sfiitiai Muryoo Shuku- 

haku- )o 

a. Ei Utsumi 

b. 44 Kita Hachiban-Cho, 
Sendai. 

c. 1913. 

18. Obihiro-.Maclii Kyugo-Iu 

a. Shinsaku Nakamura 

b. I of 9 Minami Juhachi- 
jo, Obihiro Machi, Hok 
kaido. 



c. 1910. 

19. Sliikanjima Settlement 

a. Genjiro Yoshida 

b. 7 of 3 Shikanjima Odori, 
Osaka. 

c. 1925. 

20. Sliohi Kumiai, Hamamatsu 

Doho Sha, Kekkaku Ryo- 
yo-Jo. Hamamatsu Kan- 
goku Kyodo Kumiai, 
Rodo Settlement. 

a. Yoshimi Matsumoto 

b. 108 Matsushiro Cho, Ha 
mamatsu Shi. 

c. Not Reported. 

21. Tanaka Settlement 

a. Shinichiro Kamiyama 

b. 282 Nishi-Kawara Cho, 
Tanaka, Kamikyo Ku. 
Kyoto. 

c. 1929. 

22. Teikoku Kaigun Giinjin 

Home 

a. Kiku Totoki 

b. Shimo Yamate-Dori, 
Kure. 

c. 1908. 

23. Tokyo Shinrin Kan 

a. Daikichiro Tagawa 

b. 2 Tani-Machi, Ichigaya. 
Ushigome Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1923. 

24. Tonionoie Takuji-Sho 

a. Kunio Kato 

b. 100 of Nishi 5. Azuma 
Cho. Mukojima, Tokyo. 

c. 1930. 

RAILWAY Y.M.C.A. 

1. Headquarters of the Rail 
way Y.M.C.A. 

a. Masasuke Masutomi 

b 5 Itchome, Nakamatsu 

Cho, Kanda Ku, Tokyo, 
c. 1908. 

?.. Educational Work 

a. Lectures, Magazines, Re 
ligious meetings, Moving 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



367 



pictures, Publication of 
books, Consultations, 

Propaganda. 

3. Social Work 

a. Providing of industry to 
the injured, Relief work 
for surviving families, 
Neighborhood work. 

4. Jusanjn (Help for wounded 

and ex-service men is 
given in the following 
places: Tokyo, Nagoya, 
Osaka, Gifu, Tosu, Moji 
Nagano, Hiroshima, Shi- 
monoseki, Sapporo. 

5. Printing Department. 

ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH 

1. Betania Xo le (Relief Work 

for Tubercular Patients) 

b. 1191 of 3 Egota, Nakano- 
Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1930. 

2. Fukusei-In Hospital 

b. Tera Machi, Hitoyoshi- 
Machi, Takuma Gun, 
Kumamoto Ken. 

c. 1906. 

3. Hakuai-In Hospital 

b. 84 Yatsushiro Naga Ma 
chi, Yatsushiro Gun, 
Kumamoto Ken. 

c. 1900. 

4. Jorhi Catholic Settlement 

a. H. Lassalle 

b. 2103 Machiya, Arakawa 
Ku. Tokyo. 

c. 1931. 

5. Koyaina Fukusei-In Hos 

pital (for Lepers) 

a. Soichi Iwashita 

b. 109 Koyama, Fujioka 
Mura, Sunto Gun, Shizu- 
oka Ken. 

c. Not Reported. 

6. Maria Jnkn 

b. 19 Sekiguehi Dal Machi, 



Koishikawa Ku, Tokyo, 
c. 1887. 

7. Oku ura-M ura Jikei-In 

b. 1816 Okuura-Go, Minami 
Matsuura Gun, Nagasaki 
Ken. 

c. 1880. 

8. Seirei Hospital 

b. 5 of 5 Naga Machi, Ka- 
nazawa, Ishikawa Ken. 

c. 1914. 

9. Seishin-En 

b. 10 Shin Machi, Hodono, 
Akita Shi. 

c. 1925 

10. Seishin Aishi Kai Yoro-Bu 

b. 10 Shin Machi, Hodono, 
Akita Shi. 

c. 1920. 

11. Seishin-In 

b. 42 Tera Machi, Akita Shi. 

c. 1920. 

12. Shimazaki Ikuji-In 

b. Shimazaki Machi, Tokyo. 

13. Sumire Jogaku-In 

b. Koenji, Suginami Machi, 
Tokyo. 

c. 1872. 

14. Tairo-In (Hospital for 

Lepers ) 

b. Shimazaki Machi, Ku 
mamoto Ken. 

c. 1897. 

15. Tenslii En 

b. Minami Shin Tsuboi 
Machi, Kumamoto Ken. 

c. 1894. 

16. Tenshukyo Joshi Kyoiku- 

In 

b. 415 Sanjo Agaru, Kawa- 
ra Dori, Kyoto. 

c. 1886. 

17. I ragami Yolku-In 

b. 358 of 2 Higashi Kara 



368 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Machi, Nagasaki Ken. 
c. 1874. 

18. Betorehemu No Sono 

(Farm for Tubercular 
Patients in Early Stages 

b. Aza Nojio, Kiyose Mura, 
Tokyo Fu. 

c. October 15, 1933. 

19. Futaba Hoiku En (Care 

of Children) 

a. Yuko Noguchi 

b. Moto Machi, Yotsuya Ku, 
Tokyo. 

c. January, 1900. 

20. Jikei En Iku.ji Bu 

b. Kengun Mura, Kuma- 
moto Ken. 

c. April, 1923. 

21. Nazare En 

b. Yashiro Cho, Yashiro 
Gun, Kumamoto Ken. 

c. May, 1900. 

22. Mhon St. Paul Kai Fu- 

zoku Hakuai Byoiii 

(Charity Hospital) 

b. 8, 2 Chome, Kudan, Ko- 
jimachi Ku, Tokyo. 

c. August, 1879. 

23. Seishin Aishi Kai Seishin 

In (Medical Clinic) 

b. 10 Shin Machi, Hodono, 
Akita Shi. 

c. July 10, 1922. 

24. St. Paul Jo Gakko 

(Orphanage and Medical 
Clinic) 

b. 37 Moto Machi, Hako 
date. 

c. May, 1878. 

25. Tosoi Ciiaku En (Preven 

tion of Tuberculosis 
among Children) 
b. Aza Nojiri, Kiyose Mura, 
Kita Tama Gun, Tokyo 
Fu. 



THE SALVATION ARMY 

Lt. Col. V. E. Rolfe 
Lt. Col. Y. Segawa 

Joint Territorial Commanders. 

b. 2689 1 Chome, Mikawa- 
shima, Arakawa Ku, To 
kyo. 

c. September 111, 1906. 

3. Headquarters for Japan 

(Evangelistic, Social, Res 
cue and Educational ) 

b. 17 2 Chome, Jimbo Cho, 
Kanda, Tokyo. 

c. September, 1895. 

4. Klyeko Ryo (For Released 

Licensed and Geisha 
Girls) 

b. Not Published. 

c. March, 1927. 

5. Ji Jo Kan (Lodging House 

with Employment Bu 
reau) 

b. 3 Chome, Higashi Naka- 
dori, Tsukishima, Tokyo. 

c. December, 1906. 

6. Joshi Kibo Kan (Girls 

Welfare Work) 

b. 2 Noda Machi, Kita Ku, 
Osaka. 

c. November, 1919. 

7. Kyu Sei Gun Byoin (Hos 

pital & Dispensary) 

b. 3 Chome, Kitamisuji 
Machi, Asakusa Ku, To 
kyo. 

c. 1912. 

8. Kyu Sei (iun Kosei Kan 

(Free Shelter and Indus 
trial Home) 

b. 231. 3 Chome, Kita Su- 
namachi, Joto Ku, Tokyo. 

c. December, 1924. 

y. KVH Sei Gun Minshii Kan 

(Lodging House with Em 
ployment Bureau) 
b. 66, 4 Chome, Urafune 
Cho, Naka Ku, Yoko- 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



369 



hama. 
c. December, 1924. 

10. Kyu Sei (inn Mural Sho- 

gaku Ryo (Students 
Hotel) 

b. 13 Honmura Cho, Ichi- 
gaya, Ushigome Ku, To 
kyo. 

c. February 2, 1929. 

11. Kyu Sei Gun Ryoyojo 

(Tuberculosis Sanatorium) 
b. 975 Wada-Honmachi, Su- 

ginami-Ku, Tokyo, 
c. November, 1916. 

12. Kyu Sei Gun Shakai 

Shoknmin Kan (Social 
Settlement and Kinder 
garten). 

b. 4ofl, 4 Chome Taihei- 
cho, Honjo-Ku, Tokyo. 

c. November, 1919. 

13. Rosaku Kan (Ex-Prison 

ers Welfare Work). 

b. 7 Akagishita Machi, 
Usbigome Ku, Tokyo. 

c. October, 1896. 

14. Kurashi Dane Ryo (Chil 

dren s Home). 

b. 35 Hiroo Cho, Azabu Ku, 
Tokyo. 

c. January, 1935. 

15. Ikuji Fujin Home (Home 
for Women and Children. 

b. 137 Harima,cho, pairen. 

c. September, 1906. 

lb. Koine for Children of 
Lepers. 

b. Rakusenen, Kusatsu 
Machi, Gunma Ken. 

17. Kyu Sei Gun No jo (Train 
ing Farm for young men). 

b. 1523 Chofu Ninemachi, 
2 Chomc, Omori Ku, 
Tokyo. 

c. July, 1934. 

18. Kyu Sei Gun Shinryosho 

(Digpsnsary). 



b. 771 Motogicho 1-Chome, 
Adachi Ku, Tokyo. 

c. April, 1934. 

19. Kyu Sei Gun Shinryosho 

( Dispensary ) . 

b. 10 Furumachi, Niigata. 

c. June, 1933. 

20. Seiko Ryo (Home for 

Girls). 

b. 425 4 Chome, Matsubara 
Machi, Setagaya Ku, To 
kyo. 

c. January, 1935. 

SAN 1KU KAI 

(Opening Date: 1918. 

Representative: Itsuo Fujita) 

1. San Iku Kai Byoin 

b. 19 of 3 Chome, Taihei- 
Cho, Honjo Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1919. 

2. San Iku Kai Kinshi Byoin 

b. 1 of 5, 2 Chome, Koto- 
bashi, Honjo Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1927. 

3. San Iku Kai Oi Byoin 

b. 5565 Moriman Cho, Oi, 
Shinagawa Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1927. 

4. San Iku Kai Kyuji-In 

b. 13 of 3 Chome, Taihei- 
Cho, Honjo Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1921. 

5. San Iku Kai Sanba Gakko 

b. 13 of 3 Chome, Taihei- 
Cho, Honjo Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1924. 

6. San Iku Kai Suna-Machi 

Takuji-Sho 

b. 309 of 9 Chome, Kita 
Suna Machi, Joto Ku, 
Tokyo. 

c. 1926. 

SEI KO KWAI 

Church Missionary Society 



370 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



1. Ikebukuro Child Welfare 

Center 

a. Miss C. M. Baldwin. 

b. 540 Ikebukuro 1 Chome, 
Toshima Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1933. 

2. Seiai-In (Dispensary and 

Maternity Home). 

a. Dr. Mikio Suwa. 

b. 541 Ikebukuro 1 Chome, 
Toshima Ku, Tokyo. 

3. Tsukishima Kirisuto Kai- 
kaii (Settlement). 

a. Miss A. M. Henty. 

b. Higashi Gashi Dori, 4- 
Chome, Tsukishima, To 
kyo. 

c. 1927. 

Church of England in Canada 
Missionary Society 

1. Gifu Mo Gakko (School 

for the Blind). 

a. Keijiro Kosakai. 

b. 834 Umegae-Cho, Gifu. 

c. 1894. 

2. Sliinsei Ryoyo.jo (Tuber 

culosis Sanatorium). 

a. Dr. R. K. Start. 

b. Obuse, Nagano Ken. 

c. 1932. 

Protestant Episcopal Church 

1. Shin Ai Hoiku-En (Day 

Nursery ) . 

a. S. H. Nichols, Mrs. Ma- 
kiko Sonobe 

b. Nishi Iru Agaru Higure, 
Maruta-Machi, Kyoto. 

2. St. Barnabas Dispensary 

for Lepers 

a. M. A. Cornwall-Leigh. 

b. Kusatsu, Gunma Ken. 

c. 1918. 

3. St. Barnabas Hospital 

a. F. M. Jones, M.D 
Osaka. 



c. 1873 Dispensary; 1882 
Hospital. 

4. St. Luke s International 

Medical Center. 

a. N. S. Binsted 

b. ?7 Akashi Cho, Kyobashi 
Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1902. 

5. Boshi Home for Working 

Mothers 

a. Mrs. Makiko Sonobe. 
ta. Higurashi Dori, Maruta- 
Machi Agaru, Kyoto, 
c. 1934. 

Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel 

1. St. Hilda Yoro-In (Home 

for Old People). 

a. S. Heaslett. 

b. 61 Ryudo-Cho, Azabu, 
Tokyo. 

c. 1895. 

2. Kobe Kiiiin Home 

a. P. Kettlewell. 

b. 385 Minamitoyama Cho, 
Minato Ku, Kobe. 

c. 1910. 

3. St. Hilda Yoko Home 

(Girl s Home with Senior 
and Junior Divisions). 

a. The Sisters Superior C.E. 

b. 538 Sanko Cho, Shiro- 
kane, Shiba Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1891. 

Sei Ko Kvvai 

J. Ai Kin Sha (Work for Old 
People). 

a. Heiji Fukuda. 

b. 49 Kitada Cho, Matsue. 

c. 1920. 

2. Chiba-Ken, Ikuji-En 

(Orphanage) 

a. Shikataro Koda. 

b. 115 Tateyama Machi, 
Awa Gun, Chiba Ken. 

c. 1908. 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



371 



3. Fukkatsu Kenko Sudan 

Kai (Dispensary) 
a. J. K. Morris, 
ta. 73 Goshota Machi, Mu- 

rasakino, Kamikyo Ku, 

Kyoto, 
c. 1930. 

4. Garden Home (Tuber 

culosis Sanitarium). 

a. Matsutaro Itoh. 

b. 1180 3 Chome, Egota, 
Nakano Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1924. 

5. Haku Ai Sim (Relief Work 

for Orphans). 

a. Jitsunosuke Kobashi. 

b. Imai, 13 Higashi Yodo- 
gawa Ku, Osaka. 

c. 1890. 

6. Ktunamoto Kaishun Byoin 

(Leper Hospital) 

a. Miss A. K. Wright. 

b. Shimo Tatsuta, Kami 
Machi. Kumamoto. 

c. 1895. 

7. Matsue Ikuji En (Work 

for Children) 

a. Heiji Fukuda. 

b. 48 Kitada Cho, Matsue. 

c. 1896. 

8. Rodosha Kyofu Kai (En 

couragement of Spiritual 
Life among Laborers). 

a. T. Nuki. 

b. 90 Nichome, Higashi 
Cho, Honjo Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1908. 

9. Sei Yohane Hoiku Gakko 

a. Seichiro Yoshida. 

b. 61 Sakudani Machi, Ten- 
no .H Ku, Osaka. 

c. 1933. 

10. Senju Hoikuen (Day Nur 
sery). 

a. Shintaro Yamaguchi. 

b. 129 of 5 Minami Senju, 
Tokyo. 

c. 1916. 



11. Shi Ai Yochien (Nursery) 
a. Bunzo Goto. 

ta. 151 Motokanasugi, Nip- 

pori Machi, Tokyo, 
c. 1907. 

12. Shin Ai Kan Settlement 

a. Bunzo Goto. 

b. 93 8 Chome, Terajima 
Machi, Mukojima Ku, 
Tokyo. 

c. 1934. 

13. St. Yohane Gaku-En 

a. Teijiro Yanagihara. 

b. 61 Saikudani Machi, Ten- 

c. 1899. 

14. Takinogawa Gakuen 

(School for Weak-Minded) 

a. Ryoichi Ishii. 

b. 6321 Yabomura, Tokyo. 

c. 1891. 

SEVENTH DAY ADVENTISTS 

1. Tokyo Sanitarium-Hospital 

a. Dr. Paul V. Starr. 

b. 171 Amanuma 1 Chome, 
Suginami Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1929. 

SOUTHERN BAPTIST 
CONTENTION 

1. Rin Ko Slia (Good Will 
Center). 

a. Naomi Schell. 

b. Meiji Machi, 2 Chome, 
Tobata Shi, Fukuoka Ken. 

c. 1929. 

UNITED BRETHREN CHURCH 

1. Awa/u Day Nursery 

a. Mrs. Ayako Takekoshi. 

b. Awazu, Ishiyama, Otsu, 
Shiga Ken. 

c. 1933. 

2. Baba Dobo Kan 

a. Teiichi Tamura. 

b. Baba, Otsu, Shiga Ken. 

c. 1921. 



37J 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



3. Mirao Seiko Takuji-Sho 

(Busy Season Day Nursery) 

a. Kiyoshi Yabe. 

b. Nakano Sho, Zeze, Otsu. 

c. 1931. 

4. Ritsunan Day Nursery 

a. Gonichi Sakai. 

b. Sato Shimotanakami 
Mura, Shiga Ken. 

c. 1932. 

5. Ritsunan Busy Season Day 
Nursery 

a. Gonichi Sakai. 

ta. Sato, Shimotanakami 

Mura, Shiga Ken. 
c. 1931. 

6. Shizuoka "Nature" Day 
Nursery 

a. Susumu Watanabe. 

b. 36 Ichibancho, Shizuoka. 

c. 1933. 

7. Shoko Seinen Kai (Work 
for Labourers, Apprentices 
and Clerks). 

a. Minoru Okada. 

b. 6 of 5 Banchi 2 Chome, 
Midori Cho, Honjo Ku, 
Tokyo. 

c. 1916. 

UNITED CHRISTIAN- 
MISSIONARY SOCIETY 

1. Asakusa Kaikan (East To 
kyo Institute). 

a. Shoichi Suzuka. 

b. 87 Tanaka Machi, Asa 
kusa Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1920. 

UNITED LUTHERAN CHURCH 

1. Bethany Home (Home for 

Widows with Children, 
Nursery School). 

a. Annie Powlas. 

b. 6 of 3 Yanagihara Machi, 
Honjo Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1924. 

2. Home for Aged Poor 

a. A. J. Stirewalt, 



b. 303 Sanchome, Koenjii, 
Suginami Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1923. 

3. Ji Ai En (Old Folks Home, 
Rescue Home, Nursery 
School, Orphanage). 

a. Maude Powlas. 

b. Kengun Mura, Hotaku 
Gun, Kumamoto Ken. 

c. 1923. 

THE I NIVERSALIST GENERAL 
CONVENTION 

1. Dojin House (Social Ser 

vice Center). 

a. Ruth G. Downing. 

b. 50 Takata, Oimatsu Cho, 
Koishikawa Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1924. 

2. Black m IT Home (Dormi 
tory for the Education & 
Protection of Under-privi- 
ledged Young Women ) . 

a. Georgene Bowen. 

b. 50 Takata, Oimatsu Cho, 
Koishikawa Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1896. 

3. Christian Hospiee and Tea 
Room for the Poor. 

a. Naoichiro Nagano. 

b. 7 Nichome, Minamikaji- 
Machi, Naka) Ku, Nagoya. 

4. Shinzen Kan (House of 
Frisndship). 

a. H. M. Cary, Jr. 

b. 5 Sakurayama, Nakano 
Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1935. 

WOMAN S CHRISTIAN TEM 
PERANCE UNION 

1. Ji Ai Kan (Women s Home 
with Rescue Work, and 
Employment Office). 

a. Ochimi Kubushiro. 

b. 360 Hyakunin Cho, San 
chome, Yodobashi Ku, 
Tokyo. 

c. 1890. 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



373 



2. Kobo Kan (Settlement) 

a. Shizue Yoshimi. 

b. 30 Yonchome, Terajima 
Cho, Mukojima Ku, To 
kyo. 

c. 1919. 

3. Kochi Young Student s 
Home 

a. Fujie Shimamura. 

b. 704 Kitamonsuji, Kochi 

c. 1921. 

4. Osaka Women s Home 

a. Utako Hayashi. 

b. 6 of 6 Nakanoshima, 
Kita Ku, Osaka. 

c. 1907. 

5. Tokushima Women s Home 

(Employment Office and 
Home). 

a. Masue Nakajima. 

b. 29 Dekishima, Honmachi, 
Tokushima. 

c. 1930. 

6. W. C. T. U. Kochi Shibu 
Dispensary 

a. Rikio Sunagawa . 

b. 704 Kitamonsuji, Kochi. 

c. 1921. 

7. W. C. T. U. Osaka Branch 

a. Utako Hayashi 

b 6 Chome, Nakanoshima, 

Kita Ku, Osaka, 
c. 1899. 

8. W. C. T. I". Yokohama 
Branch 

a. Tazu Tokita. 

b. 16 Itchome, Horai Machi, 
Naka Ku, Yokohama. 

c. 1888. 

9. Yokohama Women s Home 

& Employment Intelli 
gence Office 

a. Tazuko Tokita. 

b. 5 of 1, Horai Cho, Yoko 
hama. 

c. 1925. 



WHITE CROSS SOCIETY 
Headquarters with Departments 

(Christmas Seal, the maga 
zine "Hakujuji", Clinic work 
entrusted to 51 doctors, excrete 
examination, health examina 
tion, 1.3Cture and publications, 
X-Ray). 

a. Noboru Watanabe, Pres. 
Chuichi Ariyoshi, 
Director. 

ta. 1 of 2 Ogawa Cho, Kan- 
da Ku, Tokyo. 

c. 1910. 

a. Kokichi Konno. 

b. 72 Sendagaya Cho, Ko- 
magome, Kongo Ku, To 
kyo. 

a. Mpmoru Nishi. 

b. 17 Naka Sarugaku Cho, 
Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 

a. Toshio Kanno. 

b. 127 Goten Machi, Haku- 
san, Koishikawa Ku, To 
kyo 

Year Round Open Air School 

a. Todomu Hayashi. 

b. Kowada Kaihin, Chiga- 
saki Machi, Kanagawa 
Ken. 

YOUNG MEN S CHRISTIAN- 
ASSOCIATION 

1. Dormitory For Men 

a. Noboru Kuba. 

b. Tokiwa Cho 1 Chome, 
Naka Ku, Yokohama. 

c. 1924. 

2. Kyoto Y. M. C. A. 

a. Toshio Suekane. 

b. Sanjo Hashi, Baba, Kyo 
to. 

c. 1903. 

3. Nagoya Y. M. C. A. 

a. Kenzo Masuda 

b. 30 Minami Kawara Ma 
chi, Naka-Ku, Nagoya 

c. 1902 



374 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



4. Osaka Y. M. C. A. Employ 

ment Bureau 

a. Yoshimi Miura 

b. Y. M. C. A. Nishi-Ku, 
Osaka 

c. 1910 

5. Sendai Y.M.C.A. 

a. Sohei Hata 

b. 35 Arakawa-Cho, Sen 
dai 

c. 1905 

fi. Tokyo Imperial University 
Y.M.C.A. Social Settle 
ment 

a. Dr. Shigeru Kawata 

b. Teidai Settlement. 44 
Yainagishima, Honjo, 
Tokyo 

c. 1924 

7. Tokyo Y.M.C.A. Employ 

ment Bureau 

a. Shoichi Murao 

b. Y.M.C.A.. 3 Chome, 
Mitotshiro-Cho, Kanda- 
Ku, Tokyo 

c. 1894 

8. Tokyo Y. M. C. A. Legal 

Advice Bureau 

a. Y. Fukuda 

b. Y. M. C. A., 3 Chome, 
Mitoshiro-Cho, Kanda- 
Ku, Tokyo 

c. Not Reported 

YOUNG WOMEN S CHRISTIAN" 
ASSOCIATION 

TOKYO 

1. Employment Bureau 

a. Y.W.C.A. 

c. 11 of 8 1 Chome, Suruga- 
dai, Kanda-Ku, Tokyo 

2. Dormitories 

a. Tsune Kaditsu (For 
Business Girls). 

b. 195 Sekiguchi-Cho, Ko- 
ishikawa-Ku, Tokyo 



a. Kaneo Okabayashi (For 
Students) 

b. 45 Nando-Cho, Ushigome 
Ku, Tokyo 

a. Sadayo Yokoi (For Stu 
dents) 

b. 28 Suido-Cho, Koishi- 
kawa-Ku, Tokyo 

3. flub Work Branch 

b. Hakusan, Goten-Machi, 
Koishikawa-Ku, Tokyo 

4. Ikoino le (Recreation 

House) 

b. Kokuryo, Choshi-Mura, 
Kita-Tama-Gun, Tokyo 

5. Camps 

b. Hota, Awa-Gun, Chiba- 
Ken (For Business Girls) 
Lake Nojiri, Nagano-Ken 
(For Students) 

YOKOHAMA 

a. Aya Kinuji 

b. 72 Ota-Machi, Roku- 
chome, Naka-Ku 

c. 1916 

2. Dormitory 

a. Ryu Watanabe 

b. 656 Sannoyama, Nishi- 
tobe 

c. 1925 

3. Edith Lacey Memorial 

Camp and Rest House 

b. 4245 Aza Ebita, Matsuya, 
Nishi Uramura, Miura 
Gun Kanagawa-Ken. 

c. 1934. 

NAGOYA 

a. Yuki Kimura 

1. Y.W.C.A. 

b. 8 Chikara-Machi, Ni- 
chome, Higashi 

c. 1933. 

2. Dormitory 

b. Yuki Kimura. 

b. 8 Chikara-Machi, Ni- 
chome, Higashi. 

c. 1931. 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



375 



KYOTO 

1. Y.W.C.A. 

a. Fumi Harada. 

b. Demizu Agaru, Muro- 
machl-Dori. 

c. 1920. 

2. Dormitory 

a. Yuki Naito. 

ta. Nihonmatsu, Yoshida. 

c. 1927. 

:t. Kest House 

a. Kiku Miyahara. 

b. Hieizan. 

c. 1920. 

KOBE 

1. Y.W.C.A. 

a. Kuniye Kawamoto. 

b. 116 of Sanchome, Yama- 
moto-Dori. 

c. 1920. 

OSAKA 

1. Y.W.C.A. 

a. Haru Asai. 

b. 13 Nishiogi-Machi, Kita- 
Ku. 

c. 1918. 

2. Dormitory 

a. Take Shirai. 

b. 13 Nishiogl-Machi, Kita- 
Ku. 

c. 1918. 

2. Dormitory 

b. Take Shirai. 

b. Nishiogi-Machi, Kita- 
Ku. 

c. 1923. 



SOCIAL STUDY GROUPS 

(A. is for the address; B. is 
for the secretary; C. is for the 
objective; D. is for the date of 
opening). 

1. Aoki Kyosai 

a. 77 Shinden, Sugamo- 



Machi, Toshima-Ku, To 
kyo. 

b. Shoze Aoki. 

c. To study problems due 
to alcohol. 

d. 1922. 

2. Baptist Church Social De 

partment 

a. Misaki Kaikan, 12 Mi- 
saki-Cho, Kanda-Ku, To 
kyo. 

b. Tota Fujii. 
d. 1928. 

3. Central Association for the 

Welfare of the Blind 

a. General Federation of 
Social Work, Bureau of 
Social Affairs Building, 
Ctemachi, Tokyo. 

b. Takeo Iwahashi, Gen 
evieve Caulfield. 

c. To promote Welfare of 
the Blind; to prevent 
blindness. 

4. Society for the cure of the 

opium habit and the 
prevention of the opium 
traffic 

a. 78 Umeda-Machi, Honda, 

Katsushika-Ku, Tokyo, 
ta. Hanpei Nagao. 

c. To study the problems 
of the opium traffic; 
to disseminate informa 
tion. 

d. 1928. 

5. Kagawa Fellowship in 

Japan 

b. P. K. Price, Chairman 
C. P. Garman, Secretary, 
d. To share with Toyohiko 
Kagawa the rich experi 
ences God has given him; 
To study with sympa 
thetic approach Dr. Ka- 
gawa s program for the 
Kingdom of God and 
as far as possible to co 
operate with him in the 
achiving of this program. 



876 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



d. 1927 and reorganized in 
1933. 

6. Kyofu Kai (W.C.T.U.) 

a. 360 Okubo, Hyakunin- 
Cho, Tokyo 

b. Chiyoko Kozaki. 

c. To establish temperance, 
purity, world peace, and 
women s suffrage in Jap 
an. 

7. National Committee of the 

Y.M.C.A. 

a. 2 Itchome, Nishikanda, 
Kanda-Ku, Tokyo. 

b. Soichi Saito. 

c. To express a social ser 
vice program through 
employment bureau, le 
gal advice, boy s clubs, 
work for underprivi- 
ledged boys, dispensaries, 
hostels, Sunday School, 
and service school for 
emigrants. 

d. 1903. 

8. National Y.W.C.A. 

a. 13 of 1 Nishiki-Cho, 
Kanda-Ku, Tokyo. 

b. Kotoko Yamamoto. 

c. To promote and establish 
social work. 

9. Nihon Kokumin Dome! 

(National Temperance 
League) 

a. 10 Omote Sarugaku-Cho, 
Kanda-Ku, Tokyo. 

b. Hanpei Nagao. 

c. To establish temperance. 

d. 1890. 

10. Ohara Shakai Mondai 

Kenkyu Kai (Ohara Re 
search Bureau) 

a. Reijin-Machi, Tennoji- 
Ku, Osaka. 

b. Iwasaburo Takano. 

c. To study all social pro 
blems, to collect infor 
mation and report 



through quarterly pam 
phlets, 
d. 1919. 

11. Organization for the Oral 

Education of the Deaf 

a. Care of Y. Nishikawa, 
Tokyo Shoshi Kaikan, 
Jingu Omote Sando, To 
kyo. 

b. Marquis Tokugawa. 

c. To establish best meth 
ods of educating the 
deaf to become useful 
citizens; to find suitable 
employment for those 
who have finished their 
school coursss. 

12. Osaka Christian Worker s 

Association. 

a. Y.M.C.A., Tosabori, Nish- 
Ku, Osaka 

b. Shoichi Tomito, T. Ya- 
tsuhama. 

c. To encourage faith and 
deepen the spirit of 
brotherhood. 

d. 1923. 

13. Social Department of the 

Nihon Kiiisuto Kyokwai 

( Presbyterian-Reformed 
churches) 

a. 685 of 3 Amanuma Suyi- 
namgi-Ku, Tokyo. 

b. Shiro Murata. 

14. Social Department of the 

Nihon Kumiai Kyokwai 

(Congregational Church) 

b. Ryuzo Okumura. 

a. 1 of 1 Tosabori, Nishi- 
Ku, Osaka. 

c. To study and survey so 
cial problems; to educate 
members in social wel 
fare. 

d. 1919. 

15. Social Department of the 

Nihon Mesojisto Kyokwai 

(Methodist Church) 
a. 2 Midorigaoka-Machi, 

Shibuya-Ku, Tokyo. 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



377 



b. R. Manabe. 

c. To study and promote 
social movements. 

d. 1927. 

Ifi. Social Section of the Sal 
vation Army 

a. 5 Hitotsubashi-Dori, Kan- 
da-Ku, Tokyo. 

b. Masuzo Uemura. 

c. To study, survey, give re 
lief, and educate. 

d. 1895. 

17. Social welfare Commis 
sion of the National 
Christian Council. 

a. 13 of 1 Nishiki-Cho, 

Kanda-Ku, Tokyo, 
ta. Kunio Kodaira. 

c. To promote and survey 
Social Work. 

d. 1923. 

IS. Tokyo Christian Social 
Worker s Association 

a. 3 Mitoshiro-Cho, Kanda- 
Ku, Tokyo. 

c. To study and survey so 
cial problems and social 
movements. 

d. 1922. 

19. Tokyo Y.M.C.A. 

a 3 Sanchome, Mitoshiro- 
Cho. Kanda-Ku, Tokyo. 



ta. Shoichi Murao. 

c. To study and share in 
formation with, .all social 
workers, whethef they be 
in Christian bcMies .or 
.,.- . not. 

20, Tokyo Y,W.C.A. .-...: 

a. 11 8 Eanchi, 1-Chome, 
Surugadai, Kanda-Ku, 
Tokyo. 

b. Taka Kato. 

c. To promote social move 
ments by creating public 

opinion. 

d. 1905. 

21. World Alliance for Inter 

national Friendship 

through the Churches 

a. 13 Nishiki-Cho, 1-Cho- 
me, Kanda-Ku, Tokyo 
(care of Nat l Chn. Coun 
cil). 

b. K. Kodaira. 

c. To send delegates ab 
road: to welcome for 
eign guests; publish 
pamphlets; to secure 
speakers for ch urches 
and schools for the 
cause of international 
peace. 

d. 1914 at Constance, 1920 
at Tokyo. 






388 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



27. LCA. Board of Foreign Missions of the United Luthern 

Church in America. 

28. LGAP. The Lutheran Gospel Association of Finland. 

29. LM. Liebenzeller Mission. 

30. MBW. The Missionary Bands of the World (SS). 

31. MEC. Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Epis 

copal Church and Woman s Foreign Missionary 
Society of the M. E. Church. 

32. MES. Board of Missions of the Methodist Episcopal 

Church, South. 

33. MM. Mino Mission. 

34. MP. Board of Foreign Missions of the Mothodist Pro 

testant Church. 

35. MSCC. Missionary Society of the Church of England in 
Canada. 

36. NBK. Nippon Baptist Kyokai (ABF, SBC). 

37. NDBK. Nippon Kirisuto Dobo Kyokai (UB). 

38. NDK. Nippon Dojin Kirisuto Kyokai (UGC). 

39. NDKK. Nippon Domei Kirisuto Kyokai (CMA). 

40. NFK. Nippon Fukuin Kyokai (EC). 

41. NPLK. Nippon Fukuin Luther Kyokai (LCA). 

42. NJMK. Nippon Jiyu Methodist Kyokai (FMA). 

43. NKK. Nippon Kirisuto Kyokai (ERC, PN, PS, RCA, 

RCUS). 

44. NKKK. Nippon Kyodo Kirisuto Kyokai. 

45. NMFK. Nippon Mifu Kyokai (MP). 

46. NMK. Nippon Methodist Kyokai (MEC, MES, UCC). 

47. NSK. Nippon Sei Kokai (CE, CMS, MSCC, PE, SPG). 

48. NZK. Nazarene Kyokai (CN). 

49. OAM. Ostasien Mission (The East Asia Mission), (FFK). 

50. OB. Omi Brotherhood. 

51. OM. Osaka Mission. 

52. QMS. Oriental Missionary Society. 

53. PCC. Board of Foreign Missions, Presbyterian Church 

in Canada. 

54. PE. Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the 

Protestant Episcopal Church in America. 



Paul V. Oltman 

1. Denominational Headquarters of Japanese Churches 

(1) Fukuin Dendo Kyokai 

98 Hyakken Cho, Maebashi, Gunma Ken. 

(2) Fukuin Ruteru Kyokai (Evangelical Lutheran Church) 

Rev. T. Minkkinen. Kami lida Machi, Nagano Ken. 

(3) Fukyu Fukuin Kyokai 

Rev. Egon Hessel, 10 Higashi Machi, Shogoin, Sakyo 
Ku, Kyoto. 

(4) Kami No Kyokai (Church of God). 

Mr. Nagamitsu Shimizu, 7 3-Chome, Surugadai, Kanda 
Ku, Tokyo. 

(5) Kirisuto Doshinkai 

24 3-Chome, Nishiki Cho, Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 

(6) Kirisuto Kyokai 

Sei Gakuin Chu Gakko, Nakazato Machi, Takinogawa 
Ku, Tokyo. 

(7) Kyuseigun Nihon Hon-ei (Salvation Army), 

17 2-Chome, Jinbo Cho, Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 

(8) Nihon Baputesuto Kyokai (Baptist Church), 

Hon Bu 

2 1-Chome, Misaki Cho, Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 
Sei Bu Kumiai 

Mr. Masajiro Kuroda, 4 Chome, Ar lake Cho, Yawata. 
To Bu Kumiai 

2 1-Chome, Misaki Cho;. Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 

(9) Nihon Dcndo Tai 

Umemoto Cho, Minato Ku, Kobe. 

(10) Nihon Dojin Kirisuto Kyokai 

1 1-Chome, Mizuochi Cho, Shizuoka. 

(11) Nihon Domei Kirisuto Kyokai 

Mr. Kohei Sugimoto, 1272 Tori Machi, Cbiba. 

(12) Nihon Fukuin Kyokai (Evangelical Church), 

Mr. Kinzo Shinohara, 500 1-Chome, Shimo Ochiai, 
Yodobashi Ku, Tokyo. 

(13) Nihon Fukuin Ruteru Kyokai (Lutheran Church), 

Mr. Inoko Miura, 921 2-Chome, Saginomiya Machi, 
Nakano Ku, Tokyo. 



380 DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



(14) Nihon Horinesu Kyokai (Holiness Church), 

391 3-Chome, Kashiwagi, Yodobashi Ku, Tokyo. 

(15) Nihon Jiyu Mesojisuto Kyokai (Free Methodist Church), 

Mr. Saichi Oya, 48 1-Chome, Maruyama Dori. 

(16) Nihon Kirisuto Dobo Kyokai (United Brethren Church), 

Mr. Chukichi Yasuda, 14 Minamita Machi, Jodoji, 
Sakyo Ku, Kyoto. 

(17) Nihon Kirisuto Kyokai (Presbyterian-Reformed Church) 

3 4-Chome, Shin Machi, Akasaka Ku, Tokyo. 

(18) Nihon Kirisuto Yukai (Society of Friends), 

Mr. Sei ji Hirakawa, 12 1-Chome, Mita Dai Machi, 
Shiba Ku, Tokyo. 

(19) Nihon Kumiai Kirisuto Kyokai (Congregational Church) 

817 Daido Building, 1-Chome, Tosabori Dori, Nishi Ku, 
Osaka. 

(20) Nihon Kyodo Kirisuto Kyokai 

534 1-Chome, Senda Machi, Hiroshima. 
21) Nihon Mesojisuto Kyokai (Methodist Church). 

23 Midorigaoka Machi, Shibuya Ku, Tokyo. 
(22) Nihon Mifu Kyokai (Methodist Protestant Church). 

Mr. Yotaro Koizumi. 133 2-Chome. Hinode Machi, 

Naka Ku, Yokohama. 
(2) Nihon Nazaren Kyokai (Church of the Nazarene), 

Mr. Hiroshi Kitagawa, 7-Chome, Hon Machi, Higashi 
Yama Ku. Kyoto. 

(24) Nihon Seikokai (Episcopal Church), 

Nihon Seikokai Kyomu lin, 10 Sakae Cho, Shiba Ku, 
Tokyo. 

(25) Nihon Seisho Kyokai 

Mr. Bokudo Yumiyama, 1666 Takinogawa Cho, Taki- 
nogawa Ku, Tokyo. 

(26) Sebunsu De Adobenchisuto Kyokai (Seventh Day Advon- 

-t ist Church);- - 
171 1-Chome, Amanuma, Sugniami Ku, Tokyo. 

(27) SPisho Rhlnrrk-an- 

Mr. Kotaro Tsukiyama, 3 Ro=oku Machi, Kanda Ku, 
Tokyo. 

(28) Sekai Senkyodan 

Mr. Eikichi -Tsuchikawa, 1031 5-Chome, Itabashi 
Machi. Itabashi Ku, Tokyo. 

(29) Wesurean Mesojisuto Kyokai (Wesleyan Methodist 

Church), 
- Mr. Sennenzuru Yamazaki, 1162 2-Chome, Ik^bukuro, 

Toshima Ku, Tokyo. 
2. American Mission- to Lepers - 

Rev: Albert Oltmans, !>.!>.-- 5 Meiji Gafeuiri. Shirokane, 
Tokyo. 



381 



3. Christian Endeavor Union (Ninon Rengo Kirisuto Kyorei 

Kai) 

Mr. Kojiro Hata, Treasurer, 580 Rokkaku Bashi Machi, 

Kanagawa Ku, Yokohama. 
Mr. Royal Haigh Fisher, Associate Treasurer, 1327 Mina- 

mi Ota Machi, Naka Ku, Yokohama. 

4. Federation of Christian Missions 

Rev. A. R. Stone, Secretary, Agata-machi, Nagano 
Tokyo. 

5. Fellowship of Reconciliation (Yuwa Kai) 

Mr. Seiji Hirakawa, Secretary, 12 1-Chome, Mita Dai 
Machi, Shiba Ku, Tokyo. 

6. Haisho Undo Renmei( Movement for Abolition of Licensed 

Prostitute Quarters) 

Mr. Yahei Matsumiya, 500 1-Chome, Shimo Ochiai, Yo- 
dobashi Ku, Tokyo. 

7. Japan Christian Education Association (Nihon Kirisutokyo 

Kyoiku Domei Kai) 

Mr. Toyotaro Miyoshi, Secretary, Shakai Jigyo Ka, Koto 
Gaku Bu, Meiji Gakuin, Shirokane, Shiba Ku, Tokyo. 

8. Japan Christian News Agency (Nihon Kirisutokyo Tsushin 

Kyokai) 

Rev. Shoichi Murao, Secretary, Tokyo Y.M.C.A., Mito- 
shiro Cho, Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 

9. Japan Humane Society (Nihon Jindo Kai) 

Mrs, Inazo Nitobe, 75 1-Chome, Kobinata Dai Machi, 
Koishikawa Ku, Tokyo. 

10. Japan Kindergarten Union 

Miss Elizabeth P. Upton, Corresponding Secretary, 934 
Sakuragi Cho, Omiya, Saitama Ken. 

11. Kakusei Kai 

Mr. Hidekichi Ito, Secretary, 41 Otsuka Naka Machi. 

Koishikawa Ku, Tokyo. 
1 >. Kirisutokyo Kaigai Dendo Kyokai 

R?v. Hiromichi Kozaki, President, Nihon Kirisutokyo 

Renmei, Kirisutokyo Kaikan, 6 1-Chome, Nishiki Cho, 

Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 

13. National Christian Council (Nihon Kirisutokyo Renmei) 

Rev. Akira Ebizawa, Secretary, Kirisutokyo Kaikan, 
6 1-Chome, Nishiki Cho, Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 

14. National Sunday School Association (Nihon Nichiyo 

Gakko Kyokai) 

Rev. Michio Kozaki, Secretary, Kirisutokyo Kaikan, 
6 1-Chome, Nishiki Cho, Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 

15. National Temperance League (Nihon Kokumin Kinshu 

Domei) 

Mr. Hanpei Nagao, President, Kyo Bun Kan Building, 
2 4-Chomr, Ginza. Kyobashi Ku. Tokyo. 
Rev. K. E. Aurell. Secretary Foreign Auxiliary, American 
Bible Society, 2 4-Chome, Ginza, Kyobashi Ku, Tokyo. 

16. National W.C.T.U. (Kirisutokyo Fujin Kyofu Kai) 

Mrs. Chiyoko Kozaki, President, 360 3-Chome, Hyaku* 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



nin Machi. Yodobashi Ku, Tokyo. 

17. National Y.M.C.A. (Nihon Kirisutokyo Seinen Kai Domei) 

Mr. Soichi Saito, General Secretary, 2 1-Chome, Nishi 
Kanda, Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 

18. National Y.W.C.A. (Kirisutokyo Joshi Seinen Kai Doniei) 

Miss Kotoko Yamamoco, General Secretary, Kirisutokyo 
Kaikan, 6 1-Chome, Nishiki Cho, Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 

19. Nihon Kirisutokyo Rengo Fujiii Kai (National Union 

Christian Woman s Society) 

Miss Tomiko Furuta, President, 23 4-Chome, Aoyama 
Minami Cho, Akasaka Ku, Tokyo. 

20. School of Japanese Language and Culture (Nichi (io 

Bunka (iakko) 
Mr. Darley Downs, Director, Tokyo Y.M.C.A. Building, 

Mitoshiro Cho, Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 
.11. I ninn Hymnal Committee (Sanbika lin) 

Rev. Shoichi Imamura, Secretary, 357, Mure, Kitaka 

Mura, Tokyo Shigai. 
Rev. Mitsuru Tomita, Director of Publication, Harris 

Kan, Aoyama Gakuin, Midorigaoka Machi, Shibuya 

Ku, Tokyo. 

22. White Cross Society (Hakujuji Kai) 

1 2-Chome, Ogawa Machi, Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 

23. Women s Peace Association in Japan (Fu.jin Heiwa Kyo- 

kai (Japanese Section of the Women s International 
League for Peace and Freedom) 

Mrs. Tsuneko Gauntlett, President, 52 Shinsaka Machi, 
Akasaka Ku, Tokyo. 

24. World Alliance for International Friendship through the 

Churches. Japan Executive Committee (Kirisutokyo 
K ok usai Shinwa Kyokai) 

Rev. Kikutaro Matsuno, Secretary, 26 Kasumi Cho, 
Azabu Ku, Tokyo. 



STATISTICS FOR 1935 

Prepared by 
MRS. F. W. HECKELMAN 

AND 

THE EDITOR 



STATISTICS FOR 1935 



Perhaps for a considerable time yet to come, it 
will be necessary to point out the inadequacy of 
the statistics available, and to warn the reader 
that the figures which here appear must be used 
with caution. 

Last year s Year Book introduced the policy of 
securing the statistics concerning missionary per 
sonnel and educational work from the missions, 
and those concerning evangelistic work from the 
"Nenkan", the official Year Book of the National 
Christian Council. The official statistics for the 
Churches of Japan are those found in the Nenkan, 
and it should be our purpose to aid in the devel 
opment of a more permanent bureau of statistics 
in the National Christian Council, which will 
evolve an entirely accurate method of gathering 
the needed facts and figures. At the present time 
the missions are best informed concerning their 
personnel and its distribution, and also concern 
ing educational, medical, philanthropic, and pub 
lishing work. 

It can readily be seen that this double source 
method is not altogether satisfactory, and it is to 
be hoped that some way may be found to create a 
unified statistical bureau which is concerned to 
tabulate all Christian activities and organizations, 
rather than the few which began and may in part 
continue under mission auspices. 

There is some variation in reporting, e.g., some 
churches include the ordained missionaries in 



286 DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 

their totals of ordained ministers, some do not. 
And again, many churches are t unable to report 
concerning all the data desired. This means that 
the totals are rarely accurate indications of the 
facts in question. 

It should be mentioned that although the Nen- 
kan reports the recently divided Holiness Church 
as two denominations, they have been combined 
into one in the Year Book. Eventually, it appears, 
the Year Book, too, will have to recognize two 
Holiness denominations. According to the Nenkan, 
the Toyo Senkyokai Holiness Kyokai reports a 
loss last year of 11,029 members. They were lost, 
of course, to the separating church. But this shift 
ing about makes interpretation of figures difficult. 

As aid in understanding the point of view 
according to which the following statistics are 
presented, the reader is referred to the statement 
on pages 405-407 of the 1935 Edition of the Year 
Book. The Editor. 



LIST OF MISSION BOARDS AND CHURCHES 

1. ABCFM. American Board of Commissions for Foreign 
Missions. 

2. ABF. American Baptist Foreign Missionary Society. 

3. AFP. Foreign Mission of Friends of Philadelphia 

4. AG. The Assembly of God. 

5. BS. Bible Socles: 

American Bible Society, 

The British & Foreign Bible Society and National 
Bible Society of Scotland. 

6. CJPM. The Central Japan Pioneer Mission. 

7. CK. Kirisuto Kyokai (UCMS). 

8. CLS. Christian Literature Society. 

9. CMA. Christian and Missionary Alliance. 

10. CMS. Church Missionary Society. 

11. CN. Church of Nazarene. 

12. EC. Evangelical Church of North America. 

13. ERC. Evangelical and Reformed Church (previously 

14. FDK. RCUS). 

Fukuin Dendo Kyokai. 

15. FFK. Fukyu Fukuin Kyokai (OAM). 

16. FFLK. Finland Fukuin Luther Kyokai (LGAF). 
17. FMA. General Mission Board of the Free Methodist 

18. HK. Church of North America. 

Holiness Kyokai (QMS). 
19. IND. Independent of any Society. 

20. JAM. Japan Apostolic Mission. 

21. JBTS. Japan Book and Tract Society. 
22. JEB. Japan Evangelistic Band. 

23. JKK. Jesu Kirisuto Kyokai. 

24. JRM. Japan Rescue? Mission. 

25- KK. Nippon Kumiai Kirisuto Kyokai (ABCFM). 

26. KTK. Kiristo Tomo no Kai (AFP). 



LIST OF MISSION BOARDS AND CHURCHES 389 

55. PFM. Independent Board for Presbyterian Foreign 

Church. 

56. PN. Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian 

Church of the United States of America. 

57 ps. Executive Commitee of the Foreign Missions of 

the Presbyterian Church in the United States 
(South Presbyterian). 

58. RCA. Reformed Church in America. 

59. SA. Salvation Army. 

60. SAM. Scandinavian Japan Alliance Mission. 

61. SBC. Southern Baptist Convention. 

62. SDA. Seventh Day Adventists. 

63. SPG. Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in For 

eign Parts. 

64. SS. Sekai Senkyodan. 

65. TM. TM (formerly YMS) 

66. UB. Foreign Missionary Society of the Church of the 

United Brethren in Christ. 

67. UCC. United Church of Canada and Woman s Mission 

ary Society of the United Church of Canada. 

68. UCMS. United Christian Missionary Society. 

69. UGC. Japan Mission of the Universalist General Con 

vention. 

70. WM. Wesley Methodist Connection of America. 

71. WU. Woman s Union Missionary Society. 

72. YMCA. International Committee of Young Men s Chris 
tian Associations of U.S.A. and Canada. 

73. YWCA. Young Women s Christian Association of the 
United States of America. 



FORMOSA 

74. EPM. English Presbyterian Mission. 

75. PCC. Presbyterian Church in Canada. 



390 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



1 . Personnel 



1. Total foreign staff 

2. Ordained men. 

3. Unordained men. 

4. Wives. 

5. Unmarried women and widows. 
5 Number engaged in evangelistic 

work. 

?. Number engaged in educational 
work. 



8. Physicians, men. 

9. Physicians, women. 

10. Nurses. 

11. Number engaged in philan 
thropic work. 

12. Number engaged in literary 
work. 

13. Others. 



9 10 11 12 13 



1. 


ABCPM 


1869 


50 


13 


3 


15 


19 


25 


21 


2. 


ABP . . . 


1872 


34 


9 


3 


12 


9 


10 


14 


3. 


AFP 


1885 


10 





3 


3 


2 


6 


2 


4. 


AG 


1914 


11 


& 





4 


4 


9 





5. 


BS 


1875 


3 


i 


1 


2 


2 








6. 


C JPM 


, . 1925 


(No 


report ) . 


9. 


CMA 


1895 


(No 


report). 


10. 


CMS . . . 


1869 


35 


8 





8 


19 


28 


7 


11. 


CN 


(No 


report). 


12. 


EC 


1876 


11 


2 





2 


7 


8 


3 


13. 


ERC 


1879 


43 


12 


5 


16 


10 


7 


19 


17. 


FMA . . . 


. 1903 


6 


2 





2 


2 






20. 


JAM . . . 


1923 


6 


2 





2 


2 


3 


1 


22. 


JEB . . . 


1903 


28 


10 





6 


12 


28 





24. 


JRM . . . 


1920 


26 


1- 





1 


24 








27. 


LCA . . . 


1892 


31 


11 





11 


9 








28. 


LGAF . . 


1900 


10 


4 





4 


2 


9 


1 


29. 


LM 


, 1927 


8 


4 





4 





8 





30. 


MBW . . . 


..1913 


(No 


report). 


31. 


MEC . . . 


1873 


50 


11 





10 


30 


24 


27 


32. 


MES . . . 


1886 


40 


16 


3 


19 


21 


13 


27 


33. 


MM 


1918 


(No 


report). 


34. 


MP 


1880 


5 


1 





1 


3 


2 


3 


35. 


MSCC . . 


1888 


25 


5 


1 


4 


15 


11 


1 


49. 


OAM . . . 


1886 


2 


I 





1 





1 


1 


50. 


OB 




4 














2 


2 


51. 


OM 




(No 


report). 


52. 


QMS . . 


, 1901 


(No 


report). 


53. 


PCC 


1927 


7 


2 





1 


4 


7 





54. 


PE 


1859 


84 


15 


11 


21 


37 


20 


16 



5 



1 
26 

4 



1 

_ 2 



2 



1 
1 2 



2 1 



1 7 



STATISTICS FOR 1935 



391 



7 8 9 10 11 12 13 



2 



55. 


PFM . . 


. 1934 


1 


1 











1 





66. 


PN 


1869 


63 


19 


2 


20 


22 


29 


34 


67. 


PS 


. 1885 


42 


17 




16 


9 


42 


14 


68. 


RCA . . 


. 1859 


26 


a 





a 


10 


5 


11 


69. 


SA 


1895 


9 


4 





4 


1 


9 





60. 


SAM . . 


. 1891 


2 


2 









2 





61. 


SBC . . . 


. 188G 


14 


6 





3 


5 


G 


7 


62. 


SDA . . . 


. 1896 


30 


7 


8 


15 











68. 


SPG . . . 


. 1873 


24 


6 


1 


5 


12 


15 


9 


05. 


TM . . . 


. 1901 


5 


2 





1 


2 


5 





66. 


UB ... 


. 1895 


4 


2 





2 





1 


3 


67. 


UCC . . . 


. 1873 


73 


17 


1 


18 





23 


29 


68. 


UCMS 


1883 
















69. 


UGC . . 


. 1895 


5 


1 





1 


2 


2 


2 


7. 


WM 


. 1919 


2 


1 





1 





2 





71. 


WU 


. 1871 


4 














2 


2 


72. 


YMCA 


. . 1889 


4 





2 


2 


. 








78. 


YWCA . 


. 1904 


3 


- 


_ 





3 









3 

2 1 



2. Evangelistic 



1. Organized Churches. 

2. Self-supporting Churches, Total. 

3. City Churchns (Self-supporting). 

4. Rural Churches (Self-support 
ing). 

5. Aided Churches, Total. 
6 Aided City Churches. 
7. Aided Rural Churches. 



3. Others. 

9. Ordained Ministers, Total. 

10. Ordained Ministers, Men. 

11. Ordained Ministers, Women. 

12. Evangelists, Total. 

13. Evangelists, Men. 

14. Evangelists, Women. 



9 10 11 12 13 14 



7 


CK 


. . 20 


10 






10 









99 


90 


9 











14. 
15. 
16. 
18 


FDK . . . 
FFK . . . 
FFLK . . 
HK 


. . 20 
3 
. . 11 
437 


4 
3 



4 
3 

352 





87 


18 
20 
11 



18 

16 






4 




5 


168 


7 
9 
14 


5 
9 
11 
188 


2 

3 
197 


4 
4 
1 
181 


4 
2 
1 
98 



2 

83 


23. 
95 


JKK . . . 
KK .... 


. . 33 
. . 190 


8 
80 


7 
62 


1 
18 


25 
89 


11 
34 


14 
48 


98 


28 
196 


27 
196 


1 



57 


40 


17 


26. 
36. 

37. 
38. 


KTK . . . 
NBK . . . 
NDBK . . 
NDK . . . 


9 
. . 81 
. . 21 
. . 5 



28 

6 




23 
6 




5 




9 
34 
15 
5 


9 
24 
15 



10 




19 
10 
2 


12 
41 
14 
3 


7 
41 
14 
3 


5 






52 
14 



38 
14 



14 




392 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 







1 


2 


3 


4 5 


6 


7 


8 9 


10 


11 12 


13 


14 


39. 


NDKK . 


... 18 


3 


2 


1 15 





15 


18 


9 


9 18 


9 


9 


40. 


NFK 


36 


1 


1 


35 


27 


8 


32 


32 











41. 


NFLK . 


. . . 39 


5 


5 


21 


21 





13 26 


26 


17 


14 


3 


42. 


NJMK . 


. .. 26 


16 


11 


5 10 


10 


3 


19 


19 


12 


6 


6 


43. 


NKK . . 


. . 448 


172 


153 


19 154 


71 


83 


122 279 


277 


2 205 


171 


34 


44. 


NKKK . 


. . . 39 


12 


4 


8 15 


8 


7 


12 20 


17 


3 6 


4 


2 


45. 


NMPK . 


. . . 20 


16 


15 


1 4 


4 





6 14 


14 


4 


3 


1 


46. 


NMK . . 


. 351 


105 


. 


- 146 








100 407 


342 


65 137 


40 


97 


47. 


NSK 


251 


(not 


cleai 








) 226 


226 


198 


59 


139 


48. 


NZK 


30 


15 


15 


15 


15 





30 


30 











62. 


SDA 


40 












11 


11 


36 


33 


3 


64. 


ss 


5 







5 


3 


2 


3 


3 











65. 


TM 


13 


7 


7 


6 


5 


1 


13 


11 


2 

































2167 930 670 145 655 288 191 485 1689 1468221 946 536 410 



Evangelistic continued. 



15. Church Members, Total. 

16. Church Members, Men. 

17. Church Members, Women. 

18. Average Members per Local 
Church. 



19. Increase or decrease of members 
during the yoar. (Figures with 
an asterisk indicate decrease.) 

TO. Number of Baptisms, Total. 

21. Number of Baptisms, Adults. 

22. Number of Baptisms, Children. 



16 



17 



18 



19 



20 



22 



7. 


CK ... 


2302 


1096 


1206 


115 


98 


85 


85 





14. 


FDK . 


519 


266 


263 


25 


103 


74 


74 





15. 


FFK . . 


960 


698 


262 


42 


318 


29 


28 


1 


16. 


FFLK . 


1454 


. 





132 


11029* 











18. 


HK 


19752 








42 


646 


1627 


1627 





23. 


JKK . . 


1178 


428 


750 


39 





159 


159 





25. 


KK . . . 


31147 


14942 


16205 


165 


337* 


904 


858 


46 


26. 


KTK . . 


636 


329 


307 


71 


178* 


25 


25 





36. 


NBK . . 


7444 


2173| 2716t 


103 


23 


338 


338 





37. 


NDBK . 




1544 


1421 


133 


155 


159 


155 


4 


38. 


NDK 


(not clear . 














.) 


39. 


NDKK 




458 


318 


43 


60 


60 


60 





40. 


NFK . . 


2385 


1156 


1229 


66 


104 


156 


149 


7 


41. 


NFLK . 


4246 


2305 


1941 


109 


178 


197 


143 


54 


42. 


NJMK . 


2321 








89 


134 


222 


222 





43. 


NKK . . 


51034 


24461 


26573 


123 


1410 


2836 


2507 


329 


44. 


NKKK . 


1041 


404 


637 


26 


64 


102 


102 





45. 


NMFK . 


3050 


1590 


1460 


153 


19 


90 


77 


13 



STATISTICS FOR 1935 



393 



15 



17 



18 



20 



21 



22 



46 


NMK 


. . . 34457 






98 


1277 


2088 


1806 


282 


47 


NSK .... 


. . . . 27416 


12967 


14449 


109 


798 


1525 


1007 


518 


48 


NZK 


1587 


663 


924 


53 


288 


352 


352 





fi? 


SDA 


1015 






25 


94 


118 


118 




64 


ss 


128 


54 


74 


26 


12* 


8 


8 





fiS 


TM 


2690 






206 


406 


324 


272 


52 























200323 65534 70555 9651 5523 11480 10174 1306 
incomplete, only a section of the churches having reported). 



23. 

24. 



25. 
26. 



Contributions in yen, total. 

Contributions in yen, received 

from Missions. 

Per capita contribution. 

Total property valuation in yen. 



27. Sunday Schools. 

28. Sunday School Teachers. 

29. Sunday School Pupils. 

30. Sunday School Offerings. 



23 



24 



25 



26 



27 



28 



29 



30 



7 


CK 


30896 


15600 


13.95 





31 


107 


1436 


670.00 


14. 


FDK 


4197 





8.08 





32 


42 


1681 





15. 


FFK 


14000 


8000 


6.20 





17 


46 


975 


400.00 


16. 


FFLK . . . 


17242 


14990 


2.00 


12785 


20 


28 


575 


131.00 


18. 


HK 


280197 





13.17 





409 


773 


10418 





23. 


JKK . . . . 


26624 


7907 


15.88 





60 


74 


1846 





25. 


KK 


397946 


43593 


11.38 


3410039 


278 


1770 


22468 


24589.00 


26. 


KTK 


10537 


6417 


6.48 


107500 


17 


42 


1086 


155.00 


36. 


NBK 


83051 


16994 


8.67 


98323 It 


99 


572 


7264 


2693.00 


37. 


NDBK . . . 


21607 





7.08 





34 


167 


2392 





38. 


NDK 


. . . . 











7 


56 


62 





39. 


NDKK . . 


7150 


600 


9.50 


15000 


23 


67 


1308 


773.00 


40, 


NFK 


26432 





11.07 





40 


210 


2929 


1230.00 


41. 


NFLK . . . 


21239 


_ 


5.00 


. 


63 


255 


3272 


1085.00 


42. 


NJMK . . . 


35488 





15.29 





40 


185 


2552 


998.00 


4P.. 


NKK 


542877 





15.70 


4450732 


591 


2614 


40512 





44. 


NKKK . . 


13500 


2257 


14.29 





34 


72 


1594 





45. 


NMFK . . 


18161 





5.95 





29 


121 


179 


748.00 


46. 


NMK 


525851 


130308 


11.45 


4340889 


528 


2340 


42916 


15976.00 


47. 


NSK 


279589 





10.12 





376 


1107 


22S27 


11060.00 


48. 


NZK 


20358 





12.82 


42484 


35 


114 


1526 


435.00 


62. 


SDA 


46535 


12000 


24.17 


220000 


47 


1?.4 


1300 


8292.00 


64. 


SS 


743 


3740 


5.80 


16400 


6 


6 


222 


17.69 


65. 


TM 


15560 





6.00 





42 


104 


2650 


730.00 






2449780 


262408 


12.22 


13599060 2853 


11007 


176351 


69985.69 



(f incomplete, only a section of the churches having reported). 



394 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



3. Educational Work 



1. No. Kindergartens. 17. 

2. Total pupils (Male, Female). 

3. No. Primary Schools. 18. 

4. Total pupils (Male, Female). 

5. Middle Schools, men. 19. 

6. Total enrollment. 20. 

7. Midle Schools, women. 

8. Total enrollment. 21. 

9. No. Theological and Bible 22. 
Training Schools, men. 

10. Total enrollment. 23. 

11. No. Bible Training Schools, 24. 
women. 

12. Total enrollment. 25. 

13. No. Colleges, men. 26. 

14. Total enrollment. 

15. No. Colleges, women. 27. 

16. Total enrollment. 



No. Industrial Schools not 
included above. 
Total enrollment 

(Male, Female). 
No. Night Schools. 
Total enrollment 

(Male, Female). 

No. Teacher Training Schools. 
Total enrollment 

(Male, Female). 
No. Medical Schools. 
Total enrollment 

(Male, Female). 
No. Nurses Training Schools. 
Total enrollment 

(Male, Female). 
Educational fees received, Yen 



7 8 



9 10 11 12 13 14 



1. 


ABCFM 


61 


2413 1 


534 


7 


2774 


1 


55 


1 


17 


1 2380 


2. 


ABF. . 


. 40 


1525 - 1 


942 


3 


709 


1 


12 


1 


12 


1 257 


3. 


AFP .. 


. 5 


200 - 





1 


430 

















4. 


AG 


1 


22 . - 











1 


13 











6. 


CJPM 


(No eport) 


10. 


CMS 











1 


600 








1 


6 





12. 


EC ... 


. 21 


715 - 


. 














1 


12 





13. 


ERG . 


9 


266 1 


617 


1 


253 


1 


29 


1 


10 


1 376 


17. 


FMA . . 


. 3 


150 











1 


25 











20. 


JAM . . 


. 














1 


20 











22. 


JEB . . 


. 














1 


30 


1 


8 





24. 


JRM . . 


. 2 


20 

















1 


17 





27. 


LCA . . 


. 13 


493 


730 





234 





19 











28. 


LGAF 


3 


110 - 


























29. 


LM . . . 


. 2 


57 - 


























31. 


MEC . 


. 17 


994 - 3 


2265 


5 


2495 








1 


36 





32. 


MES . . 


31 


1367 1 125 





1 


445 








1 


72 





33. 


MM 


(No 


report) 


















34. 


MP . . . 


. 6 


320 1 140 1 


765 


1 


418 

















35. 


MSCC 


. 11 


470 1 65 











. 














49. 


OAM . 


. 6 


184 - 





. 





1 


6 











50. 


OB ... 


. 1 


jgg . 





1 


40 














__ 


52. 


OMS 


(No 


report) 



















STATISTICS FOR 1935 



395 



8 9 10 11 12 13 14 



53. 


PCC . . 


.7 230 - 





54. 


PE ... 


. 41 1459 2 152 


1 556 2 993 - 


56. 


PN 


,9 534 - 


1 1095 5 2350 - 1 510 


57. 


PS 


8 380 - 


1 1 


58. 


RCA . . 





1 1060 2 911 1 630 


69. 


SA 


1 121 


1 39 1 32 - 


60. 


SAM . . 


. 2 100 





61. 


SBC . . 


.5 147 - 


1 449 1 500 1 1 1 263 


62. 


SDA .. 





1 40 1 25 


AQ 


!"!)/< 


41 1 p; 







TIM" 


^ 1 ^n 




K <\ 


TT"R 


10 1 A(\ 




67. 


ucc . . 


47 2006 3 439 


2 1521 3 709 1 49 1 1126 


r,o 








71. 

74 


wu . . . 

TTPIVT 




1 247 - 1 36 - 


7S 


prr* 










15 16 17 18 


19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 


1. 


ABCFM 


4 653 


2 153 1 30 


2. 


ABF . . . 


. 1 369 - 


7 849 1 30 - - 192,440.00 


3. 


AFP . . . 





1 18 31,350.00 


4. 


AG 


(No report) 




6. 


CJPM 


(No report) 




10. 


CMS . . 


_ _ 


36,000.00 








12 - 11,200.00 


13. 


ERC . . 


. 1 118 - 


- 92,597.00 


17. 


FMA 


(No report) 




20. 


JAM . . 


. 





22. 


JEB . . . 


- 




24. 


JRM . . 


_ __ 


60,281.00 


27. 


LCA . . . 


_ 


. 


28. 


LGAF . 


, . - 


. .. 


29. 


LM 


. 


. . 


31. 


MEC . . 


. 2 237 - 


350,000.00 


32. 


MES . . 


. 1 119 


4 1909 75,488.00 


153. 


MM . . , 




, 


34. 


MP 




73,897.00 


36. 


MSCC 


. . 


1 19 10,518.50 


49. 


OAM . . 


. 


2 80 - 2,955.00 


60. 


OB 




1,441.00 


52. 


OMS 






63. 


PCC . . . 





. . 



596 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 



27 



54. PN ... 1 90 2 65 
56. PN ... 1 12 
57. PS ... 1 900 


2 
1 


35 1 7 
35 


1 55 342,018.42 
1 0- 1 681 00 


^Q CIA 
















61. SBC . . 
62. SDA . . 
66. UB . . - 

67. UCC . . 
C8 UCM a 


1 

1 
3 


32 

87 1 44 


1 12 3,750.00 
8,345.15 
- 366,732.68 


69 UGC 






5 000 00 


I WU 






15 385 00 


72. YWCA - - 1023 





1163 - 




75 pnn 









NOTE: 

ABF, EC and UCMS co-operate with Aoyama Gakuin in Theological Train 
ing for men. 

UCMS and UCC co-operate with Aoyama Gakuin in Theological Training 
for women. 

UB co-operates with Doshisha in Theological Training. 

PN and PS co-oporate in Theological Training for men in Kobe Theological 
Seminary. 

MES and UCC co-operate in Theological Training at Kwansei Gakuin. 

PN and RCA co-operate in Theological Training at Meiji Gakuin, in all 
departments, and also in Baiko Jo Gakuin, Shimonoseki. 

PN and PS co-operate in Kobe Theological Seminary. 

UCC co-operates with Woman s Christian College. 



4. Medical Work 



Native S aff ( 1 ) year. 

1. Native Physicians Mm. K. No. 

2. Native Physicians Women. 9. 

3. Trained Assistants Men. 10. 

4. Trained Assistants Women. 

(Hospitals, Dispensaries, 11. 

Sanitoriums). 12. 

5. No. of Hospitals or Sanitoriums. 13. 
(Institutions, not buildings). 14. 

6. Total number of beds in same. 15. 

7. Total inpatients treated during 



Dispensaries. 

No. treatments in dispensaries. 
No. visits made to patients In 
home, etc. 

No. Major operations. 
No. Minor operations. 
Total number of patients. 
Total number of treatments. 
Medical fees received, in yen. 



STATISTICS FOR 1935 



397 



123456 78 



9 



10 11 12 13 



14 



15 



1. 

2. 
10. 
24. 
35,. 
49. 
50. 
54. 
59. 
62. 
67. 
68. 
74. 
75. 



ABCFM . 

ABF 31 4 2 

CMS 1 1 9 - 1 

JRM - 2 33 180 2 

MSCC 2 1 1 1 85 101 1 

1 - - 1 - 2 

3 13 1 75 176 1 



OAM 
OB 

PE 
SA 
SDA 
UCC 



41905 

24993 1342 - 

67649265 - 
7461 

240 45 13 

120 150 - 
102 83 5 



2798 

- 26335 5498.23 
1534.00 
341 7641 
49 

25.00 

7 170 253 71783.93 



75 35716 34278202 4 450442 8851 570 1312 28527414082829903.75 
1212 129 23002463 3211782 56917159141143314243232459.13 
1 1 - 1 22 652 - 33 62 652 - 42954.73 
- 2 17100 - 17100 3500.00 
UCMS - 
EPM 



5. Philanthropic Work 



Orphanages: 

1. No. institutions. 

2. Total inmates (Male, Female). 
Leper Asylums : 

3. No. institutions 

(not buildings). 

4. Total inmates (Male, Female). 

5. Christians included in 

column 4. 

Institutions for Blind and Deaf: 
(Duplicating if necessary Primary 



and Secondary Schools in List 2 
No. 127). 

6. No. of Institutions. 

7. Total inmates (Male, Female). 
Rescue Homes. 

8. No. of Institutions. 

9. Inmates. 

Industrial Homes (Not to be con 
fused with Industrial Schools). 

10. No. of Institutions. 
11. Inmates (Male, Female). 







1 


234 


5678 9 10 11 


4. 


AG 


1 


24 





12. 


EC 


1 


53 





22. 


JEB 


. . . . 


__ 


^ 


24. 


JRM 


2 


100 


2 134 - 


27. 


LCA 


3 


236 





31. 


MEG 


... 








35. 


MSCC . . . 


. . . . 


. . 


1 65 


54. 


PE 


2 


111 1 176 


176 - 


56. 


PN 


. . . . 


_ 


1 57 


59. 


SA 


5 


148 1 26 


6 430 


67. 


UCC 


2 


120 - 


. 


69. 


UGC 


... 





1 20 4 500 


75. 


PCC 


. . . . 


_ 






DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



6. Literature Production 



1. No. Bibles or Christian books 
published this year. 
2. Total number such books pub 
lished in Japan sold this year. 
3. No. portions or Tracts published 

1 2 


this year. 
4. Total number such sold this year. 
5. Amount in Yen received for 
sales of literature this year. 

34 5 


5. BS (Amer.) . . 
RS mrit, \ 


. . 569,823 737,905 
571 404 506 305 


973,450 (a) 

500,000 450,000 
10,000 5.000 
655 
13,954 13,161 
1,056,000 1,017,448 

11,200 
7,000 


46,655.36 
47,290.27 

60,410. 50 (ta) 

200.00 
200.00 

60,374.63 
53,635.34 


6. 
8. 
20. 
22. 
49. 
50. 
54. 
59. 
61. 
62. 
66. 
89. 
70. 
74. 
75 


CJPM 




CLS 


. . . 30,250 


JAM 


11 000 8 800 


JEB 


CAM 


1,000 400 


OB , 


900 


PE 


. . . 16,070 14,584 


SA 


. . . 80,120 64,824 


SBC 




SDA 


UB 


UGC 


. 


WM 


EPM 


, 


PCC . 



(a) Copies of periodicals, (b) Covers CLS publications only. 
Note: In addition to the above, many churches publish denomina 
tional periodicals, etc., which cannot be listed. 

General Note : 

It ia perhaps hardly necessary to c;;ll attention to the fact that 
many other activities, particularly under the head of "Philanthropic 
Work" are carried on, but cannot be included in the above tables as 
they do not fit any of the items. There is also much work done by 
"Independent" Missionaries, but it has not been found possible to 
collect material regarding this. 



MISSIONARY DIRECTORY 



LIST OF MISSION BOARDS AND CHURCHES 



4. AG. 
5. BS. 



1- ABCFM. American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions, 14 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. Rev. 
Barley Downs, Secretary; Mr. H. W. Hackett, 
Treasurer. 

American Baptist Foreign Mission Society, 152 
Madison Avenue, New York. Miss Elma R. 
Tharp, Secretary and Statistician; Mr. J. Ful- 
lerton Gressitt, Treasurer. 

Office: 2 1-Chome, Misaki Cho, Kanda, Tokyo. 
(Tel. 25-3115). 

Mission Board of the Religious Society of Friends 
of Philadelphia and Vicinity. Mr. H. V. Nichol 
son, Secretary-Treasurer. 

The Assembly of God Secretary; 

Rev. N. H. Barth, Chairman of U.S.A. Group, 
Bible Societies: 

American Bible Society. Rev. K. E. Aurell, 2 4- 
Chome, Giiiza, Tokyo. (Tel. 56-6405; Tele 
grams, Bibles Tokyo). 

The British and Foreign Bible Society and Na 
tional Bible Society of Scotland. Mr. G. H. 
Vinall. 95 Yedo Machi, Kobe Ku, Kobe. (Tele 
grams, Testaments Kobe; Telephone, Sanno- 
miya 2725). 
6. CJPM. The Central Japan Pioneer Mission. Miss Dorothy 

A. Parr, Secretary-Treasurer. 
7. CK. Kirisuto Kyokai (UCMS). 

8. CLS. Christian Literature Society. 

2 Ginza 4-Chome, Kyobashi Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. 
Kyobashi 0252 & 7002; F. C. Tokyo 11357). 
9. CMA. Christian and Missionary Alliance. 

10. CMS. Church Missionary Society. Canon A. C. Hutchin- 

son, Secretary. 

11. CM. Church of the Nazarene. Rev. Hiroshi Kitagawa, 

7-chome Honmachi, Higashiyama Ku, Kyoto 
Shi. Miss Bertie Karns, Secretary-Treasurer. 
12. EC. Evangelical Church of North America. Rev. Har 

vey Thede, Secretary-Treasurer. 

13. ERC. Evangelical and Reformed Church (previously 

RCUS). Rev. E. H. Zaugg, Ph.D., Secretary, 162 
Higashi Sambancho, Sendai (Tel. 3678). Rev. 
E. H. Zaugg, Ph. D., Treasurer, 135 Higashi Ni- 



402 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



bancho, Senclai (Tel. 1783). 

14. FDK. Pukuin Dendo Kyokai. 

15. FFK Fukyu Fukuin Kyokai (OAM). 

Zwinglihaus, 10 Higashimachi, Shogoin Cho, 
Kyoto. (See also OAM). 

16. FFLK. Finland Fukuin Luther Kyokai (LGAF). 

17. FMA. Gsneral Mission Board of the Frse Methodist 

Church of North America. Miss Lillian Pickens, 
Secretary. 

18. HK. Holiness Kyokai (QMS). 

19. IND. Independent of Any Society. 

20. JAM. Japan Apostolic Mission. Mr. L. W. Coote, Sec 

retary. 

21. JBTS. Japan Book and Tract Society, 4 Ginza 4-Chome, 

Kyobashi Ku, Tokyo. Mr. G. B. Braithwaite, 
Secretary. (Tel. 56-4573; F. C. Tokyo 2273; Cabl? 
"Tracts Tokyo"). 

W.C.I. Rev. James Cuthbertson, Field Direc 
tor. 

22. JEB. Japan Evangelistic Band, 55 Gower St., London, 

23. JKK. lesu Kirisuto Kyokai. 

24. JRM. Japan Rescue Mission. Miss F. E. Penny, Secre 

tary. 

25. KK. Nippon Kirisuto Kumiai Kyokkai (Congregation 

al). 

26. KTK. Kirisuto Tomo Kai(AFP). 

27. LCA. Board of Foreign Missions of the United Lutheran 

Church in America. Rev. A. J. Stirewalt, Sec 
retary; Rev. S. O. Thorlaksson, Treasurer. 

2S. LGAF. The Lutheran Gospel Association of Finland. 
Rev. T. Minkkinen, Secretary; Rev. A. Karen, 
Treasurer. 

29. LM. Liebenzeller Mission. Rev. Ernst Lang, Secretary- 

Treasurer. 

30. MBW. Missionary Bands of the World. Mr. Fred Abel, 

Secretary-Treasurer. 

31. MEC. Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Epis 

copal Church and Woman s Foreign Missionary 
Society of the M. E. Church, 150 Fifth Ave., 
New York. Miss A. B. Sprowles and Mrs. F. D. 
Gealy, Secretaries. Rev. F. N. Scott and Miss 
C. S. Peckham, Treasurers. 

32. MES. Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Epis 

copal Church. South, 70G Church St., Nashville, 
Tenn. Rev. J. S. Oxford, Secretary-Treasurer. 



LIST OF MISSION BOARDS AND CHURCHES 403 



33. MM. Mino Mission. Miss Mary J. Ackers, Secretary- 

Treasurer. 

34. MP. Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Pro 

testant Church. Miss Olive L. Hodges, Secretary; 
Miss Evelyn M. Wolfe, Treasurer. 

35. MSCC. Missionary Society of the Church of England in 
Canada. Rev. Victor C. Spencer, Secretary- 
Treasurer. 

36. NBK. Nippon Baptist Kyokai. 

37. NDBK. Nippon Kirisuto Dobo Kyokai (UB). 
38. NDK. Nippon Dojin Kirisuto Kyokai (UGC). 

39. NDKK. Nippon Dome! Kirisuto Kyokai (CMA). 

40. NFK. Nippon Fukuin Kyokai (EC). 

41. NFLK. Nippon Fukuin Luther Kyokai (LCA). 

42. NJMK. Nippon Jiyu Methodist Kyokai (FMA). 

43. NKK. Nippon Kirisuto Kyokai (Presbyterian and Re 

formed ) . 

44. NKKK. Nippon Kyodo Kirisuto Kyokai. 

45. NMFK. Nippon Mifu Kyokai (MP). 

46. NMK. Nippon Methodist Kyokai. 

47. NSK. Nippon Sei Kokai (Episcopal). 

48. NZK. Nazarene Kyokai. 

49. OAM. Ostasien Mission (The East Asia Mission). Rev. 
E. Hessel, Secretary. 

50. OB. Omi Brotherhood. Mr. E. V. Yoshida, Secretary; 

Mr. B. C. Miyamoto, Treasurer. Address Omi- 
Hachiman. 

51. OM. Osaka Mission. 9 Kita 2-chome, Dembo, Osaka. 

52. -OMS. Oriental Missionary Society (Holiness Church). 

53. PCC. Board of Foreign Missions, Presbyterian Church in 

Canada. Miss Mary E. Anderson, Secretary. 

54. PE. Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the 

Protestant Episcopal Church in America. 
Kyoto District: Mrs. J. M. Oglesby, Secretary; Miss 

Edith L. Foote, Treasurer. 

Tohoku District: Miss Helen Boyle, Treasurer. 
North Tokyo District: Miss Ruth Burnside, Sec 
retary; Rev. Charles H. Evans, Treasurer. 

55. PFM. Independent Board for Presbyterian Foreign Mis 

sions: R. Hebar Mcllwaine. 

56. PN. Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian 

Church of the United States of America. Rev. 
Willis C. Lamott, Secretary; Miss Susannah M 
Riker, Treasurer. 

57. PS. Executive Commitee of the Foreign Missions of 



404 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



the Presbyterian Church in the United States 
(Southern Presbyterian). Rev. A. P. Hassel, 
Secretary: Rev. W. McS. Buchanan, Treasurer. 

58. RCA. Reformed Church in America. Rev. Willis G. 

Hoskje, D.D., Secretary; Mr. John Terborg, As 
sistant Secretary: Rev. B. Bruns, Treasurer. 

59. SA. Salvation Army, 101 Qeen Victoria St., London, 

E.C. Lieut. Col. Victor E Rolfe, Secretary-Trea 
surer: 2-chome, Jimbo Cho, Kanda ku, Tokyo. 

60. SAM. Scandinavian American Alliance Mission, Rev. 

Joel Anderson, Secretary-Treasurer. 

61. SBC. Southern Baptist Convention. Mrs. C. K. Dozier, 

Secretary. 

62. SDA. Seventh Day Adventists. Mr. C. D. Forshee, Secre 

tary-Treasurer. 

63. SPG. Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in For 

eign Parts: Kobe Diocese: Rev. E. Allen, Secre 
tary. 

Tokyo Diocese: Rev. S. Heaselett, Secretary-Trea 
surer. 

South Tokyo Diocese: Rev. C. K. Sansbury, Sec 
retary. 

64. SS. Sekai Senkyodan. 

65. TM. Tokyo Mission (formerly Yotsuya Mission). Mr. 

and Mrs. Cunningham, Secretary-Treasurer. 

66. UB. Foreign Missionary Society of the United Breth 

ren in Christ. Rev. J. Edgar Knipp, D.D., Sec 
retary; Rev. B. F. Shively, D.D., Treasurer. 

67. UCC. United Church of Canada. General Board: Rev. 

H. W. Outerbridge, S.T.D., Sacretary-Treasurer. 
Woman s Board: Miss Sybil R. Courtice, Secre 
tary-Treasurer. 

68. UCMS. United Christian Missionary Society. Rev. R. D. 
McCoy, Secretary-Treasurer. 

69. UGC. Universalist General Convention. Rev. Harry M. 

Gary, Jr., Secretary-Treasurer. 

70. WM. Wesleyan Methodist Connection of America. 

71. WU. Woman s Union, Missionary Society of America. 

Miss Susan A. Pratt, Secretary -Tresurar. 

72. YMCA. Young Men s Christian Association. (International 
Com. of Y.M.C.A. s of U.S.A. and Canada,), 
Mr. Arther Jorgensen, Honoray Secretary. 3 of 
2 1-chome, Nishikanda, Kanda Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. 
Kanda 2001-2) 

73. YWCA. Young Women s Christian Association of the 
United States of America. Miss Mildred Roe, 



405 



Secretary-Treasurer, Y.W.C.A. 12 Kita Kago Oho, 

Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 
74. EPM. Board of Foreign Missions. Presbyterian Church in 

England Rev. Edward Band, Secretary. 
75. PCC. Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church of 

Canada. Miss Alma M. Burdick, Secretary. 



LIST OF MISSIONARIES BY TOWNS 



AIZU-WAKAMATSU See Wa- 

kamatsu Shi. 

AKASHI SHI, HYOGO KEN. 

Coles, Miss A. M. M. (retired) 

JEB. 
Cuthberton, Miss Florence 

JEB 
Smith, Miss I. Welbster J 

EB. 

Williams, Mr. P. T. JEB. 
Simeon, Miss R. B. Iiirt. 

AKITA SHI, AKITA KEN. 

Harrison, Rev. and Mrs. E. R. 
PE. 

AMAGASAKI SHI, HYOGO 
KEN. 

Ccx, Miss Alice M. CMS. 

AOMORI SHI. AOMORI KEN. 

Spencer, Miss Gladys C. 
PE. 

ASHIYA, HYOGO KEN. 

Cobb, Rev. and Mrs. J. B. 

ME3. 
Lane, Miss E. A. CMS. 

CHIBA SHI, CHIBA KEN. 

Wordsworth, Miss R. SPG. 

Fl KUDA Ml RA, FUKl SHIMA 
KEN. 

Ranson, Deaconess Anna L. 
PE. 

Fl Kill SHI, FlKl I KEN. 

Holmes, Rev. and Mrs. C. P. 

UCC. 

Powell, Miss Cecelia R. PE. 
Rorke, Miss M. Luella UCC. 
Ryan, Miss Esther L. UCC. 

FIKIOKA SHI, FIKIOKA 
KEN. 

Chase, Miss Laura MEC. 
Dozier, Mrs. C. K. SBC. 
Dozier, Rev. and Mrs. Edwin 



B. SBC. 

Dozier, Miss Hel^n SBC. 

Garrott, Rev. W. Maxfleld 
SBC. 

Glaeser, Mr. and Mrs. Mar 
tin L. IND. 

Harder, Miss Helen 3 LCA. 

Hind, Mrs. J. (retired) CMS. 
Howey, Miss Harriet M. M 

EC. 
Hutchinson, Canon and Mrs. 

A. C. CMS. 
Richert, Mr. and Mrs. Adolph 

IND. 

Shirk, Miss Helen M. LCA. 
Smith, Miss Eloise G., MEC. 
Spenc?r, Rev. and Mrs. R. S. 

MEC. 
Watkins, Miss Elizabeth T. 

IND. 
Winther, Rev. and Mrs. J. M. 

T. LCA. 

FUKUYAMA SHI, HIROSHI 
MA KEN. 

Dievendorf, Mrs. A. CMA. 
Francis, Rev. T. R. CMA. 
GENZAN, KOREA. 

Stewart, Rev. and Mrs. S. A. 
MES. 

GIFT SHI, GIFU KEN. 

Buchanan, Miss Elizabeth O. 

PS 
McAlpine, Rev. James A. P 

S. 
Shore, Miss S. G. MSCC. 

HACHIOJI SHI, TOKYO FU. 

Wengler, Miss Jessie AG. 

HAKODATE SHI, HOKKAIDO. 

Byler, Miss Gertrude M. M 

EC. 
McNaughton. Rev. and Mrs. 

R. E. IND. 

Rennie, Rev. William IND. 
Wagner, Miss Dora A. MEC. 



408 



HAMADA MACIII. SHIMANE 
KEN. 

Nash, Miss Elizabeth (retir 
ed) CMS. 

HAMAMATSU SHI, SHIZUOKA 
KEN. 

Hempstead, Miss Ethel L. 

MP. 

Juergensen, Miss Agnes AC. 
Keagey, Miss Margaret D. 

UCC. 

HIKONE, SHIGA KEN. 

Smith, Rev. and Mrs. P. A. 
PE. 

KIMEJI SHI, HYOGO KEN. 

Bickel, Mrs L. W. (retired) 

ABF. 

Bixby, Miss Alice C. ABP. 
Hager, Rev. and Mrs. S. E. 

MES. 
Topping, Rev. and Mrs. Wil- 

lard P. ABF. 

HIRATSIKA SHI, KANAGAWA 
KEN. 

Shepherd, Miss K. SPG. 

HIROSAKI SHI, AOMORI KEN 

Curtice.Miss Lois K. MEC. 
Taylor, Miss Erma M. MEC. 

HIROSHIMA SHI, HIROSHIMA 
KEN. 

Anderson, Miss Myra P. M 

ES. 
Barnard, Rev. and Mrs. C. E. 

PN. 

Cooper, Miss Lois W. MEG. 
Cronk, Miss Althea MES. 
Finch, Miss Mary D. MES. 
Gaines, Miss Rachel MES. 
Hereford, Rev. and Mrs. W. 

F. PN. 
Huckabee, Rev. and Mrs W. 

C. MES. 
Johnson, Miss Katherine 

MES. 
Ray, Rev. and Mrs. J. F. S 

BC. 

Shannon, Miss Ida L. MES. 
Tarr, Miss Alberta MES. 



Worthington, Miss Honoria 
J. (retired) CMS. 

ICHIKAWA SHI. CHIBA KEN. 

Lippard, Miss Faith LCA 

IKOMA MACHI, NARA KEN. 

Coote, Mr. and Mrs. Leonard 

W. JAM. 
Gray, Mr. and Mrs. Frank H. 

JAM. 
Randall, Mr. and Mrs. A E. 

AG. 

INARIYAMA MACHI, NAGANO 
KEN. 

Horobin, Miss H. M. MSCC. 

INUYAMA MACHI, AICHI 
KEN. 

Archer, Miss Anne L. (re 
tired) MSCC. 

ITA MACHI, Ft Kl OKA KEN. 

Home, Miss Alice C. J. C 
MS. 

KAGOSHIMA SHI, KAGOSHI- 
MA KEN. 

Finlay, Miss L. Alice MEC. 

KAMI IIDA MACHI, NAGANO 
KEN. 

Minkkinen, Rev. and Mrs T. 
LGAF. 

KANAZAWA SHI, ISHIKAWA 
KEN. 

Callbeck, Miss Louise M. 

UCC. 

Lsdiard, Miss Ella UCC. 
Lindsay, Miss Olivia C. U 

CC. 

Miles, Miss Mary PN. 
Norman, Rev. and Mrs. W. 

H. H. UCC. 

R~iser, Miss A. Irene PN. 
Shaw, Rev. and Mrs. H. R. 

PE. 

KARUIZAVVA MACHI, NAGA 
NO KEN. 

Norman, Rev. and Mrs. Dan 
iel (retired) UCC. 
KAVVAGOE SHI, SAITAMA 
KEN. 



LIST OF MISSIONARIES BY TOWNS 



403 



Boyd, Miss Louisa H. PE. 

KAWAKAGI Ml KA, HYO(iO 
KEN. 

Byers, Miss Florence M. AG. 
Gale, Mrs. Emma IND. 

KOBE SHI. HYOGO KEN. 

Akana, Mrs. Catherine ABC 

FM. 

Allen, Rev. E. SPG. 
Basil, Rt. Rev. Bishop SPG. 
Beatty, Mr. and Mrs. H. E. 

IND. 
Clark, Rev. and Mrs. E. M. 

PN. 

Colvin, Miss Thelma MES. 
Cuthbertson, Mr. and Mrs. 

James JEB. 
Dietrich, Paster and Mrs. 

George SDA. 
Druit, Miss M. SPG. 
Edwards, Miss N. SPG. 
Ford, Rev. J. C. SPG. 
Fowells, Miss A. SPG. 
Fulton, Rev. and Mrs. S. P. 

PS. 

Gosden, Mr. Eric W. JEB. 
Hackett, Mr. and Mrs. H. W. 

ABCFM. 

Holland, Miss C. G. MES. 
Lea, Miss L. SPG. 
Lindstrom, Mrs. C. (retired) 

CM A. 

MacKay, Rev. M. R. PCC. 
MacLean, Miss Jean C. PCC. 
Martin, Prof, and Mrs. J. V. 

IND. 
Myers, Rev. and Mrs. Harry 

W. PS. 
Ostrom, Rev. and Mrs H. 

Conrad PS. 
Oxford, Mr. and Mrs. J. S. 

MES. 

Parker, Mr. and Mrs. Ken 
neth A. UCC. 
Robinson, Mr. and Mrs. C. C. 

IND. 

Rupart, Miss Nettie L. IND. 
Santee, Miss H. C. IND. 
Shannon, Miss Katherine 

MES. 
Sheppard, Miss E. IND. 



Smith, Miss E. SPG. 

Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Roy 

MES. 

Soal, Miss A. A. JEB. 
Stranks, Rev. and Mrs. C. J. 

SPG. 
Stubbs, Rev. and Mrs. David. 

C. MES. 

Taylor, Mrs. Mary IND. 
Thorlaksson, Rev. and Mrs. 

S. O LCA. 
Troughton, Mr. and Mrs. H. 

W. F. IND. 
Vinall. Mr. and Mrs. G. H. 

BS. 

Voules, Miss J. SPG. 
Walker, Mr. and Mrs. F. B. 

SPG. 
Watts, Rev. and Mrs. F. E. 

IND. 
Wilkinson, Mr. and Mrs. S. 

S. JEB. 

Williams, Miss A. SPG. 
Wood, Miss V. SPG. 
Woollsy, Miss Alice IND. 
Woodworth, Miss Olive F. 

JEB. 
Young, Dr. L. L. PCC. 

KEIJO SHI, KOREA. 

Kerr, Rev. and Mrs. W. C. 
PN. 

Starkey, Miss Bertha F. M 
EC. 

KOCHI SHI, KOCHI KEN. 

Brady, Rev. and Mrs. J. 
Harper PS. 

Dowd, Miss Annie H. (re 
tired) PS. 

KOFU SHI, YAMANASHI KEN. 

Douglas, Miss Leona M. 

UCC. 
Greenbank, Miss Katherine 

M. UCC. 

Haig, Miss Mary T. UCC. 
Suttie, Miss G. UCC. 



SHI, 



FUKl OKA 



KOKURA 

KEN. 

Carver, Miss Dorothy SBC. 
Jesse, Miss Mary D., SBC. 
Lancaster, Miss Cecile SBC. 



410 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



KORIYAMA SHI, Fl KISHI- 
MA KEN. 

Anderson, Miss Irene EC. 
Lewis, Rev. and Mrs. H. M.. 
PE. 

KLMA.MOTO SHI. KUMAMO- 
TO KEN. 

Akard, Miss Martha LCA. 
Bach, Rev. and Mrs. D. G. M. 

LCA 

Lee, Miss Mabel MEC. 
Miller, Rev. and Mrs. L. S. G. 

LCA. 

Potts, Miss Marion LCA. 
Powlas, Miss Maud LCA. 
Schillinger, Rev. and Mrs. 

George W. LCA. 
Wright, Miss A. H. IND. 

Kl RE SHI, HIROSHIMA KEN. 

Baggs, Miss M. C. CMS. 
Doubleday, Miss Stella C. 
CMS. 



SHI, 



FIKIOKA 



KTRl ME 
KEN. 

Goldsmith, Miss Mabel O. 

CMS. 
Moore, Rev. and Mrs. B, C, 

RCA. 

KVSATSU MACHI, Gl MMA 
KEN. 

Bath, Miss Marie J. PE. 
Cornwall-Legh, Miss Mary H. 

PE 

McGill, Miss Mary B. PE. 
Nettleton, Miss Mary PE. 

KYOTO SHI, KYOTO FU. 

Buchanan, Rev. and Mrs. D. 
C. PN. 

Chapman, Rev. and Mrs. J. 
J. PE. 

Clapp. Miss Frances M. 

ABCFM. 

Cobb, Rev. and Mrs. E. S. 
ABCFM. 

Denton, Miss Mary F. (re 
tired) ABCFM. 

Disbrow, Miss Helen J. PS. 

English, Mr. Arthur ABC 
FM. 

Foote, Miss E. L. PE. 



Hibbard, Miss Esther ABC 

FM. 

Johnson, Miss Thora PE. 
Karns, Miss Bertie CN. 
Morris, Rev. and Mrs. J. Ken 
neth PE. 
Nichols, Rt. Rev. and Mrs. S. 

H. PE. 

Oglesby, Mrs. J. M. PE. 
Shively, Rev. and Mrs. B. F. 

UB. 

Skiles, Miss Helen PE. 
Smith, Mr. and Mrs. H. E. 

IND. 

Smith, Miss Marie AG. 
Staples, Mrs. Minnie L. CN. 
Siimners. Miss Gertrude 

PE. 
Thomas, R:v. Winburn T. 

PN. 

Wiley, Miss Alma F -^T. 
Williams, Miss H. R. PE. 

MAEBASHI SHI, GIMMA KEN. 

Bur net, Miss M. A. CJPM. 
Cochran, Miss M. Eugenia 

CJPM. 
Parr, Miss Dorothy A. CJ 

PM. 

MARIGAME SHI, KAGAWA 
KEN. 

Buchanan, Rev. and Mrs. 

Walter McS. PS. 
Currell, Miss Susan McD. - 

PS. 
Kirtland, Miss Leila G. PS. 

MATSUBASE MACHI, KUMA- 
MOTO KEN. 

Boydell, Miss Kathle3n M. 
CMS. 

MATSl MOTO SHI, NAGANO 
KEN. 

Ainsworth, Rsv. and Mrs. 

Fred UCC. 

Clench, Miss M. IND. 
Hamilton, Miss F. MSCC. 

MATSLYAMA SHI, EHIME 
KEN. 



LIST OF MISSIONARIES BY TOWNS 



411 



Gulick, Mr. and Mrs. Leeds 

ABCPM. 
Hessell, Rev. and Mrs. Egon 

OAM. 
Hoyt, Miss Olive S. ABC 

FM. 
Merrill, Miss Katherine AB 

CFM. 
Shaver, Rev. and Mrs. I L. 

MES. 

MATSl ZAKA SHI, IVIIE KEX. 

Thoren, Miss Amy JEB. 

M.1XAMIHARA AURA, , CHIBA 
KEN. 

Colborne, Mrs. S. E. (re 
tired) CMS. 

Hughes, Miss Alice M. (re 
tired) CMS. 

MITO SHI, IBAKAKI KEN. 

Chappell, Rev. and Mrs. 

James PE. 

McKim, Miss Bessie PE. 
McKim, Miss Nellie PE. 
Nicholson, Mr. and Mrs. H. V. 

AFP. 
Sharpless, Miss Edith AFP. 

MIYA-II MACHIi. KUMAMOTO 
KEX. 

Freeth, Miss F. Mary CMS. 

MO-1I SHI, FIKLOKA KEX. 

Lippard, Rev. and Mrs C. K. 
LCA. 

MOKIOKA Sill, IVVYTE KEX. 

Schroer, Rev. and Mrs. G. W. 
ERC. 

MISASHINO MACHI, TOKYO 
FU. 

Morse, Rev. Father W. P. 
PE. 

NAGAHAMA MACHI, KEX. 

Ellis, Mrs. Charles IND. 

NAGANO SHI, NAGANO KEN. 

Bailey, Miss H. MSCC. 
Killam, Miss Ada UCC. 
Staples, Miss Marie M. UC 
C. 



Stone, Rev. and Mrs. A. R. 
UCC. 

NAGASAKI SHI, NAGASAKI 
KEX. 

Ashbaugh, Miss Adella M. 

MEC. 

Couch, Miss Helen MEC. 
Couch, Miss S. M. RCA. 
Fehr, Miss Vera J. MEC. 
Hagen, Miss Olive I. MEC. 
Mills, Rev. E. O. SBC. 
Scott, Rev. and Mrs. F. N. 

MEC. 
Taylor, Miss Minnie (retired) 

RCA. 
White, Miss Anna Laura 

MEC. 

NAGASAWA MACHI, IBARAKI 
KEX. 

Bixler, Mr. and Mrs. O. D, 
IND, 

XAGOYA SHI, AICHI KEX. 

Archibald, Miss Margaret 

PS. 
Bowman, Miss N. F. J. MS 

CC, 
Buchnan, Rev. and Mrs. P. 

W. PS. 
Buckland, Miss Ruth E. 

PS. 

Jackson, Mr. and Mrs. Ray 
mond IND. 
Juergensen, Rev and Mrs. J. 

W. AG. 
Knudtsn, Rev. and Mrs. A. C, 

LCA, 
Newman, Rev. and Mrs. R. G, 

UCC, 

Patton, Miss Anne V. PS. 
Price, Rev. and Mrs P. G. 

UCC. 

Robinson, Miss Amy PS. 
Robinson, Miss H. M. IND. 
Savillo, Miss Rose JRM. 
Spencer, Rev. and Mrs. V. C. 

MSCC, 
Warner, Rev. and Mrs. Paul 

F. MP. 



412 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



NAKATSl SHI, OITA KEN. 

Towson. Miss Manie MES. 
Towson, Rev. W. E. (retired) 
MES. 

NARA SHI, NARA KEN. 

Dickson, Miss E. L. PE. 
Hester, Miss Margaret \V. 
PE. 

NIIGATA SHI, XIIGATA KEN. 

Watts, Rev. and Mrs. H. G. 
MSCC. 

NIKKO MACIII, TOCHIGI 
KEN. 

Humphreys, Miss Marian 
PE. 

NISHINOMJYA SHI, HYOGO 
KEN. 

Bates, Rc-v. and Mrs. C. J. L, 

UCC. 

Cary, Miss Alice E. ABCFM, 
Cragg. Rev. and Mrs. W. J. 

M, UCC, 
Crew, Mrs. Glenna C. ABC 

PM. 
Curtis, Miss Edith E. ABCP 

MM. 
Field, Miss Sarah M. ABC 

FM. 
Hilburn, Rev. and Mrs. S. M. 

MES, 

Holt, Miss Eugenie ABCFM. 
Husted, Miss Edith E. ABC 

FM. 

Jones. Rev. H. P. MES. 
Kane, Miss Marion E. ABC 

FM. 
MacCausland, Miss Isabella 

ABCFM. 
Matthews. Rev. and Mrs. W. 

K. MES. 
McKenzie, Rev. and Mrs. H. 

E. UCC. 
Mickle, Mr. and Mrs. J. J. 

MES. 
Moran, Rev. and Mrs. S. F. 

ABCFM. 
Outerbridge. Rev. and Mrs. 

H. W. UCC. 
Reed. Rev. and Mrs. J. Paul 

MES. 



Stowe. Miss Grace H. ABC 

FM. 
Stowe, Miss Mary E. ABC 

FM. 
Whiting, Rev. and Mrs. M. M. 

UCC. 
Woodard, Rev. and Mrs. W. 

P. ABCFM. 
Woods worth, Rev. and Mrs 

H. P. UCC. 

NOKKEl SHI, HOKKAIDO. 

Tremain, Rev. and Mrs. Mar- 
tel A. PN. 

OBAMA MACHI. Fl KlI KEN. 

Paine, Miss Margeret R. 
PE. 

OBLSE MURA, NAGANO KEN 

Butcher, Miss K. MSCC. 
Pi^rcy, Rev. and Mrs. H. G. 

CMS. 

Powell. Miss L. MSCC 
Start, Dr. R. K. MSCC. 

OGAKI SHI, GIF!" KEN 

Ackers, Miss Mary Jane 

MM. 

Miller, Miss Erma L. MM. 
Weidner, Miss Sadie Lea 

MM. 
Whewell, Miss Elizabeth A. 

MM. 
OITA SHI, OITA KEN 

Carroll, Miss Bailie E. MES. 
Feely, Miss Gertrude MES. 
Kuyper, Rev. & Mrs. Hub3rt 

RCA. 

OKAYA .MACHI. NAGANO KEN 

Foerstel, Miss M. MSCC. 
Hawkins, Miss F. B. MSCC. 

OKAYAMA SHI, OKAYAMA 
KEN 

Adarns, Miss Alice 
P. ( retired ) ABCFM. 

Meyers, Rev. & Mrs. J. T. 

MES. 
OKAZAKI SHI, AICHI KEN 

Crawford. Rev. & Mrs. V. A. 
PR. 

Fatton, Miss Florence D. PS. 



LIST OF MISSIONARIES BY TOWNS 



413 



OMI-HACHIMAN MACHI, 
SHIGA KEN 

Vories, Mr. & Mrs. John 

OB. 

Vories, Mrs. J. E. OB. 
Vories, Mr. & Mrs. W. M. 

OB, 

OMITA SHI, Fl IUOKA KEN 

Thompson, Miss Fannie L. 

CMS. 
OSAKA SHI, OSAKA FU 

Bunker, Miss Annie JRM. 
Cook, Miss M. M. MES. 
Dempsie, Rev. & Mrs. George 

JRM. 

Field, Miss Ruth MES. 
Foote, Rev. & Mrs. J. A. 

ABF, 

Grube, Miss Alice PN. 
Hail, Mrs. Harriet W. PN. 
Hereford, Miss Grace PN. 
Hertzler, Miss Verna S. EC. 
Hoare, Miss D. E. JEB, 
Howard, Miss R. Dora 

(retired) CMS. 
Jones, Dr. & Mrs. F. M. PE, 
Kelly, Miss Ruth JRM. 
Kirkaldy, Miss Minnie JRM. 
Madden, Miss Grace IND. 
Madden, Rev. & Mrs. M. 3. 

IND, 
Martin, Rev. & Mrs. D. P. 

PN. 

McGrath, Miss Violet JRM. 
Morris, Miss Kathleen JRM. 
Mylander, Miss Ruth FMA. 
Palmer, Miss Helen M. PN. 
Peavy, Miss Anne R. MES. 
Penny, Miss Florence E. 

JRM. 
Pickens, Miss Lillian O. 

FMA. 
Reeve, Rev. & Mrs. W. S. 

PN. 
Riker, Miss Susannah M. 

PN. 
Robertson, Miss Elvah A. 

IND. 

Sawyer, Mr. Ray IND. 
Stanfield, Miss Isobel JRM. 
Stevens, Miss C. B. MES. 
Tristram, Miss Katherine S. 



(retired) CMS. 
Van Kirk, Miss Anne S. PE. 
Williams, Miss A. B. MES. 
Williams, Miss Agnes S. 

CMS. 
Woodd, Rev. & Mrs. F. H. B. 

CMS. 

OTARl SHI, HOKKAIDO 

Cary, Rev. & Mrs. Frank 

ABCFM. 
Cary, Mrs. Otis (retired) 

ABCFM. 

McCrory, Miss Carrie H. PN. 
Staveley, Miss J. Ann CMS. 

OTSU SHI, SHIGA KEN 

Knipp, Rev. & Mrs. J. E. UB. 

SAGA SHI, SAGA KEN 

Heltibridle, Miss Mary LCA. 
Wintrier, Miss Maya LCA. 

SANDA CHO, HYOGO KEN. 

Thornton, Rev. and Mrs. S. 
W. OM. 

SAPPORO SHI, HOKKAIDO. 

Alexander, Miss Virginia E. 

(retired) MEC. 
Batchelor, Ven. Archd. and 

Mrs. John (retired) CMS. 
Evans, Miss Elizabeth M. 

PN. 

Hereford, Miss Nannie PN. 
Koch, Paster and Mrs. Al 
fred SDA. 
Lake, Rev. and Mrs. Leo C. 

PN. 

Niemi, Miss Tyyne LGAF. 
Savolainen, Rev. and Mrs. J. 

V. LGAF. 

Smith, Miss Janet C. PN. 
Walsh. Rt. Rev. and Mrs. G. 

J. CMS. 

SENDAI SHI, MIYAGI KEN. 

Binsted, Rt. Rev. and Mrs. N. 

S. PE. 

Boyle, Miss Helen PE. 
Bradbury, Miss Iva JRM. 
Charles, Miss Elizabeth 

JRM. 

Dann. Miss Jane.t M. JRM. 
Draper, Rev. and Mrs. W. F. 



414 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



PE. 
Fesperman, Rev. and Mrs. F. 

L. ERC. 
Garman, Miss Margaret 

ERC. 
Gerhard, Miss Mary E. 

ERC. 
Gerhard, Rev. and Mrs. P. L. 

ERC. 
Gerhard, Mr. and Mrs. R. H. 

ERC. 

Gray, Miss Gladys V. PE. 
Hansen, Miss Kate I. ERC. 
Hesketh, Miss Ellen JRM. 
Kittle, Miss Dorothy PE. 
Hoffman, Miss Mary E. 

ERC. 

Ilsley, Miss Alice M. ERC. 
James, Miss Ruth -JRM. 
Jans?n, Miss Barnice PE. 
Kilburn, Miss Elizabeth H. 

MEC. 
Kriete, Rev. and Mrs. Carl 

D. ERC. 

Leidal, Miss Marie ERC. 
Lindsey. Miss Lydia A. ERC. 
Luthy, Rev. and Mrs. S. R. 

MEC. 

McConnell, Miss Alice JRM. 
McKnight. Rev. and Mrs. W. 

Q. ABCFM. 

Naefe, Miss Alma C. ERC. 
Nicholson, Miss Goldie 

ABF. 
Nicodemus. Mr. and Mrs. F. 

D. ERC. 

Palmer. Miss M. E. JRM. 
Sipple. Mr. and Mrs. Carl S. 

ERC. 
Smith. Miss Harriet P. 

ERC. 
Stoudt, Mr. and Mrs. O. M. 

ERC 

Thomas, Miss Irene JRM. 
Torbet, Miss Isabel JRM. 
Wilson, Miss Dorothy JRM. 
Wright, Miss Phyllis JRM. 
Zaugg, Rev. and Mrs. E. H. 

ERC. 

Zoll, Mr. Donald PE. 
SEOUL, KOREA, See IvEIJO. 



SHKiEI Ml RA, HIROSHIMA 
KEN. 

Farnum, Rev. and Mrs. M. D. 
ABF. 

SHIMOICHI Ml RA, / NARA 
KEN. 

Richardson, Miss Helena 
JEB. 

KHIMONOSEKI SHI, YAMA- 
(11 CHI KEN. 

Dunlop, Mrs. J. G. PN. 
Holmes, Miss Mary SPG. 
Mackenzie, Miss Virginia M. 

PN. 
Pieters, Miss Johana A. 

RCA. 
Strong, Rev. G. N. SPG. 

SHIMOTSr-VIA MACHI , IBA- 
RAKI KEN. 

Binford, Mr. and Mrs. Guer- 
ney AFP. 

SHIM; i SHI, WAKAYAMA 
KEN. 

Chapman, Rev. and Mrs. E. 
N. PN. 

SHIZI OKA SHI, SHIZl OKA 
KEN. 

Andrews, Miss Sarah S. 

IND. 

Bagley. Miss Kate? IND. 
Govenlock, Miss Isabel UCC. 
Leith, Miss M. Isobel UCC. 
McLachlan, Miss A. May 

UCC. 
McWiUiams. Rev. and Mrs. 

W. R. UCC. 
Strothsrd, Miss Alice O. 

UCC. 

SHOKA, FORMOSA. 

Adair, Miss Lily EPM. 
Gumming, Dr. and Mrs. G. 

G. EPM. 

Elliot, Miss Isabel EPM. 
Little, Dr. and Mrs. J. L. 

EPM. 

SHOWA MACHI, CHIBA KEN. 

Nelson, Pastor and Mrs. A. N. 
SDA. 



LIST OF MISSIONARIES BY TOWNS 



415 



Webber, Mr. and Mrs. Perry 
A. SDA. 

TACHIKAWA MACHI, TOKYO 
FIT. 

Dithridge, Miss Harriet 
IND. 

TAIHOKl, FORMOSA 

Adams, Miss Ada E. PCC. 
Gushue-Taylor, Dr. and Mrs. 

G. PCC. 

Heighten, Miss Ruth PCC. 
Hsrmanson, Miss Hildur 

PCC. 
Ramsay, Miss Margaret M. 

PCC. 
Stevens, Dr. and Mrs. 

Evigene PCC. 
Weir, Miss Mildred PC. 

TAINAN, FORMOSA. 

Band, Rev. Edward EPM. 
Beattie, Miss Margaret 
Cullen, Miss Gladys S. 

EPM. 

Gait, Miss Jessie W. EPM. 
Gauld, Miss Gretta EPM. 
Gauld, Mrs. M. A. EPM. 
Livingston, Miss Anne A. 

EPM. 
Mackintosh, Miss Sabine E. 

EPM. 

MacLeod, Miss Ruth EPM. 
Marshall, Rev. and Mrs. D. 

F. EPM. 
Montgomery, Rav. and Mrs. 

W. E. EPM. 
Weighton, Mr. R. G. P. 

EPM. 

JAITO. FORMOSA. 

Yates, Rev. N. P. IND. 

TAKAMATSU SHI, KAGAVV-i 
KEN. 

Erickson, Rev. and Mrs. S. 

M. PS. 
Gardner, Miss Emma E. 

PS. 
Moore, Rev. and Mrs. J. W. 

(retired) PS. 
Munroc, Rev. and Mrs. H. H. 

PS. 



TAKASAGO MACHI HYOGO 
K,EN. 

Gillespy, Miss J. C. JEB. 

TAKATA SHI, NIIGATA KKX. 

Powles, Rev. and Mrs. P. S. 
C. MSCC. 

TANSII, FORMOSA. 

Burdick, Miss Alma M. 

PCC. 
Dickson, Rev. and Mrs. J. I. 

PCC. 
Douglas, Miss Dorothy C. 

PCC. 
MacKay. Mr. and Mrs. 

George W. PCC. 
MacMillan, Rsv. and Mrs. 

Hugh PCC. 
Newbury, Miss Georgia M. 

PCC. 
Taylor, Miss Isabel PCC. 

TOBATA SHI, Fl KUOKA KEN. 

Hind, Mrs. J. (retired) 

CMS. 
Schell, Miss Naomi SBC. 

TOCHIGI MACHty TOCHIGI 
KEN. 

Andrews, Rev. and Mrs. R. 
W. PE. 

TOKISHIMA SHI, TOKLSHI- 
MA KEN. 

Bryan, Rev. and Mrs. Harry 

H. PS. 
Hassell, Rev. and Mrs. A. P. 

PS. 
Logan, Rev. and Mrs. C. A. 

PS. ! 

Lumpkin, Miss Estelle PS. 
Richardson, Miss C. M. 

CMS. 

TOKUYAMA MACHU, YAMA- 
Gl CHI KEN. 

Frank, Rev. Mrs. J. W. MES. 
Palmore, Rev. and Mrs. P. 
L. MES. 

TOKYO SHI. 

Albright, Rev. and Mrs. L. 

S. UCC. 
Alexander, Rev. and Mrs. R. 



416 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



P. (retired) MEC. 
Allen, Miss Annie W. UCC. 
Anderson, Rev. Joel SAM. 
Andrews, Miss Olive M. E. 

IND. 
Aurell, Rev. and Mrs. K. E. 

BS. 

Axling, Rev. and Mrs. Wil 
liam ABF. 
Bailey, Miss Barbara M. 

MEC. 

Barbour, Miss Ruth PE. 
Barr, Miss Lulu M. UCC. 
Bates, Miss E. L. UCC. 
Bausrnfeind, Miss Susan M. 

EC. 
Benninghoff, Rev. and Mrs. 

H. B. ABF. 

Berry, Rev. Arthur D. MEC. 
Best, Major and Mrs. Arthur 

SA. 
Bishop, Rev. and Mrs. 

Charles (retired) MEC. 
Bosanquet, Miss Amy C. (re 
tired) CMS. 
Bott, Rev. and Mrs. G. E. 

UCC. 
Bowles, Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert 

AFP. 
Braithwaite, Mr. and Mrs. G. 

B. AFP, JETS. 
Branstad, Mr. and Mrs. Karl 

E. PE. 

Brown, Miss Oliva JRM. 
Brumbaguh, Rev. and Mrs. 

T. T. MEC. 

Buncombe, Rev. W. P. CMS. 
Burnside, Miss Ruth PE. 
Bushe, Miss S. L. K. CMS. 
Carlson, Rev. C. E. SAM. 
Gary, Mrs. H. M. UGC. 
Gary. Rev. Harry M., Jr 

UGC. 
Chapp?;!!., Miss Constance C. 

UCC. 

Chappell, Miss !vlary IND. 
Chope, Miss D. M. SPG. 
Clawson, Miss, Bertha F. (re 
tired) UCMS. 

Clazio, Miss Mabel G. UCC. 
Clement, Rev. nadMrs. J. J. 

AG. 



Collins, Miss Mary D. MEC. 
Course, Mr. and Mrs. J. H. 

IND. 
Courtice, Miss Sybil R. 

UCC. 

Craig, Mr. Eugene B. IND. 
Cunningham, Mr. and Mrs. 

W. D. YM. 

Cypert, Miss Lillie D. IND. 
Daniel, Miss N. Margaret 

MEC. 

Darrow, Miss Flora RCA. 
Daugherty, Miss Lena G. 

PN. 
Davidson, Adjutant and Mrs. 

Charles SA. 
Downing, Miss Ruth E. 

UGC. 
Downs, Rev. and Mrs. Dar- 

ley ABCFM. 

Durgin, Mr. and Mrs. Rus 
sell YMCA. 

Elliot, Dr. Mabel E PE. 
Evens, Pastor and Mrs. H. P. 

PE. 
Evans, Pastor ancj Mrs. H. P. 

SDA. 

Ewing, Miss Annie M. IND. 
Farnham, Miss Grace IND. 
Foerstol, Miss Ella L. A. PE. 
Fcote, Mr. E. W. PE. 
Forshee, Mr. and Mrs. C. D. 

SDA. 
Fowler, Mr. and Mrs. J. E. 

PE. 
Frehn, Rev. and Mrs. M. C. 

CM A. 
Gardiner, Miss Ernestine W. 

PE. 
Gnrman, Rev. and Mrs. C. P 

ABCFM, CLS. 
G.^aly, Rev. and Mrs. F. D. 

MEC. 
Gibbs, R2v. and Mrs. M. A. 

WM. 

Gillett, Miss E. R. IND. 
Gillilan, Miss Elizabeth 

PN. 
Gordon, Mrs. M. L. (retired) 

ABCFM. 

Graham, Miss Jean A. C. 
UCC. 



LIST OF MISSIONARIES BY TOWNS 



417 



Gressitt, Mr. and Mrs. J. F. 

ABF. 
Gubbins, Miss Gertrude M. 

IND. 

Hailstone, Miss M. E. SPG. 
Halsey, Miss Lila S. PN. 
Hamilton, Miss F. Gertrude 

UCC. 
Hannaford, Rev. and Mrs. H. 

D. PN. 

Hartshorne, Miss A. C. IND. 
Healy, Rev. and Mrs. F. G. 

EPM. 
Helm. Rsv. and Mrs. N. T. 

PN. 
Hennigar, Rev. and Mrs. E. 

C. UCC. 
Heywood, Miss C. Gertrude 

PE. 

Hitch, Miss Annie May YM. 
Hitch, Mr. T. G. YM. 
Hockin, Miss Margaret 

YWCA. 
Hoejke, Rev. and Mrs. W. G. 

RCA. 
Horn, Rev. and Mrs. E. T. 

LCA. 
Hubbard, Miss Jeannette 

PE 
Hubbard, Dr. and Mrs. J. P. 

PE. 
Iglehart, Rev. and Mrs. C. W. 

MEC. 
Iglehart, Rev. and Mrs. E. T. 

MEC. 

Jones, Miss Ethel YM. 
Jorgensen, Mr. and Mrs. A. 

YMCA. 

Jost, Miss Eleanor E. UCC. 
Jost. Miss H. J. UCC. 
Juergensen, Mr., and Mrs. C. 

F. (retired) AG. 
Juergensen, Miss Marie AG. 
Karen, Rev. and Mrs. A. 

LGAF. 
Kaufman, Miss Emma R. 

YWCA. 
Kcrmard, Rev. and Mrs. 

Spancer ABF. 
Kennedy. Miss Clara E. 

IND 
Knapp, Deaconess Susan T. 



PE. 
Kraft, Mr. and Mrs. E. J. 

SDA. 

Kramer, Miss Lois F. EC. 
Kuecklich, Miss Gertrud 

EC. 

Lade, Miss Helen R. PE. 
Lambtt, Rev. and Mrs. Wil 
lis PN. 

Lehman, Miss Lois UCC. 
Lemmon, Miss Vivian IND. 
Linn, Rev. and Mrs. J. K. 

LCA. 
London, Miss Matilda H. 

PN. 
Luke, Mr. and Mrs. P. T. 

IND. 
Marshall, Mr and Mrs. 

Gsorge H.-JPE. 
Mauk, Miss Laura EC. 
Mayer, Rev. and Mrs. P. S. 

EC. 

McCaleb, Mr. J. M. IND. 
McCoy, Rev. and Mrs. R. D. 

UCMS. 
McDonald, Miss Mary D. 

PN. 
Millard, Mr. and Mrs. F. R. 

SDA. 
Miller, Mrs. H. K. (retired) 

ERG. 
Miller, Miss Jessie M. 

MSCC. 
Mosimann, Rev. and Mrs. 

Otto LM. 
Moss, Rev. Frank H., Jr. 

PE. 

Murray, Miss Edna B. PE. 
Musser, Mr. and Mrs. C. K. 

IND. 
Nothhelfer, Rev. and Mrs. 

Karl LM. 
Nuno, Miss Christine M. 

PE. 
Olson, Dr. and Mrs. E. H. 

SDA. 
Paine, Miss Mildred Anne 

MEC. 

Peters, Miss Augusta F. PE. 
Philipps, Miss E. G. SPG. 
Pider, Miss Myrtle Z. MEC. 
Fifer, Miss B. Catherine 



418 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



ERC. 

Pond, Miss Helen M. PE. 
Ray, Rsv. and Mrs.. Hermon 

S. SBC. 
Reifsnider, Rt. Rev. and Mrs. 

C. S. PE. 
Reischauer, Rev. and Mrs. 

A. K. PN. 
Rhoads Miss Esther B. 

AFP. 
Roberts, Miss Alice (retired) 

CMS. 

Roe, Miss Mildred YWCA. 
Rolfe, Lt. Col. and Mrs. V. E. 

SA. 

Rose, Rev. and Mrs. Law 
rence PE. 

Rusch, Mr. Paul PE. 
Ryder, Miss Gertrude E. 

ABP. 
Sansbury, Rev. and Mrs. C, 

K. SPG. 

Schereschewesky, Miss Caro 
line PE. 
Schoonover, Miss Ruth 

IND. 
Schweitzer, Miss Edna M. 

EC. 
Scott, Mr. and Mrs. R. W. 

PE. 
Shaeffer, Miss Mabel R. 

PE. 
Shaw, Rev. and Mrs. RDM 

SPG. 

Shimmel, Miss Edith YM. 
Shipps, Miss Helen K. PE. 
Sisters of the Community of 

the Epiphany SPG. 
Smyth, Brigadier Annie 

SA. 
Spackman. Rev. and Mrs. H. 

C. PE. 
Sprowles, Miss Alberta B. 

MEC. 
Starr, Dr. and Mrs. Paul V. 

SDA. 
Stirewalt, Rev. and Mrs. A. 

J. LCA, CLS. 
St. John, Mrs. Alice C. 

PE. 
Stockdale, Miss Katherine F. 

SPG. 



Tanner, Miss K. SPG. 

Tapson, Miss Minna (re 
tired) CMS. 

TerBorg, Rev. and Mrs. 
John RCA. 

Tharp, Miss Elma R. ABF. 

Thomas, Miss Helen AFP. 

Thurston, Mr. and Mrs. C. P. 
SDA. 

Topping. Rev. & Mrs. Henry 
(retired) ABF. 

Trott, Miss Dorothea E. SPG. 

Trout, Miss Jessie M. UCMS. 

Uttley, Miss Irene C. CMS. 

Uusitalo, Miss LGAF. 

Viall, Rev. Fr. Kenneth L.A. 
PE. 

Wainwright, Rev. & Mrs. S. 
H. MES, CLS. 

Walling, Miss C. Irene PN. 

Walser, Rev. & Mrs. T. D. 
PN. 

White, Miss Sarah G. PE. 

Whitehead, Miss Dora IND. 

Woodward, Rev. & Mrs. Stan 
ley C. CMS. 

Woolley, Miss Katherine 
SPG. 

Wraight, Miss Marion JRM. 

TOTTORI SHI, TOTTORI KEN 

Bermstt, Rev. and Mrs. H. J. 

KK. 
Fanning, Miss Katherine F. 

ABCFM. 

TOYAMA SHI, TOYAMA KEN 

Armstrong, Miss Margaret E. 

UCC. 
Tweedie, Miss E. Gertrude 

UCC. 
Wright, Rev. & Mrs. R. C. 

UCC. 

TOYOHASHI SHI, AICHI KEN 
Mcllwaine, Rev. R. Heber 

PFM-I. 
Moore, Rev. & Mrs. L. W. 

PS. 
TSt SHI. MIE KEN 

Bovenkirk, Rev. & Mrs. H. G, 

TSIYAMA SHI, OKAYAMA 
KEN 



LIST OF MISSIONARIES BY TOWNS 



410 



Collins, Mr & Mrs. A. M. 
JEB. 

I EDA SHI, NAGANO KEN 

Hurd. Miss Helen R. UCC. 
Scruton, Miss M. Fern UCC. 
Waller, Rev. W. W. MSCC. 

IWAJIMA SHI, EH1ME KEN 

Stott, Rev & Mrs. J. D. MES. 

VVAKAMATSII SHI, Fl KISHI- 
MA KEN 

Engelmann, Rev. & Mrs. M. 
J. ERC. 

WAKAYAMA SHI, WAKAYAMA 
KEN 

Bee, Mr. & Mrs. William 

JEB. 

Lloyd, Rev. & Mrs. J. H PE, 
Smith, Rev. & Mrs. J. C. PN. 
Wait, Mr. R. T.. JEB. 

YAGI MACHI, NARA KEN 

Bazeley, Miss B. Rose JEB. 
Gandiar, Miss G. B. JEB. 

YAMADA SHI, MIE KEN 

Riker, Miss Jessie PN. 

YAMAGATA SHI, YAMAGATA 
KEN 

Nugent, R3V. & Mrs. W. Carl 
ERC. 

YAMAGICHI SHI, YAMAGU- 
C HI KEN 

Wells, Miss Lillian A. PN 
(Nov.). 

YOKOHAMA SHIl, KANAGAWA 
KEN 

Earth, Rev. & Mrs. N. H. AG. 
Briggs, Rev. B. W. Miss, to 
Seamen. 



Douglas, Miss Charlotte IND. 
Draper, Rev. G. F. (retired) 

MEC. 
Draper, Miss Marion R. 

MEC. 
Draper, Miss Winifred F. 

MEC. 
Heaslett, Most Rev. Bishop & 

Mrs. S. SPG, CMS. 
Hodges, Miss Olive I. MP. 
Holtom, Rev. & Mrs. D. C. 

ABF. 

Lang, Rev. & Mrs. Ernst LM. 
Loomis, Miss Clara D. WU. 
McSparran, Dr. & Mrs. J. L. 

IND. 
Oltmans, Miss C. Janet 

RCA. 
Pawley, Miss Annabelle 

ABF. 

Pott, Rev. Roger P. SPG. 
Pratt, Miss Susan A. WU. 
Reeves, Miss Virginia RCA. 

Rhodes, Mr. & MVs. E. A. 

IND. 
Schsnck, Rev. & Mrs. H. W. 

IND. 
Stegeman, Rev. & Mrs, H. V. 

E. RCA. 

Tracy, Miss Mary E. WU. 
Zander, Miss Helen R. RCA. 

YOKOTE MACHI, AKITA KEN 

Smyser, Rev. M. M. IND. 

YONAGO SHI, TOTTORI KEN 

Hutchinson, Rev. & Mrs. E. G. 
CMS. 

ZUSHI MACHI, KANAGAWA 
KEN 

Hathaway, Miss M. Agnes 
(retired) UGC. 



LIST BY MISSIONS 



LIST BY MISSIONS 
1. American Board of Com 
missioners for Foreign Mis 
sions. 

Adams, Miss Alice P. (retired), 

Okayama. 

Akana, Mrs. Catherine, Kobe. 
Gary, Miss Alice E., Nishino- 

miya. 

Cary, Rev. & Mrs. Frank, Otaru. 
Gary, Mrs. Otis (retired), Ota 
ru. 

Clapp, Miss Prances B., Kyoto. 
Cobb, Rev. & Mrs. E. S., Kyoto. 
Crew, Miss Angle (A). 
Crew, Mrs. Glenna K., Nisln- 

nomiya. 
Curtis, Miss Edith E., Nishino- 

miya. 
BeForest, Miss Charlotte B. 

(A). 
Denton. Miss Mary F. (retired), 

Kyoto. 
Downs, Rev. & Mrs. Barley, 

Tokyo. 

English, Mr. Arthur, Kyoto. 
Fanning, Miss Katherine, Tot- 
tori. 
Field, Miss Sarah M., Nishino- 

miya. 
Carman, Rev. & Mrs. C. P., 

Tokyo. 

Gillett, Rev. & Mrs. C. S. (A). 
Gordon, Mrs. M. L. (retired), 

Tokyo. 
Gulick. Mr. & Mrs. Leeds, Ma- 

tsuyama. 
Hackett, Mr. & Mrs. H W , 

Kobe. 

Hibbard, Miss Esther, Kyoto. 
Holt, Miss Eugenie, Nishino- 

miya. 

Hoyt, Miss O. S., Matsuyama. 
Husted, Miss Edith, Nishino- 

miya. 
Kane, Miss Marion E., Nishino- 

miya. 



MacCauslaiid, Miss Isabella, 
Nishinomiya. 

McCall, Rev. & Mrs. C. F., 
Caroline Islands, South Seas. 

McKnight, Rev. & Mrs. W. Q., 
Sendai. 

Merrill, Miss Katherine, Matsu 
yama. 

Moran, Rev. & Airs. S. F., Ni- 
shinoiniya. 

Roberts, Rev. & Mrs. F. L. (A). 

Stowe, Miss Grace H., Nishino 
miya. 

Stowo, Miss Mary E., Nishino 
miya. 

Warren, Rev. & Mrs. C. M. (A), 

Wilson, Miss Eleanor, Caroline 
Islands, South Seas. 

Woodard, Rev. & Mrs. W. P.. 
Nishinomiya. 

2. American Baptist Foreign 
Mission Society 

Acock, Miss Amy A. (A). 

Acock, Miss Winifred M. (A). 

Allen, Miss Thomasine (A). 

Axling, Rev. & Mrs. William, 
Tokyo. 

Eenninghoff, Rev. & Mrs. H. B., 
Tokyo. ( 

Bixby, Miss Alice C., Himeji. 

Bickel, Mrs. L. W., Himeji (re 
tired). 

Cov3ll, Mr. & Mrs. J. H., Yoko 
hama. 

Cuddeback, Miss Margaret E. 
(A). 

Farnum, Rev. & Mrs. Marlin 
B., Shigei Mura. 

Fisher, Mrs. C. H. B. (retired, 
A) 

Fisher, Mr. & Mrs. R. H. (A). 

Foote, Rev. & Mrs. J. A., Osaka. 

Gressitt. Mr. & Mrs. J. P., To 
kyo. 

Holtom, Rev. & Mrs. B. C., 
Yokohama. 



422 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Kennard, Rev. & Mrs. J. Spen 
cer, Jr., Tokyo. 

Nicholson, Miss Goldie, Sendai. 

Pawley, Miss Annabelle, Yoko 
hama. 

Ryder, Miss Gertrude E., Tokyo. 

Tenny, Mrs. Charles B. (A). 

Tharp, Miss Elma R., Tokyo. 

Topping, Rev. & Mrs. Henry 
(retired) Tokyo. 

Topping, Rev. & Mrs. W. F., 
Himeji. 

3. Mission Board of the Ke- 
ligious Society of Friends of 
Philadelphia and Vicinity. 

Binford, Mr. & Mrs. Gurney, 
Shimotsuma Machi, Ibaraki 
Ken. 

Bowles, Mr. & Mrs. Gilbert, To 
kyo. 

Braithwatie, Mr. & Mrs. G. B., 
Tokyo. 

Nicholson, Mr. & Mrs. H. V., 
Mito Shi. 

Rhoads, Miss Esther, Tokyo. 

Sharpless, Miss Edith F., Mito 
Shi. 

Thomas, Miss Hslen, Tokyo. 

4. Assemblies of God U.S.A. 

Earth, Rev. & Mrs. N. H., Yoko 
hama. 

Byers, Miss Florence M., Kawa- 
ragi Mura, Muko Gun, Hyogo 
Ken. 

Juergense.n Rev. & Mrs. C. F. 
(retired), Tokyo. 

Juergensen, Miss Marie, Tokyo. 

Juergensen, Miss Agnes, Hama- 
matsu. 

Juergensen, Rev. & Mrs. J. W., 
Nagoya. 

Wsngler, Miss Jessie, Tokyo Fu. 

Assemblies of God, Canada: 

Randall, Rev. & Mrs. A. E., 
Ikoma, Nar a Ken. 

Assemblies of God Great 
Britain : 

Clement, Rev. & Mrs. J. J., To 
kyo. 

Assemblies of Gort Australia: 



Smith, Rev. & Mrs. H. E., Kyo 
to. 
Smith, Miss Marie, Kyoto. 

5. Bible Societies: 

Aurell, Rev. & Mrs. K. E., To 
kyo. 
Vinall, Mr. & Mrs. G. H., Kobe. 

fi. Central Japan Pioneer Mis 
sion: 

Burnet, Miss M. A., Maebashi 
Shi. 

Cochran. Miss M. Eugenia, 
Maebashi Shi. 

Craig, Miss Mildred E., Mae 
bashi Shi. 

Parr, Miss Dorothy A., Maeba 
shi Shi. 

Thomas, Miss Grace E. (A). 

7. Christian Literature So 
ciety: 

Garman, Rev. & Mrs. C. P., 

(ABCFM), Tokyo. 
Shaw, Miss L. L., (MSCC), (A). 
Stirawalt, Rev. A. J. (LCA), 

Tokyo. 
Wainwright, Rev. & Mrs. S. H., 

(MES), Tokyo. 

8. Christian & Missionary 
Alliance (No verification 

received). 

Dievendorf, Mrs. A., Fukuyama. 
Francis, Rev. T. R., Fukuyama. 
Frehn, Mr. & Mrs. M. C., Kita- 

mi, Tokyo Fu. 
Lindstrom, Mrs. C. (retired), 

Kobe. 

9. Church Missionary Society. 

Baggs, Miss Mabel, Kure. 

Baker, Miss Elsie M. (A). 

Baldwin, Miss Cecily M. (A). 

Baldwin, Mrs. J. McQ. (A). 

Batchelor, Yen. Archd. & Mrs. 
John, Sapporo. 

Bosanquet, Miss Amy C. (re 
tired), Tokyo. 

Buncombe, Rev. W. P. (retir 
ed), Tokyo. 



LIST BY MISSIONS 



Boydell, Miss Kathleen M., 

Matsubase Machi, Kumamoio 

Ken. 

Bushe, Miss Sylvia L. K., To 
kyo. 
Colborne, Mrs. S. E., Minami- 

hara, Awa Gun, Chiba Ken. 
Cox, Miss Alice M., Amagasaki. 
Eoubleday, Miss Stella C., Kure 
Frecth, Miss P. May, Aso. 
Goldsmith, Miss Mabel O., 

Kurum3. 

Hamilton. Miss Kathleen (A). 
Hsaslett, Most Rev. Bishop and 

Mrs. S., Yokohama. 
Henty, Miss Audrey M. (A). 
Hind, Mrs. J., Tobata. 
Home, Miss Alice C. J., Ita 

Machi, Fukuoka Ken. 
Howard, Miss R. Dora (retired), 

Osaka. 
Hughes, Miss Alice M., Minami- 

hara, Awa Gun, Chitaa Ken. 
Hutchinson, Canon & Mrs. A. 

C., Fukuoka. 
Hutchinson, Rev. & Mrs. E. G., 

Yonago Shi. 

Lane, Miss Evelyn A., Ashiya. 
Mann, Rt. Rev. Bishop & Mrs. 

John C., Fukuoka. 
Nash, Miss Elizabeth, Hamada 

Machi. 
Piercy, Rev. & Mrs. H. Graham, 

Obuse Mura. 

Preston, Miss Evelyn D. (A). 
Richardson, Miss Constance 

M., Tokushima Shi. 
Roberts, Miss Alice, Tokyo. 
Staveley, Miss J. Ann, Otaru. 
Tapson, Miss Minna (retired), 

Tokyo. 
Thompson, Miss Fanny L., 

Omuta Shi. 
Tristram, Miss Katharine A. S. 

(retired), Osaka. 
Uttley, Miss Irene C., Tokyo. 
Walsh, Rt. Rev. & Mrs. Gordon 

J., Sapporo. 

Williams, Miss Agnes S., Osaka. 
Woodd, Rev. & Mrs. Frederick 

H. B., Osaka. 
Woodward, Rev. & Mrs. Stanley 



C., Tokyo. 

Worthington, Miss Honoria J. 
(retired), Hiroshima Shi. 

10. f hnrch of the Na/arene. 

Karns, Miss Bertie, Kyoto. 
Staples, Mrs. Minnie L., Kyoto. 
Wiley, Miss Alma P., Kyoto 

11. Evangelical Church of 
North America. 

Anderson, Miss Irene, Korlyama 
Shi. 

Bauernfeind, Miss Susan M., 
Tokyo. 

Hertzler, Miss Verna S., Osaka. 

Kramer, Miss Lois F., Tokyo. 

Kuecklich, Miss Gertrud (A). 

Mauk, Miss Laura, Toxyo. 

Mayer, Rev. & Mrs. P. S., To 
kyo. 

Schweitzer, Miss Edna Mae, 
Tokyo. 

Thede, Rev. & Mrs. Harvey (A). 

12. Evangelical and Reformed 
Church. 

Ankeney, Rev. & Mrs. Alfred 

(A). 
Engelmarm, Rev. & Mrs. M. 

M., Aizu-Wakamatsu Shi. 
Fesperman, Rev. & Mrs. Frank 

L., Seiidai. 

Garman, Miss Margaret, Ssndai. 
Gerhard, Miss Mary E., Sendai. 
Gerhard, Rev. & Mrs. Paul L., 

Sendai. 
Gerhard, Mr. & Mrs. Robert H., 

Sendai. 

Hansen, Miss Kate I., Sendai. 
Hoffman, Miss Mary E., Sendai. 
Ilsley, Miss Alice M., Sendai. 
Leidal, Miss Marie, Sendai. 
Kriete, Rev. & Mrs. Carl D., 

Sendai. 

LeGalley, Mr. Charles M. (A). 
Lindsey, Miss Lydia A., Sendai. 
Naefe, Miss Alma C., Sendai. 
Nicodemus, Mr. & Mrs. F. B., 

Sendai. 
Noss, R.ev. & Mrs. George S. 

(A). 
Nugent, Rev. & Mrs. Carl, Ya- 



424 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



magata Shi. 

Pifer, Miss B. Catherine, Tokyo. 

Schneder, Rev. & Mrs. D. B., 
Sendai. 

Schroer, Rev. & Mrs. Gilbert 
W., Morioka Shi. 

Seiple, Rev. & Mrs. William G. 
(A). 

Sipple, Mr. & Mrs. Carl S., 
Sendai. 

Smith, Miss Harriet P., Sendai. 

Stoudt, Mr. & Mrs. O. M., Sen 
dai. 

Zaugg, Rev. & Mrs. E. H., Sen 
dai. 

13. Fukyu Fukuin Kyokai. 

(See OAM). 

14. General Mission Board of 
the Free Methodist Church 
of North America. 

Mylander, Miss Ruth, Osaka. 
Pickens, Miss Lillian, Osaka. 
Wagner, Rev. & Mrs. H. H. (A). 
Warren, Rev. & Mrs. F. F. (A). 

15. Independent of Any So 
ciety. 

Andrews, Miss Olive M. E., To 
kyo. 

Andrews, Miss Sarah S., Shizu- 
oka. 

Bagley, Miss Kate, Shizuoka. 

Beatty, Mr. & Mrs. H. E., Kobe 

Bixler, Mr. & Mrs. O. D., Naga- 
sawa Machl. 

Bouldin, Rev. & Mrs. G. W. 
(A). 

Briggs, Rev. B. W., Yokohama. 

Chappell, Miss Mary, Tokyo. 

Clench, Miss M., Matsumoto. 

Course, Mr. & Mrs. J. H., To 
kyo. 

Craig, Mr. Eugene B., Tokyo. 

Cypert, Miss Lillie D., Tokyo 
Fu. 

Dithridgo, Miss Harriet, Tokyo 
Fu. 

Douglas, Miss Charlotte, Yoko 
hama. 

Ellis, Mrs. Charles, Nagahama 
Machi, Agawa Gun, Kochi 
Ken. 



Ewing, Miss Annie M., Tokyo. 

Farnham, Miss Grace, Tokyo. 

Gale, Mrs. Emma, Kawarapi 
Mura. 

Gardener. Miss Fanny E. (A). 

Gillett, Miss E. R., Tokyo. 

Glaeser, Mr. & Mrs. Martin L., 
Fukuoka. 

Gubbins, Miss Gertrude M., 
Tokyo. 

Hartshorne, Miss A. C., Tokyo 
Fu. 

Jackson, Mr. & Mrs. Raymond, 
Nagoya. 

Johnson, Mr. Theodore (A). 

Kennedy, Miss Clara E., Tokyo. 

Lemmon, Miss Vivian, Tokyo. 

Luke. Mr. & Mrs. Percy T., 
Tokyo. 

Lye, Miss Florence (A). 

Madden, Miss Grace, Osaka. 

Madden, Mr. & Mrs. M. B., 
Osaka. 

Martin, Prof. & Mrs. J. V., 
Kobe. 

McCaleb, Mr. J. M., Tokyo. 

McNa\ighton, Rev. & Mrs. R. 
E., Hakodate. 

McSparran, Dr. & Mrs. Joseph 
L., Yokohama. 

Mussel-, Mr. & Mrs. C. K., To 
kyo. 

Rennie, Rev. William, Hakoda 
te. 

Rhodes, Mr. & Mrs. E. A., Yo 
kohama. 

Richert, Mr. & Mrs. Adolph, 
Fukuoka Shi. 

Robertson, Miss Elvah A., 
Osaka Fu. 

Robinson, Mr. & Mrs. C. C., 
Kobe. 

Robinson, Miss H. M. 

Rupsrt, Miss Nettie L., Kobe. 

Santee, Miss H. C., Kobe. 

Sawyer, Mr. Ray, Osaka. 

Schenck, Rev. & Mrs. H. W., 
Yokohama. 

fchoonovar, Miss Ruth, Tokyo. 

Sheppard, Miss E., Kobe. 

Simeon, Miss R. B.. Akashi. 

Smyser, Rev. M. M., Yokote 



LIST BY MISSIONS 



425 



Machi, Hiraka Gun, Akita 

Ken. 

Taylor, Mrs. Mary, Kobe. 
Topping, Miss Helen (A). 
Troughton, Mr. & Mrs. H. W. 

P., Kobe. 
Watkins, Miss Elizabeth T., 

Pukuoka Shi. 

Watts, Rev. & Mrs. P. E., Kobe. 
Whiteheacl, Miss Dora, Tokyo. 
Woolley, Miss Alice D., Kobe. 
Wright, Miss A. H., Kumamoto 

Shi. 
Yates, Rev. N. P., Formosa. 

Hi. Japan Apostolic Mission. 

Coote, Mr. & Itfrs. L. W., 

Ikoma, Nara Ken. 
Gray, Mr. & Mrs. F. H., Ikoma, 

Nara Ken. 

17. Japan Book and Tract 
Society. 

Braithwaite, Mr. & Mrs. G. B., 
Tokyo. 

18. Japan Evangelistic Baml. 

Bazeley, Miss B. Rose, Takaichi 

Gun, Nara Ken. 
Bee, Mr. & Mrs. William, Wa- 

kayama Shi. 
Coles, Miss A. M. M. (retired), 

Akashi. 
Collins, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur M., 

Tsuyama Shi, Okayama Ken. 
Cuthbertson, Miss Florence, 

Akashi, Hyogo Ken. 
Cuthbertson, Mr. & Mrs. James, 

Kobe. 

Dyer, Mr. & Mrs. A. L. (A). 
Gandier, Miss G. B., Yagi Cho, 

Takaichi Gun, Nara Ken. 
Garrard, Mr. M. H. (A). 
Gillespy, Miss J. C., Takasago 

Machi, Hyogo Ken. 
Gosden, Mr. Eric W., Kobe. 
Hoare, Miss D. E., Osaka Fuka. 
Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Tudor (A). 
Richardson, Miss Helena, Shi- 

moichi, Yoshinogun, Nara 

Krm. 
Smith, Miss I. Webster, Akashi. 



Soal, Miss A. A., Kobe. 
Tetley, Miss Winifred (A). 
Thoren, Miss Amy, Matsuzaka, 

Mie Ken. 
Wait, Mr. R. T., Gobo Cho, 

Wakayama Ken. 
Wilkinson, Mr. & Mrs. S. S., 

Kobe. 

Williams, Mr. F. T., Akashi. 
Woodworth, Miss Olive F., 

Kobe. 

19. Japan Rescue Mission, 
The. 

Bradbury, Miss Ivy, Sendai. 
Brown, Miss Olive, Tokyo. 
Bunker, Miss Annie, Osaka. 
Butter, Miss Bessie (A). 
Charles, Miss Elizabeth, Sendai. 
Darin, Miss Janet M., Sendai. 
Dempsie, Rev. & Mrs. George, 

Osaka Fu. 

Hesketh, Miss, Ellen, Sendai. 
James, Miss Ruth, Sendai. 
Kelly, Miss Ruth, Osaka. 
Kirkaldy, Miss Minnie, Osaka 

Fu. 

Lloyd, Miss Mary (A). 
McConnell, Miss Alice, Sendai. 
McGrath, Miss Violet, Osaka 

Fu. 
Morris, Miss Kathleen, Osaka 

Fu. 

Murray, Miss Elsa R., Sendai. 
Palmor, Miss M. E., Sendai. 
Penny, Miss Florence, Osaka 

Fu. 

Saville, Miss Rose, Nagoya. 
Stanfleld, Miss; Isobel, Osaka 

Fu. 

Thomas, Miss Irene, S?ndai. 
Torbet, Miss Isabel, Sendai. 
Wilson, Miss Dorothy, Sendai. 
Wraight, Miss Marion, Tokyo. 
Wright, Miss Phyllis, Sendai. 

20. Kuniiai Kyokai (Congre 
gational). 

Bennett, Rev. & Mrs. H. J., Toi- 
tori. 

21. Board of Foreign Missions 
of the Tnlted Lutheran 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Church in America. 

Akard, Miss Martha B., Kumci- 

moto Shigai. 
Bach, Rev. & Mrs. D. G. M.. 

Kumamoto. 

Harder, Miss Helene, Fukuoka. 
Heltibridle, Miss Mary, Saga 

Shi. 

Hepner, Rev. & Mrs. C. W. (A). 
Horn, Rov. & Mrs. E. T., Tokyo. 
Knudten, Rev. & Mrs. A. C.. 

Nagoya. 

Linn, Rev. & Mrs. A. C., Nago 
ya. 

Lippard, Rev. & Mrs. C. K., Moji. 
Lippard, Miss Faith, Ichikawa 

Shi. 
Miller, Rev. & Mrs. L. S. G., 

Kumamoto. 
Potts, Miss Marion, Kumamoto 

Shigai. 

Powlas, Miss Annie (A). 
Powlas, Miss Maude, Kengen 

Mura, Kumamoto Ken. 
Schillinger. Rev. & Mrs. George, 

Kumamoto. 

Shirk, Miss Helen M., Fukuoka. 
Stirewalt, R?v. & Mrs., Tokyo. 
Thorlaksson, Rev. & Mrs. S. O., 

Kobe. 
Winther, Rev. & Mrs. J. M. T., 

Fukuoka. 
Winther, Miss Maya, Saga Shi. 

22. Lutheran Gospel Associa 
tion of Finland, The. 

Karen, Rev. & Mrs. A., Tokyo. 
Minkkinen, Rev. & Mrs. T., 

Kami lida. 

Niemi, Miss Tyyne, Sapporo. 
Salonen, Rev. & Mrs. K. (A). 
Savolainen, Rev. & Mrs. J. V.. 

Sapporo. 
Uusitalo, Miss S. S., Tokyo. 

23. Liebenzeller Mission. 

Buss, Rev. & Mrs. B. (A). 

Lang, Rev. & Mrs. Ernst, Yoko 
hama. 

Mosimann, Rev. & Mrs. Otto, 
Tokyo Fu. 

Nothhelfer, Rev. & Mrs. Karl, 



Tokyo. 

24. Missionary Bands of the 
World. 

Abel, Miss Dorothy L. (A). 
Abel, Mr. & Mrs. Fred (A). 

25. Board of Foreign Missions 
of he Methodist Episcopal 
Church and Woman s For 
eign Missionary Society of 
the M. E. Church. 

Aloxander, Rev. & Mrs. R. P., 
(retired), Tokyo. 

Alexander, Miss Virginia E., 
(retired), Sapporo. 

Ashbaugh, Miss Adella M., Na 
gasaki Shi. 

Bailey, Miss Barbara, Tokyo. 

Berry, Rev. Arthur D., Tokyo. 

Bishop, Rev. & Mrs. Charles 
(retired), Tokyo. 

Brumbaugh, Rev. & Mrs. T. T., 
Tokyo. 

Byler, Miss G. M.. Hakodats. 

Chase, Miss Laura (A). 

Cheney, Miss Alice, Hadokate. 

Collins, Miss Mary D.. Tokyo. 

Couch, Miss Helen, Nagasaki 
Shi. 

Curry, Miss Olive, Nagasaki Shi. 

Curtice, Miss Lois K., Hirosaki 
Shi. 

Daniel, Miss N. Margaret, To 
kyo. 

Draper, Rev. G. F. (retired), 
Yokohama. 

Draper, Miss Marion R., Yoko 
hama. 

Draper, Miss Winifred F., Yoko 
hama. 

Fehr, Miss Vera, Nagasaki. 

Finlay, Miss L. Alice, Kagoshi- 
ma. 

Gealy, Rev. & Mrs. F. D., To 
kyo. 

Gerrish, Miss Ella M. (A). 

Hasten, Miss Olive I., Nagasaki 
Shi. 

Heckelman, Rev. & Mrs. F. W. 
(A). 



LIST BY MISSIONS 



427 



Howey, Miss Harriet M., Fuku- 
oka. 

Iglehart, Rev. & Mrs. C. W., 
Tokyo. 

Iglehart, Rev. & Mrs. E. T. ( To 
kyo. 

Kilburn, Miss Elizabeth. H., 
Sendai. 

Kricier, Rev. & Mrs. W. W. (A). 

Lee, Miss Mabel, Kumamoto 
Shi. 

Luthy, Rev. & Mrs. S. R., Ssn- 
dai. 

Paine, Miss Mildred Anna, To 
kyo. 

Peckham, Miss Caroline S.( A). 

Peet, Miss Azalia E. (A). 

Pider, Miss Myrtle Z., Tokyo. 

Place, Miss Pauline (A). 

Scott, Rev. & Mrs. F. N., Naga 
saki Shi. 

Shacklock, Rev. & Mrs. F., Hi- 
rosaki Shi. 

Simons, Miss Marian (A). 

Smith, Miss Eloise G., Fukuoka. 

Spencer, Rev. & Mrs. R. S., Fu 
kuoka. 

Sprowles, Miss Alberta B., To 
kyo. 

Starke y, Miss Bsrtha F., Korea. 

Taylor, Miss Erma M., Hirosaki. 

Teague, Miss Carolyn M., Fu 
kuoka. 

Wagner, Miss Dora, Hakodate. 

Whito. Miss Anna Laura, Na 
gasaki. 

26. Board of Foreign Missions 
of the Methodist Episcopal 
C hureh, South. 

Anderson, Miss Myra P., Hiro 
shima. 

Carroll, Miss Sallie E., Oita 
Shi. 

Cobta, Rev. & Mrs. J. B., Ashiya. 

Colvin. Miss Thelma, Kobe. 

Cook, Miss M. M., Osaka. 

Cooper, Miss Lois W., Hiroshi 
ma. 

Cronk, Miss Althea, Hiroshima. 

Feely, Miss Gertrud?, Oita. 

Field, Miss Ruth, Osaka. 



Finch, Miss Mary D., Hiroshi- 
.J ma. 
sFrank, Rev. & Mrs. J. W. (A). 

Gaines, Miss Rachel, Hiroshi 
ma. 

Hadsn, Rev. & Mrs. Thomas H. 
(retired), (% J. S. Oxford, 
Kobe). 

Hager, Rev. & Mrs. S. E., 
Himeji. 

Hilburn, Rev. & Mrs S. M., 
Nishinomiya. 

Holland, Miss C. G., Kobe. 

Huckabe^, Rev. & Mrs. W. C., 
Hiroshima. 

Johnson, Miss Katharine, Hiro 
shima. 

Jones, Rev. H. P., Nishinomiya. 

Matthews, Rev. & Mrs. W. K., 
Nishinomiya. 

Meyers, Rev. & Mrs. J. T., Oka- 
yama Shi. 

Mickle, Mr. & Mrs. J. J., Nishi 
nomiya. 

Ogburn, Rev. & Mrs. N. S. (A). 

Oxford, Rev. & Mrs. J. S., Kobe. 

Palmore, Rev. & Mrs. P. L., 
Tokuyama Machi. 

Peavy, Miss Anne R., Osaka. 

Read, Mr. & Mrs. J. P., Nishi 
nomiya. 

Searcy, Miss Mary G., Osaka. 

Shannon, Miss Ida L., Hiroshi 
ma. 

Shannon, Miss Katherine, Kobe. 

Shaver, Rev. & Mrs. I. Leroy, 
Matsuyama. 

Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Roy, Kobe. 

Stevens, Miss C. B., Osaka. 

Stewart, Rev. & Mrs. S. A., 
Genzan, Korea. 

Stott, Rev. & Mrs. J. D., Uwa- 
jima. 

Stubbs, Rev. & Mrs. David C., 
Kobe. 

Tarr, Miss Alberta, Hiroshima. 

Towson, Miss Manie, Nakatsu 
Shi. 

Towson, Rev. W. E. (retired), 
Nakatsu Shi. 

Tumlin, Miss Mozelle (A). 

Wainwright, Rev. & Mrs. S. H., 



428 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Tokyo. 

Whitehead, Miss Mabel (A). 
Williams, Miss Anna Belle, 

Osaka. 

27. MIno Mission. 

Ackers, Miss Mary Jane, Ogaki, 

Gifu Ken. 
Miller, Miss Erma L., Ogaki, 

Gifu Ken. 
Weidner, Miss Sadie Lea, Ogaki, 

Gifu Ken. 
Whewell, Miss Elizabeth A., 

Ogaki, Gifu Ken. 

28. Board of Foreign Missions 
of the Methodist Protestant 
Church. 

Hempstead, Miss Ethel, Hama- 

matsu. 

Hodges, Miss Olive I., Yokohama. 
Warner, Rev. & Mrs. Paul F., 

Nagoya. 
Wolfe, Miss Evelyn M. (A). 

29. Missionary Society of the 
Church of England in 
Canada. 

Archer, Miss Anne L. (retired), 

Inuyama Machi. 
Bailey, Miss H.. Nagano. 
Bowman, Miss N. F. J., Nagoya. 
Butcher, Miss K., Obuse Mura. 
Foerstel, Miss M., Okaya. 
Hamilton, Miss F., Matsumoto. 
Hawkins, Miss F. B., Okaya. 
Horobin, Miss H. M., Inariyama 

Machi. 

Isaac. Miss I. L. (A). 
Miller. Miss Jessie M., Tokyo. 
Moss, Miss Adelaide F. (A). 
Powell. Miss L.. Otaus? Mura. 
Powles, Rev. & Mrs. P. S. C., 

Takata. 

Shaw. Miss L. L,, (CLS), (Ai. 
Shore, Miss S. G., Gifu. 
Spencer, Rev. & Mrs. V. C., 

Nagoya. 

Start, Dr. R. K., Obuse Mura. 
V/alker, Miss M. M. (A). 
Walter. Rev. # Mrs. J. O. (A). 
Waller, Rev. W, W., Uetla. 



Watts, Rev. & Mrs. H. G., 
Niigata. 

0. Ninon Kinsuto Kyokai 
(Presbyterian & Reformed). 

31. Ninon Methodist Kyokai 

(UCC, MEC, MES). 

32. Nihoii Sei Ko Kai 

(CMS, MSCC, PE, SPG). 

33. Osaka Mission. 

Thornton, Rev. & Mrs. S. W., 
Sanda Cho, Hyogo Ken. 

31. Ost Asian Mission (East 
Asia Mission). 

35. Omi Brotherhood. 

Vories, Mr. & Mrs. John, Omi- 

Hachiman. 
Vories, Mrs. J. E., Omi-Hachi- 

man. 
Vories, Mr. & Mrs. W. M., Omi- 

Hachiman. 

3(>. Oriental Missionary Socie 
ty (Holiness Church). 

37. Board of Foreign Missions, 
Presbyterian Church in 
Canada. 

Anderson, Miss Mary E. (A). 
MacDonald, Miss Ethel G., 

Kobe. 
MacKay, Rev. Malcolm R., 

Kobe. 

MacLean, Miss Jean C., Kobe. 
Murphy. Miss Gladys M. (A). 
Young," Dr. L. L., Kobe .(Mrs. 

Young absent ) 

38. Domestic find Foreign 
Missionary Society of Jthe 
Protestant Episcopal 
Church in America. 

(a) Missionary District of 
Kyoto. 

Cannell, Miss Mona C. (A). 
ChaprnRii, Rev. & Mrs. J. J., 
Kyoto. 



LIST BY MISSIONS 



429 



Dickson, Miss L. E., Nara. 
Disbrow, Miss H. J., Kyoto. 
Foote, Miss Edith L., Kyoto. 
Hester, Miss M. W., Nara. 
Johnson, Miss Thora, Kyoto. 
Jones, Dr. & Mrs. F. M., Osaka. 
Lloyd, Rev. & Mrs. J. H., Waka- 

yama. 
Morris, Rev. & Mrs. J. K., 

Kyoto. 
Nichols, Rt. Rev. & Mrs. S. H. 

Kyoto. 

Oglesby, Mrs. J. M., Kyoto. 
Paine, Miss M. R., Obama. 
Powell, Miss C. R., Fukui Shi. 
Shaw, Rev. & Mrs. H. R., Kana- 

zawa. 

Skiles, Miss Helen, Kyoto. 
Smith, Rev. & Mrs. P. A., 

Osaka. 

Sumners, Miss Gertrude, Kyoto. 
Van Kirk, Miss A. S., Osaka. 
Williams, Miss H. R., Kyoto. 

(b) Missionary District of 
North Tokyo. 

Andrews, Rev. & Mrs. R. W., 

Tochigi. 

Barbour, Miss Ruth, Tokyo. 
Bath, Miss Marie L., Kusatsu. 
Bowles, Dr. & Mrs. H. E. (A). 
Boyd, Miss Louisa H., Kawagos 

Machi. 

Branstad, Mr. Karl E., Tokyo. 
Burnside, Miss Ruth, Tokyo. 
Chappell, Rev. & Mrs. James, 

Mito. 
Cornwall-Legh, Miss M. H., 

Kusatsu. 

Elliott, Dr. Mabel E.. Tokyo. 
Evans, Rev. & Mrs. C. H.. 

Tokyo. 

Fosrstel, Miss Ella L. A., Tokyo. 
Foote, Mr. & Mrs. E. W., Tokyo. 
Fowler, Mr. & Mrs. J. E., Tokyo. 
Gardiner, Miss Ernestine W., 

Tokyo. 

Heywood, Miss C. G., Tokyo. 
Hubbard, Miss Jeannette, To 
kyo. 
Hubbarcl, Dr. & Mrs. John P., 

Tokyo. 



Humphreys, Miss Marian, 
Nikko. 

Knapp, Deaconess S. T., Tokyo 
Marshall, Mr. & Mrs. George 

H., Tokyo. 

McGill, Miss Mary B., Kusatsu 
McKim, Miss Bessie M., Mito. 
McKim, Miss Nellie, Mito. 
Morse, Rev. Father W. P., 

Tokyo Fuka. 

Murray, Miss Edna B., Tokyo. 
Nettleton, Miss Mary, Kusatsu. 
Nuno, Miss Christine M., Tokyo. 
Peters, Miss Augusta P., Tokyo 
Pond, Miss Helen M., Tokyo. 
Reifsnider, Rt. Rev. & Mrs. C. 

S., Tokyo. 
Rose, Rev. & Mrs. Lawrence, 

Tokyo. 

Rusch, Mr. P-ul S., Tokyo. 
St. John, Mrs. Alice C., Tokyo. 
Schaeffer, Miss Mabel R., 

Tokyo. 
Schereschewsky, Miss Caroline, 

Tokyo Fuka. 

Scott, Mr. & Mrs. R. W., Tokyo. 
Shipps, Miss Helen K., Tokyo. 
Spackman, Rev. & Mrs. H. C., 

Tokyo. 
Viall, Rev. Kenneth L. A. 

(S. S.J.E.), Tokyo Fuka. 
White, Miss Sarah G., Tokyo, 
(c) Missionary District of 

Tohoku. 
Binsted, Rt. Rev. & Mrs. N. S., 

Sendai. 

Boyle, Miss Helen, Sendai. 
Draper, Rev. & Mrs. W. F., 

Sendai. 

Gray, Miss Gladys, Sendai. 
Harrison, Rev. & Mrs. E. R., 

Akita. 

Kittle, Miss Dorothy. Ssndai. 
Jansen, Miss Bernice, Sendai.. . 
Lewis, Rev. & Mrs. H. M., Kori- 

yama. 

Moss, Rev. Frank H., Jr., Tokyo. 
Ranson, Deaconess Anna L., 

Isoyama. 

Spencer, Miss Gladys, Aomori. 
Zoll, Mr. Donald L., Sendai. 



430 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



39. Independent Board for 
Presbyterian Foreign Mis 
sions. 

Mcllwaine, Rev. R. Heber, To- 
yohashi Shi. 

40. Board of Foreign Missions 
of the Presbyterian Church 
of the United States of 
America. 

Barnard, Rev. & Mrs. C. E., 
Hiroshima. 

Bovenkerk, Rev. & Mrs. H. G., 
Tsu, Iss. 

Buchanan, Rev. & Mrs. Daniel 
C., Kyoto. 

Chapman, Rev. & Mrs. E. N., 
Shingu Machi. 

Chapman, Rev. & Mrs. G. K.(A). 

Clark, R.TV. & Mrs. E. M., Kobe. 

Daugherty, Miss Lena G. (A) 
Nov. 1st, Tokyo. 

Dunlop, Mrs. J. G., Shimonoseki. 

Evans, Miss Elizabeth M., Sap 
poro. 

Gillilan, Miss Elizabeth, Tokyo. 

Grube, Miss Alice, Osaka. 

Hail, Mrs. Harriet W., Osaka. . 

Halsey, Miss Liia S., Tokyo. 

Hannaford, Rev. & Mrs. Howard 
D., Tokyo. 

Helm, Mr. & Mrs. Nathan T., 
Tokyo. 

Hereford, Miss Grace, Osaka. 

Hereford, Miss Nannie. Sapporo. 

Her3ford, Rev. W. F., Hiroshi 
ma. 

Kerr, Rev. & Mrs. Williatn C.. 
Keijo, Korea. 

Lake, Rev. & Mrs. Leo C., Sap 
poro. 

Lamott, Rev. & Mrs. Willis C., 
Tokyo. 

London, Miss Matilda H., 
Tokyo. 

McCrory, Miss Carrie H., Otaru. 

McDonald, Miss Mary D., 
Tokyo. 

Macksnzie, Miss Virginia M., 
Shimonoseki. 

Martin, Rev. & Mrs. David P.. 



Osaka. 

Miles, Miss Mary, Kanazawa. 
Monk, Miss Alice M. (A). 
Oltman, Mr. & Mrs. Paul V. 

(A). 

Palmer, Miss Halen M., Osaka. 
Ransom, Miss Mary H. (A). 
Reeve, Rev. & Mrs. W. S., Osaka. 
Reischauer, Rev. & Mrs. A. K., 

Tokyo. 

Roiser, Miss A. Irene, Kana 
zawa. 

Riker, Miss Jessie, Yamacla. 
Rik?r, Miss Susannah M., 

Osaka. 

Smith, Miss Janet C., Sapporo. 
Smith, Rev. & Mrs. John C., 

Wakayama. 
Trcmain, Rev. & Mrs. Martei 

A., Hokkaido. 
Thomas, Rev. Winburn T., 

Kyoto. 

Walling, Miss C. Irene. Tokyo. 
Walser, Rev. & Mrs. Theodora 

D., Tokyo. 
Wells, Miss Lillian A. (A), 

Yamaguchi. 

41. Executive Committee of 

Foreign Missions of the 

Presbyterian Church in 

the United States. (So 
Presbyterian). 

Archibald, Miss Margaret, 

Nagoya. 
Brady. Rev. & Mrs. J. Harper, 

Kochi. 
Brvan, Rev. & Mrs. Harry H., 

Tokushima. 
Buchanan, Miss Elizabeth O., 

Gifu. 
Buchanan, Rev. & Mrs. Percy 

W., Nagoya. 
Buchanan, Rev. & Iviro. Walter 

McS., Marugame. 
Buckland, Miss Ruth, Nagoya. 
Crawford, Rev. & Mrs. Vernon 

A., Okazaki. 

Currell, Miss Susan. Marugame. 
Dowd, Miss Annie (retired), 

Kochi. 
Erickson, Rev. & Mrs. S. M., 



LIST BY MISSIONS 



431 



Takamatsu. 

Fulton, Rev. & Mrs S. P., Kobe. 
Gardner, Miss Emma Eve, 

Takamatsu. 
HasseJl, Rev. & Mrs. A. Pierson, 

Tokushima. 
Kirtland, Miss Leila G., Maru- 

gams. 
Logan, Rev., & Mrs. Charles A., 

Tokushima. 

Lumpkin, Miss Estelle, Toku 
shima. 
McAlpine, Rev. & Mrs. James 

A., Gifu. 

Mcllwaine, Rev. William A. (A). 
Moore, Rev. & Mrs. J. Wallace, 

(retired), Takamatsu. 
Moore, Rev. & Mrs. Lardner W., 

Toyohashi. 
Munroe, Rev. & Mrs. Harry H., 

Takamatsu. 
Myers, Rev. & Mrs. Harry W., 

Kobe. 
Ostrom, Rev. & Mrs. H. Conrad, 

Kobe. 

Patton, Miss Annie, Nagoya. 
Patton, Miss Florence (retired), 

Nagoya. 

Robinson, Miss Amy, Nagoya. 
Smythe, Rev. & Mrs. L. C. M. 
(A). 

J2. Reformed Church in 
America. 

Bruns, Rev. & Mrs. Bruno (AK 
Couch, Miss S. M., Nagasaki. 
Barrow, Miss Flora, Tokyo 
Hoek.p, Rev. & Mrs. W. G., 

Tokyo. 

Kuypsr, Rev. & Mrs. H., Oita. 
Luben, Rev. & Mrs. B. M. (A). 
Moore, Rev. & Mrs. B. C., 

Kurume. 

Ncordhoff. Miss Jean (A). 
Cltmans, Rev. & Mrs. A. (rs- 

tired). Tokyo. 
Oltmans, Miss C. Janet, 

Yokohama. 
Pieters, Miss Johana A., 

Shimonoseki. 
Reeves, Miss Virginia, Yoko 



hama. 

Shafer, Rev. & Mrs. Luman J. 
(A). 

Stsgeman, Rev. & Mrs. H. V.E., 
Yokohama. 

Taylor, Miss Minnie (retired), 
Nagasaki. 

TerBorg, Rev. & Mrs. John, 
Tokyo. 

Walvoord, Miss Florence C. (A). 

Zander, Miss Helen R., Yoko 
hama. 

43. Salvation Army. 

Best, Major & Mrs. Arthur, 

Tokyo. 
Davidson, Adjutant & Mrs. 

Charles, Tokyo. 
Rolfe, Lieut. Col. & Mrs. V. E., 

Tokyo. 
Smyth, Brigadier Annie, Tokyo. 

44. Scandinavian American 
Alliance Mission. 

Anderson, Rev. Joel, Tokyo. 
Carlson, Rev. C. E., Tokyo. 

45. Southern Baptist Conven 
tion. 

Carver, Miss Dorothy, Fukuoko. 

Clarke, Rev. W. H. (A). 

Dozier, Mrs. C. K., Fukuoka. 

Dozier, Rev. & Mrs. Edwin B , 
Fukuoka. 

Dozisr, Miss Helen, Kokura. 

Garrott, Rev. W. Maxfleld, 
Fukuoka. 

Jesse, Miss Mary D., Kokura. 

Lancaster, Miss Cecils, Kokv.r? 1 .. 

Mills. Rev. E. O., Nagasaki. 

Ray, Rev. & Mrs. Hermon S., 
Tokyo. 

Ray, Rev. & Mrs. J. F., Hiro 
shima. 

Schell, Miss Naomi, Tabata. 

46. Seventh Day Adventists. 

Anderson Pastor & Mrs. A. N. 

(A). 
Armstrong, Pastor & Mrs. V. T. 

(A). 
Dietrich, Pastor & Mrs. George, 

Kobe. 



432 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Evens, Pastor & Mrs. H. P., To 
kyo. 
Forshea, Mr. & Mrs. Clayton 

D., Tokyo. 
Koch, Pastor & Mrs. Alfred, 

Sapporo. 
Kraft, Mr. & Mrs. Edward J., 

Tokyo. 
Millard, Mr. & Mrs. Francis R.. 

Tokyo. 
Nelson, Pastor & Mrs. A. N., 

Showa Machi, Chiba Ken. 
Olsen, Dr. & Mrs. E. H., Tokyo. 
Psrkins, Mr. & Mrs. H. J. (A). 
Starr, Dr. & Mrs. Paul V., 

Tokyo. 
Thurston, Mr. & Mrs. C. F., 

Tokyo. 
Webber, Mr. & Mrs. Perry A , 

Showa Machi, Chiba Ken. 

47. Society for the Propaga 
tion of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts. 

(a) Kobe Diocese: 

Allen, Rev. E., Kobe. 
Basil, Rt Rev. Bishop, Kobe. 
Druitt, Miss M,, Kobe. 
Edwards, Miss N., Kobe. 
Ford, Rev. J. C., Kobe. 
Powells, Miss A., Kobe. 
Holmes, Miss Mary, Shimonc- 

seki. 

Lea, Miss L., Kobe. 
Smith, Miss E., Kobe. 
Stokes, Miss K. S. (A). 
Stranks, Rev. & Mrs. C. J., Kobe 

Shigai. 
Strong, Rev. G. N., Shimono- 

seki. 

Voules, Miss J., Kobe. 
Walker, Mr. & Mrs. F. B., Kobe. 
Williams. Miss A., Kobe. 
Wood, Miss V., Kobe. 

(b) Tokyo Diocese: 

Chope, Miss D. M., Tokyo. 
Hailstone, Miss M. E., Tokyo. 
Philipps. Miss E. G. (A). 
Shaw, Rev. & Mrs. R. D. M , 
Tokyo. 



Sisters of the Community of 
the Epiphany. 

Stockdale, Miss Katherine F., 
Tokyo. 

Tanner, Miss L. K., Tokyo. 

Trott, Miss Dorothea E., Tokyo. 

Woolley, Miss Katherine, To 
kyo. 

(c) South Diocese: 

Heaslett, Most Rev. Bishop & 

Mrs. S., Yokohama. 
Pott, Rev. Roger, Yokohama. 
Sansbury, Rev. & Mrs. C. K., 

Tokyo. 

Shepherd, Miss K., Hiratsuka. 
Wordsworth, Miss R., Samu- 

kawa, Chiba Shi. 

48. Foreign Missionary Society 
of the United Brethren in 

Christ. 

Knipp, Rev. & Mrs. J. E., Otsu 

Shi. 
Shively, Rev. & Mrs. B. F., 

Kyoto. 

49. United Church of Canada, 
(a) General Board: 

Ainsworth, Rev. & Mrs. F., 

Matsumoto. 
Albright, Rev. & Mrs. L. S., 

Tokyo. 
Bates, Rev. & Mrs. C. J. L,., 

Nishinomiya. 

Bott, Rev. & Mrs. G. E., Tokyo. 
Cragg, Rev. & Mrs. W. J. M., 

Nishinomiya. 
Hennigar, Rev. & Mrs. E. C., 

Tokyo. 
Holmes, Rev. & Mrs. C. P., 

Fukui. 
McKenzie, Rev. & Mrs A. P , 

Nishinomiya. 
McWilliams, Rev. & Mrs. W. R., 

Shizuoka. 
Newman, Rev. & Mrs. R. G., 

Nagoya. 
Norman, Rev. & Mrs. Daniel 

(retired), Karuizawa. 
Norman, Rev. & Mrs. W. H. H., 



LIST BY MISSIONS 



433 



Kanazawa. 
Outer-bridge, Rev. & Mrs. H. 

W., Nishinomiya. 
Parker, Mr. & Mrs. K. A., Kobe. 
Price, Rev. & Mrs. P. G., Nago- 

ya. 

Stone, Rev. & Mrs. A. R., Na 
gano. 

Whiting, Rev. & Mrs. M. M. 
(A). 

Woodsworth, Rsv. & Mrs. H. F., 
Nishinomiya. 

Wright, Rev. & Mrs. R. C., To- 
yama. 

(b) Women s Missionary So 
ciety : 

Allen, Miss A. W., Tokyo. 
Armstrong, Miss Margaret E., 

Toyama Shi. 

Barr, Miss Lulu M., Tokyo. 
Callback, Miss Louise M., Ka 
nazawa Shi. 
Chappell, Miss Constance S., 

Tokyo. 

Cook, Miss Dulciq (A). 
Courtice, Miss Sybil R., Tokyo. 
Clazie, Miss Mabel G., Tokv n 
Douglas, Miss Leona M., Kofu 

Shi. 

Drake. Miss Katharine (A). 
Govenlock, Miss Isabel, Shizu- 

oka Shi. 
Graham, Miss Jean A. C., 

Tokyo. 
Greenbank, Miss Katherine M., 

Kofu Shi. 

Haig. Miss Mary T., Kofu Shi. 
Hamilton, Miss F. Gertrude, 

Tokyo. 

Hargrave. Miss I. M. (A). 
Hurd. Miss Helen R.. Ueda Shi. 
.lost. Miss E. E., Tokyo. 
Jost, Miss H. J., Tokyo. 
Keagey, Miss Margaret D., Ha- 

mamatsu Shi. 
Killam, Miss Ada, Nagano Shi. 
Kinney, Miss Jane M. (A). 
Lediard, Miss Ella, Kanazawa 

Shi. 

Lrhman, Miss Lois. Tokyo. 
Leith, Miss M. Isobel^ Shizuoki 



Shi. 

Lindsay, Miss Olivia C., Kana 
zawa Shi. 

McLachlan, Miss A. May, 
Shizuoka Shi. 

McLeord, Miss Anna O. (A). 

Rorke, Miss M. Luella, Fukul 
Shi. 

Ryan, Miss Esther L., Fukui 
Shi. 

Sadler, Miss Neta, (A.). 

Saunders, Miss Violet (A). 

Scruton, Miss M. Fern, Ueda 
Shi. 

Staples, Miss Marie M., Nagano 
Shi. 

Strothard, Miss Alice O., Shi 
zuoka Shi. 

Suttie, Miss Gwen, Kofu Shi. 

Tweedie, Miss E. Gertrude, 
Toyama Shi. 

50. United Christian Mission 
ary Society. 

Clawson, Miss Bertha F. (re 
tired), Tokyo. 

McCoy, Rev. & Mrs. R. D., 
Tokyo. 

Trout, Miss Jessie M., Tokyo. 

Young, Rev. & Mrs. T. A. (A). 

51. t niversalist General Con 
vention. 

Bowen, Miss Georgene (A). 

Gary, Mrs. H. M., Tokyo. 

Cary, Rev. Harry M., Jr., Tokyo. 

Downing, Miss Ruth G., Tokyo. 

Hathaway, Miss M. Agnes (re 
tired), Zushi. 
No verification received. 

52. Wesleyan Methodist Con 
nection of America. 

Gibbs, Rev. & Mrs. M. A. (A). 

53. World s Sunday School 
Convention 

51. Woman s I liiuit Missionary 
Society of America. 

Loomis, Miss Clara D., Yoko 
hama. 



434 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Lynn, Mrs. Harrison A. (A). 

Pratt, Miss Susan A., Yoko 
hama. 

Rogers, Miss Margaret S. (A). 

Tracy, Miss Mary E., Yoko 
hama. 

55. Tokyo Mission (Formerly 
Yotsuya Mission). 

Cunningham, Mr. & Mrs. W. 

D., Tokyo. 

Hitch, Miss Annie May, Tokyo. 
Hitch, Mr. Thomas G., Tokyo. 
Jones, Miss Ethel, Tokyo. 
Shimmel, Miss Edith, Tokyo. 

56. Young Men s Christian 
Association. 

Durgin, Mr. & Mrs. Russell L., 

Tokyo. 
Jorgensen, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur, 

Tokyo. 

57. Young Women s Christian 
Association. 

Hockin, Miss Margaret, Tokyo. 
Kaufman, Miss Emma R., To 
kyo. 
Roe, Miss Mildred, Tokyo. 

58. Board of Foreign Missions 
of Presbyterian Church in 
Canada (Formosa). 

Adams, Miss Ada E., Taihoku. 

Burdick, Miss Alma M., Tan- 
sui. 

Chisholm, Miss Ethel (A). 

Dickson, Rev. & Mrs. James I., 
Tansui. 

Douglas, Miss Dorothy C., To 
kyo Lang. Sch. (or Tansui). 

Gushue-Taylor, Dr. & Mrs. G., 
Taihoku. 

Heighten, Miss Ruth, Taihoku. 

Hermanson, Miss Hildur, Tai 
hoku. 



Mackay, Mr. & Mrs. George W., 
Tansui. 

MacMillan, Rev. & Mrs. Hugh 
A., Tansui. 

Newbury, Miss Georgia M., 
Tansui. 

Ramsay, Miss Margaret, Tai 
hoku. 

Stevens, Dr. & Mrs. Eugene, 
Taihoku. 

Taylor, Miss Isabel, Tansui. 

Weir, Miss Mildred, Taihoku. 

Wilkis, Rev. & Mrs. J. Douglas 
(A). 

59. Foreign Missions of the 
Presbyterian Church of 
England. (Formosa). 

Adair, Miss Lily, Shoka. 
Band, Rev. Edward, Tainan. 
Beattie, Miss Margaret W., 

Tainan. 

Cullen, Miss Gladys S., Tainan. 
Cumming, Dr. & Mrs. G. G., 

Shoka 

Elliott, Miss Isabel, Shoka. 
Gait, Miss Jessie W., Tainan. 
Gauld, Miss Gretta, Tainan. 
Gauld, Mrs. M. A., Tainan. 
Healey, Rev. & Mrs. F. G., 

Tokyo. 
Landsborough, Dr. & Mrs. D. 

(A). 

Little, Dr. & Mrs. J. L., Shoka. 
Livingston, Miss A. A., Tainan. 
Mackintosh, Miss S. E., Tainan. 
MacLeod, Rev. & Mrs. D. (A). 
MacLeod, Miss Ruth, Tainan. 
Marshall, Rev. & Mrs. D. F. ( 

Tainan. 

Montgomery, Rev. & Mrs. W. 

E., Tainan. 

Singleton, Mr. & Mrs. L. (A). 
Weighton, Mr. R. G. P., Tainan. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



The order is as follows: Name; Year of arrival in Japan or of 
joining the Mission; Initials of Missionary Society or Board; 
Address; Telephone Number; and Postal Transfer Number. 



Abel, Miss Dorothy L., 1927, 
MBW Olivet, Illinois, U.S.A. 

Abel, Mr. & Mrs. Fred, MBW 
Olivot, Illinois, U.S.A. 

Ackerw, Miss Mary Jane, 1933. 
MM Ogaki, Gifu Ken. 

Acock, Miss Amy A., 1905, ABF 
% ABFMS, 152 Madison 
Ave., New York City. 

Acock. Miss Winifred M., 1922, 
ABF % ABFMS, 152 Madi 
son Ave., New York City. 

Adalr, Miss Lily, 1911, EPM 
Shoka, Formosa. 

Adamii, Miss Ada E., 1927, PCC 
Taihoku, Formosa. 

Adams, Miss Alic3 P., 1891 (re 
tired), ABCFM 195 Kadota 
Yashiki, Okayama.(Tel. 1297) 

Ainsworth, Rev. & Mrs. Freu, 
1915, UCC 1530 Yotsuya 
Machi, Matsumoto Shi, Na 
gano Ken. 

Akana. Mrs. Catherine, 1929, 
ABCFM 59 Nakayamate 
Deri 6-chom^, Kobe. (Tel. 
Motomachi 2865). 

Akard, Miss Martha, 1913, LCA 
Kyushu Jo Gakuin, Ku- 



mamoto Shigai. (TeL 2187) 

Albright, Rev. & Mrs. L. S., 
1926, UCC 23 Kami Tomi- 
irakacho, Koishikawa. Ku, 
Tokyo. 

Alexander., Rev. & Mrs. R. P., 
1893, 1896 (retired), MFC 
2 Aoyama Gakuin, Shibuya 
Ku. Tokyo. (Tel. Aoyama 
2008-2010). 

Alexander, Miss Virginia E., 
1903 (retired), MEC 1205 
Michigan Ave., Albion, Michi 
gan. 

Allen, Miss Annie W., 1905, UCC 
Aisei Kan, 47 2-chome, Ka- 
moido, Joto Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. 
Sumida 3102). 

Allen, Rev. E., AKC, 1927, SPG 
15 Shimoyamate Dori 5- 
chome, Kobe. 

Allen. Miss Thomasine, 1915, 
ABF Franklin, Indiana, U. 
S.A. 

AMERICAN BIBLE SOCIETY, 

2 Ginza 4-chome, Kyobashi 
Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Kyobashi 
6405). 

AMERICAN TRACT SOCIETY, 

4 Ginza 5-chome, Kyobashi 
Ku, Tokyo. 

Anderson. Pastor & Mrs. A. N.. 
1914, SDA Chico, California, 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



U.S.A. 

Anderson, Miss Irene. 1928. EC 
95 Shimizudai, Koriyama, 
Pukushima Ken. 

Anderson, Rev. Joel (Wife ab 
sent), 1900, SAM 15 Ueno- 
hara, Nakano, Tokyo. 

Anderson, Miss Mary E., 1930, 
PCC Acton, Ontario, Cana 
da. 

Anderson. Miss Myra P., 1922, 
MES % Hiroshima Jo Ga- 
kuin, Hiroshima. (Tel. 506). 

Andrews. Miss Olive M. E., 1927, 
IND 5929 Oi Ito Machi, Shi- 
nagawa Ku, Tokyo. 

Andrews, Rev., Ph. D., & Mrs. 
R. W., 1899, PE 2 Irifune- 
cho, Tochigi Machi, Tochigi 
Ken. 

Andrews, Miss Sarah S., 1916, 
IND 37 Oiwa Miyashita Cho, 
Shizuoka. 

Ankeney, R3V. & Mrs. Alfred, 
1914, 1923, ERG 1505 Race 
St., Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A. 

Archer, Miss Anne L., 1899 (re 
tired), MSCC 40 Kinoshita, 
Inuyama, Aichi Ken. 

Archibald, Miss Margaret, 1928, 
PS 5-chome, Nagahei Cho, 
Nagoya. 

Armstrong, Miss Margaret E., 
1903, UCC 274 Sogawa Cho, 
Toyama Shi, Toyama Ken. 
(Tel. 2126). 

Armstrong, Pastor & Mrs. V. T., 
1921, SDA 341 S. E. 47th 
Ave., Portland, Ore., U.S.A. 

Ashbaugh, Miss Adella M., 1908, 
MEC Kassui Jo Gakko, Hi- 

gashi Yamat?, Nagasaki. 



Aurell, Rev. & Mrs. K. E., 1891, 
BS 645 Kugahara, Omori 
Ku, Tokyo. 

Axling, Rev. (D. D.) & Mrs. Wil 
liam, 1901, ABF 5 Nichome, 
Shirakawa Cho, Fukagaw.i 
Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Misaki Tab 
ernacle, Kanda 1628). 

B 

Bach, Rev. & Mrs. D. G. M., 
1916, LCA 388 Shinyashiki 
Machi, Kumamoto. 

Baggs, Misa M. C., 1925, CMS 
7 2-chome, Nobori Cho, Kure 
Shi. 

Bagley, Miss Kate, 1917, IND 
12 1-chome, Higashi Ku- 
sabuka Cho, Shizuoka. 

Bailey, Miss Barbara M., 1919, 
MEC 4 Aoyama Gakuin, 
Shibuya Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Ao 
yama 2011). 

Bailey, Miss H., 1927, MSCC 
Kit sune Ike, Nagano Shi. 

Baker, Miss Elsie M., 1924, CMS 
42 London Road, Seven 
Oaks, Kent, England. 

Baldwin, Miss Cecily M., 1930, 
CMS 35 Heath St. W?st, 
Toronto, Canada. 

Baldwin, Mrs. J. McQ., 1893, 
CMS 35 Heath St. West, 
Toronto, Caanada. 

Band, Rev. Edward (Wife, ab 
sent) 1912, EPM Presbyteri 
an Middle School, Tainan, 
Formosa. 

Barbour. Miss Ruth, 1931, PE 
St. Luke s Hospital, Tsukiji, 
Tokyo. (Tel. Hospital: Kyo- 
bashi 6101-5). 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



437 



Barnard. Rev. & Mrs. C. E., 
1930, 1931, PN Hiroshima. 

Barr. Miss Lulu M., 1920, UCC 
2 Toriizaka, Azabu Ku, To 
kyo. (Tel. Akasaka 1058). 

Barth, Rev. & Mrs. N. H,, 1928, 
AG 1720 Shinohara Cho, 
Yokohama. 

Basil, Rt. Rev. Bishop, D.D., 
1910, SPG Gwai, 15 Shimo- 
yamate Dori 5-chome, Kobe. 

Batchelor. Ven. Archdeacon (D. 
D.) & Mrs. John, 1879 (re 
tired), CMS 1 Kita Sanjo 
Nishi 3-chome, Sapporo, 
Hokkaido. 

Bates, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. C. J. 
L., 1902, UCC Kwansei Ga- 
kuin, Koto Mura, Nishino- 
miya. 

Bates, Miss E. L., 1921, UCC 
2 Toriizaka, Azabu Ku, To 
kyo. (Tel. Akasaka 1058). 

Bath, Miss Marie J., 1934, PE 
Kusatsu, Gumma Ken. 

Bauernfeind, Miss Susan M., 

1900, EC 84 Sasugaya Cho, 
Koishikawa Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. 
Koishikawa 3546; F. C. Tokyo 
70367). 

Bazeley, Miss B. Rose, 1926, 
JEB Naizen, Yagi Cho, Ta- 
kaichi Gun, Nara Ken. 

Seattle, Miss Margaret, 1933, 
EPM % Presbyterian Girls 
School, Tainan, Formosa. 

Beatty, Mr. & Mrs. Harold E., 
1921, IND 108 Kunitama 
Dori 4-chome, Nada Ku, 
Kobe. 

Bee, Mr. & Mrs. William, 1920, 
JEB 660 Wakaura, Wakaya- 
ma Shi, Wakayama Ken. 

Bennett, Rev. & Mrs. H. J., 

1901, 1905, KK Higashi Ma- 



chi. Tottori Shi, Totlori Ken. 
(Tel. 557). 

Renninghoff, Rev. (D.D.) & 
Mrs. Harry B., 1907, ABF 
551 1-chome, Totsuka Machi, 
Yodobashi Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. 
Ushigome 3687. F. C. Wasada 
Hoshien, 757866). 

Berry, Rev. Arthur D., D. D., 
1902, MEC 8 Aoyama Gaku- 
in, Tokyo. (Tel. Aoyama 
2008-10). 

Best. Major & Mrs. Arthur, 
1931, SA % Salvation Army 
Headquarters, 17 2-chomc, 
Jimbocho, Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 
(Tel. Kudan 479, 2344). 

Blckel, Mrs. L. W., 1898 (re 
tired), ABF 50 Shimotera 
Machi, Himeji. 

Binford, Mr. & Mrs. Gurney, 
1893, 1899, AFP Shimotsu- 
ma Machi, Makabs Gun, Iba- 
raki Ken. 

Blnsted, Rt. Rev. (D. D.)&Mr?. 
N. S., 1915, PE 9 Moto Kaji 
Cho, Sendai. 

Bishop, Rev. & Mrs. Charles, 
1879 (retired), MEC 10 Ao 
yama Gakuin, Tokyo. (Tel. 
Aoyama 2008-10). 

Bixby, Miss Alice C., 1914, ABF 
50 Shimotera Machi, Hi 
meji. 

Blxler, Mr. & Mrs. Orville D., 
1918, IND Nagasawa Machi, 
Ibaraki Ken. 

Bosanquet, Miss Amy C., 1892 
(retired), CMS 47 Shinsaka 
Machi, Akasaka Ku, Tokyo. 

Bott, Rev. & Mrs. G. E., 1921, 
UCC 23 Kamitomizaka Cho, 
Koishikawa Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. 
Koishikawa 638). 



438 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Bouldin, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs 
G.W., 1906, IND Scottsbovo, 
Ala, U.S.A. 

Bovenkirk, Rev. & Mrs. H. G., 
1930, PN Tsu Shi, Mie Ken. 

Bowen, Miss Georgena E., 1925, 
UGC 77 Atkinson St., Bel 
lows Falls, Vermont, U.S.A. 

Bowles, Mr. & Mrs. Gilbert, 
1901, 1893, AFP 14 1-chome, 
Mita Daimachi, Shiba Ku, 
Tokyo. (Tel. Mita 804). 

Bowles, Dr. & Mrs. H. E., 1930, 
PE 881 Young St., Honoluhi, 
T. H. 

Bowman, Miss N. F. J., 1907 ; 
MSCC 5 ?.-chome, Shiraka- 
be Cho, Nagoya. (Tel. Higa- 
shi 3090). 

Boyd, Miss Louisa H., 1902, PE 
Kuruwa Machi, Kawagoe 
Shi, Saitama Ken. 

Boydell, Miss Kathleen M.. 
1919, CMS Hira Cho, Matsu- 
base Machi, Kumamoto Ken. 

Boyle, Miss Helen, 1928, PE 
69 Motokaji Cho, Sendai. 

Bradbury, Miss Iva, 1936, JRM 
162 Kita Yoban Cho, Sen 
dai. (Tel 3315) 

Brady, Rev. & Mrs. Harper, 
1917, PS 180 Takajo Machi, 
Kochi shi, Kochi Ken. 

Braithwalte, Mr. & Mrs. G. 
Burnham, 1923, 1922, AFP, 
JBTS 5 Hikawa Cho, Aka- 
saka Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Aoya- 
ma 7440). 

Bransted, Mr. Karl E., 1924, 
PE St. Paul s University, 
Ikebukuro, Tokyo. (Tel. St. 
Paul s: Otsuka 404, 1223). 

Brings, Rev. B. W., 1934. Chap 
lain Missions to Seaman, 
Yamashita Cho, Yokohama. 



BRITISH AND FOREIGN BI 
BLE SOCIETY, 95 Yado Ma 
chi, Kobe Ku, Kobe. (Tel. 
Sannomiya 2725. Telegraph: 
Testaments, Kob9). 

Browiii, Miss Olive, 1930, JRM 
18 Nijikki Cho, Ushigome 
Ku, Tokyo. 

Brumbaugh, Rev. & Mrs. T. 
T., 1924, MEC 65 Miyashita 
Cho, Koishikawa Ku, Tokyo 

Bruns, Rev. & Mrs. Bruno, 

1930. RCA 25 E. 22nd St., 
New York. 

Bryan, Rev. & Mrs. Harry H., 

1931, PS Maegawa Cho, To- 
kushima Shi, Tokushima 
Ken. 

Buchanan, Rev. (Ph. D.) & 
Mrs. Daniel., C., 1921, PN 
Ichijodori, Muromachi Nishi, 
Kyoto Shi. 

Buchanan, Miss Elizabeth O., 
1914, PS 47 Asahi Machi, 2- 
chome, Kano Gifu. 

Buchanan, Rov. (Ph. D.) & 
Mrs. Psrcy W., 1925, PS 32 
Nagaike Cho, 2-chome, Na- 
ka Ku, Nagoya. 

Buchanan, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. 
Walter McS., 1895, 1897, PS 
439 Nakabu, Marugame. 

Buckland, Miss Ruth A,, 1925, 
F3 5-chome, Nagahei Cho, 
Nagoya. 

Buncombe, Rev. W. P., 1888 

(retired), CMS 487 Asagaya, 

3-chome, Suginami Ku, To 
kyo. 

Bunker, Miss Aninie, 1928, 
JRM 1577 Sumiyoshi Che, 
Sumiyoshi Ku, Osaka. 

Burdick, Miss Alma M., 1927, 
PCC Tansui, Formosa. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



439 



Bin-net. Miss M. A., 1917. CJPM Carroll, Miss Sallie E., 1926, 

156 Hyakken Machi, Maeba- MES 55 Niage Machi, Oita 

shi, Gumma Ken. Shi, Oita Ken. 

Burnside, Miss Ruth, 1923, PE Carver, Miss Dorothy, 1935, 

American Church Mission, SBC Soina Jo Gakuin, Ko- 

Ikebukuro, Tokyo. kura. 



liushe, Miss S. L. K., 1921, CMS 
9 of 2 Hirakawa Cho, 2- 
chome, Kojimachi Ku, To 
kyo. 



Cary, Miss Alice E., 1915, 

ABCPM, Shukugawa, Nishl- 

nomiya, Hyogo Ken. (Tel. 
Nishiiiomiya 3290 ) . 



Buss. Rev. & Mrs. Bernhard, I Cary, Rev. & Mrs. Frank, 1909, 

1928, LM Schneeberg in 1916, ABCFM 6 3-chome. 

Sachssn, Ringstrasse 2, Ger- Tomioka Cho, Otaru, Hoic- 

many. kaido. 



Butcher, Miss K., 1929, MSCC 
New Life Sanitorium. O- 
buse Mura, Kami Takai Gun, 
Nagano Ken. (Tel. Obuce 
33). 

Butler Miss Bessie, 1921, JRM 

Beth-Nimrah, 4 Gilbert 
Read, Bournemouth, En 
gland. 

Byersf, Miss Florence M., 1928, 
AG^240 Takagi, Kawaragi 
Mura, Mviko Gun, Hyogo 
Ken. 

Byler, Miss Gertrude M., 1927, 
MEC lai Jo Gakko, Hako 
date, Hokka/do. 



Callbeck, Miss Louise IvI., 1921, 
UCC 14 Saibansho Dori, 
Kanazawa Shi, Ishikawa 
Ken. (Tel. 1607). 

Cannell, Miss Mona C., 1922, 
PE 281 Fourth Ave., New 
York, N. Y. 

Carlson, Rev. C. E. (Wife, ab 
sent) 1913, SAM 3622 2- 
chome, Nagasaki, Naka Cho, 
Toshima Ku, Tokyo. 



i Cary, Mrs. H. M., 1924, UGC 
5 Sakurayama, Nakano Ku, 
Tokyo. 

\ Cary, Rev. Harry M., Jr., 1935. 
UGC 5 Sakurayama, Naka 
no Ku, Tokyo. 

Cary, Mrs. Otis, 1878 (retired), 
6 3-chome, Tomioka Cho, 
Otaru, Hokkaido. 

Chapman, Rev. & Mrs. E. N.. 
1917, PN Isada, Shingu Shi, 
Wakayama Ken. 

Chapman, Rev. & Mrs. G. K.. 
1921, PN 156 Fifth Ave., 
New York, N.Y. 

Chapman, Rev. & Mrs. J. J., 
1899, PE Karasumaru Dori, 
Shimotachiuri Kyoto. (Tel 
Nishijin 2372; F. C. Osaka 
33829). 

Chappell, Miss Constance S., 
1912, UCC 896 5-chome, 
Sendagaya Machi, Shibuya 
Ku, Tokyo. 

Chappel! , Rev. & Mrs. James, 
1895, PE 536 Naka Machi, 
Mito. 

Chappell, Miss Mary, IND 896 
5-chome, Sendagaya Machi, 
Shibuya Ku, Tokyo. 



440 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



f liarles. Miss Elizabeth. 1933, 
JRM Janet Dempsie Memo 
rial Hospital, 23 Tomizawa. 
Nagamachi, Sendai. (Tel. 
4318). 

Chase, Miss Laura, 1915, MEG 
Fukuoka Jo Gakko, Fuku- 
oka Shi. (Tel. 2222). 

Cheney, Miss Alice, 1915, MEO 
3433 Fifth Ave. S., Min 
neapolis, Minn., U. S. A. 

Chisholm, Miss Ethel K., 19*29 
PPC Moose River, Nova 
Scotia, Canada. 

Chope, Miss D. M., 1917, 103 
Zoshigaya, Koishikawa Ku, 
Tokyo. 

CHRISTIAN LITERATURE 

SOCIETY, 2-1 Ginza, 4-cho- 
me, Kyobashi Ku, Tokyo. 
(Tel. Kyobashi 7001). 

CHURCH PUBLISHING SOCI 
ETY 24 Zaimoku Cho, Aza- 
bu Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Aoyama 
7802). 

Clapp, Miss Frances M., Mus 

D., 1918, ABCFM Murom.v 

chi Dori, Imadegawa Agaru, 
Kyoto. 

Clark, Rev. (Ph.D.) & Mrs. E. 

M., 1920, PN 9 of 4 Nagd - 

mino Yama, Oishi, Nada, Ku, 

Kobe. 
Clarke, Rev. W. H., D.D., 1898. 

SBC 17 North Ave., N. E., 

Atlanta, Ga, U. S. A. 

CIawsoi>, Miss Bertha F. 1893, 
(retirod), UCMS 475 Kami 
Kitazaiwa, 2-chome, Setaga- 
ya Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Matsu- 
zawa 2901). 

Clazie, Miss Mabel G., 1910, 
UCC Aiseikan, 47 2-chome, 
Kameido, Joto Ku, Tokyo. 
(Tel. Sumida 3102). 



Clement, Rev. & Mrs. J. J.. 
1933, 1934, AG 3864 3-cho- 
me, Minami Nagasaki Machi, 
Tokyo. 

Clench, Miss M., 1923, IND 
St. Mary s Hospital, Shir.ta 
Machi, Matsumoto. 

Cohb, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. E., 
S., 1904, ABCFM Imadegawa 
Teramachi Nishi, Kyoto. 
(Tel. Kami 3742). 

Cobb, Rev. & Mrs. J. B., 1918, 
MES Eki Kita 3-cho, Ashi- 
ya, Hyogo Ken. 

Cochran, Miss M. Eugenia, 

1935, CJPM 156 Hyakken 

Machi, Ma^bashi, Gumma 
Ken. 

Colborne, Mrs. S. E., 1894 (re 
tired ) , CA{ 3 Minamihara 
Mura, Awa Gun, Chiba Ken. 

Coles, Miss A. M. M., 1909 (re 
tired), JEB Sunrise Home, 
Gkuradani, Akashi, Hyogo 
Ken. 

Collins. Mr. & Mrs. Arthur 
M., 1929, JEB 43 Kitama- 
chi, Tsuyama Shi, Okayama 
Ken. 

Collins, Miss Mary D., 1929, 
MEC 4- Aoyama Gakuin, To 
kyo. (Tel. Aoyama 2011). 

Colviii, Miss Thelma, 1932, MES 
35 Nakayamate Dori, 4- 
chome, Kobe. 

Cook, Miss Dulcie, 1930, UCC 

Cold; stream, Colchester -C(/., 
Nova Scotia, Canada. 

Cook, Miss M.M., 1904, MES 
Lambuth Jo Gakuin, 5290 
Ishigatsuji Cho, Tennoji Ku, 
Osaka. (Tel. Minami 1475 K 

Cooper, Miss Lois W., 1928, 
MES Hiroshima Jo Gaku 
in, Hiroshima. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



441 



( note. Mr. & Mrs. Leonard 
W., i 1913, JAM Tawaragu- 
chi, c/o Ikoma Bible School, 
Ikoma. Nara Ken. P. O. Box 
5, Ikoma. F.C. Osaka 59374). 

Cornwall-Legh, Miss Mary H., 
1916, PE Jizo Kusatsu, 
Gummp. Ken. 

Couch, Miss Holen, 1916, MEG 
Kassui Jo Gakko, Higashi 
Yamate, Nagasaki. 

Couch, Miss S. M., 1892, RCA - 
96 Kami Nishiyama Machi, 
Nagasaki. 

Course, Mr. & Mrs. James H. 

1928, IND American School, 
1985 2-chome, Kami Meguro, 
Meguro Ku, Tokyo. (Aoyanvi 
6297). 

Courtice, Miss Sybil R., 1910, 
UCC 2 Toriizaka, Azabu Ku, 
Tokyo. (Tel. Akasaka 1058; 
P.O. Tokyo 44665). 

rovell, Mr. & Mrs. J. Howard. 
1920, ABF 1 of 73 Kanoe 
Dai, Naka Ku, Yokohama. 
(Tel. Kanto Gakuin, Choja 
Machi 201). 

Cox, Miss Alice M., 1900, CMS 
Showa Kita Dori, 6-chome, 
Amagasaki. 

Craig, Mr. Eugene B., (Wife 
absent), 1911, IND Dent:o 
Kan, 6 of 7 1-chome, Tsukasa 
Cho, Kanda, Tokyo. 

Craig, Miss Milderd E., 1925, 
CJPM 156 Hyakken utz.z~<, 
Maebashi, Gumma Ken. 

Cragg, Rev. (D.D) & Mrs. W. J. 
M, 1911, UCC Kwansel Ga 
kuin, Koto Mura, Nishino- 
miya Shigai. 

Crawford, Rev. & Mrs. V. A., 

1929, PS 26 Kabutonisht, 
Rokku Cho, Okazaki Shi. 



Crew. Miss Angie, 1923. ABCFM 
West Milton, Ohio, U. S. A. 

Crew, Mrs. Glenna C., 1931, 
ABCFM Kobe Jo Gakuin, 
Okadayama, Nishinomiya, 

Hyogo Ken. (Tel. Nishino 
miya 2264-5). 

Cronk, Miss Althea, 1930, MES 
Hiroshima Jo Gakuin, Hiro 
shima. 

Cuddebac-k, Miss Margaret E., 
1931, ABF 1915 Fairmount 
Blvd., Eugene, Oregon, U. 
S. A. 

Cullen, Miss Gladys S., 1926, 
EPM Shinro, Tainan, For 
mosa. 

Gumming, Dr. & Mrs. G. G., 
1930, BMP Shoka, Formosa. 

Cunningham, Mr. & Mrs. W. D.. 
1901, TM 6 Naka Cho, Yo- 
tsuya, Tokyo. 

Currell. Miss Susan McD., 1921, 
FS Marugame, Kagawa Ken. 

Curry, Miss Olive, 1925, MEC 
1515 Wareman Ave., Pit 
tsburgh, Pa., U. S. A. 

Curtice, Miss Lois K, 1914, MEC 
9 Nuka Kawarage Cho, Hi- 
rosaki Shi, Aomori Ken. 

Curtis, Miss Edith E., 1911, 
ABCFM 235 Shukugawa, 

Nishinomiya, Hyogo Ken. 
(Tel. Nishinomiya 3290). 

Cuthbertson. Miss Florence, 
1935, JEB Sunrise Home, 
Okuradani, Akashi, Hyogo 
Ken. 

Cuthbertson, Mr. & Mrs. 
James, 1905, JEB 102 Ume- 
moto Cho, Kobe. 

Cypert, Miss Lillie D., 1917, 
IND 616 Kichijoji, Tokyo 
Fu. 



442 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Daniel, Miss N. Margaret, 1898, 
MEC 4 Aoyama Gakuin. 
Tokyo. (Tel. Aoyama 2011). 

Dann, Miss Janet M., 1920, 
JRM Janet Dempsie Memo 
rial Hospital, 23 Tomizawn, 
Nagamachi, Sendai. (Tel. 
4318). 

Darrow, Miss Flora, 1922, RCA 

Meiji Gakuin, Shirokane, 

Shiba Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Ta- 
kanawa 3666). 

Daugherty, Miss Lena G., 1915 
PN 156 Fifth Ave., New 
York City. Later 100 Tsuno- 
hazu, Yodobashi Machi. 2- 
chome, Tokyo. 

Davidson, Adjutant & Mrs. 
Charles, 1929, SA 17 2-cho- 
me, Jimtao Cho, Kanda Ku, 
Tokyo. (Tel. Kanda 479, 
2344). 

DoForest, Miss Charlotte B.. 
L.H.D., 1903, ABCFM c/o 
ABCFM, 14 Beacon St., Bos 
ton, Mass., U. S. A. 

Dempsie, Rev. & Mrs. George, 
1918, JRM Haze, Higashi- 
mozu Mura, Sempoku Gun, 
Osaka. (Tol. Fukuda 8). 

Denton, Miss Mary P., Ed. D., 
1888 (retired), ABCFM Do - 
shisha Jo Gakko, Kyoto. 
(Tel. Kami 43). 

Dickson, Rev. & Mrs. James I., 
1927, FCC Tansui, Formosa. 

Dickson, Miss L. E., 1927, PE 
Yamanoue, Tenma, Nara Shi. 

Dietrich, Pastor & Mrs. George, 
1924, SDA 34 Nakajima Do- 
ri 3-chome. Fukiai Ku, Ko 
be. 



Dlevemlorf, Mrs. A., 1924. CMA 
Sannomaru, Fukuyarrrx 

Shi, Hiroshima Ken. 

Dlsbrow, Miss Helen J., 1921, 
PE Bishamon Cho, Tono- 
dan, Kyoto Shi. 

Dithrldge, Miss Harriet, 1910, 
IND Tachikawa Machi, To 
kyo Fu. 

Doubletly, Miss Stella C., 1928, 
CMS 7 Nobori Cho, 2-cho- 
me, Kure Shi, Hiroshima 
Ken. 

Douglas, Miss Charlotte, 1931, 
IND 37 Bluff, Yokohama. 

Douglas, Miss Dorothy C., 1928, 
PCC School of Japanese 
Language and Culture, Mito- 
shirocho, Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 

Douglas, Miss Leona M., 1930, 
UCC 324 Hyakkoku Machi, 
Kofu Shi, Yamanashi Ken. 
(Tel. 1166). 

Dowd, Miss Annie H., 1888, (re 
tired), PS 180 Takajo Ma 
chi, Kochi Shi, Kochi Ken. 

Downing. Miss Ruth G., 1929. 
UGC Blackmer Home, 50 
Takata Oimatsu Cho, Ko- 
ishikawa Ku, Tokyo. 

Downs. Rev. & Mrs. Darley, 
1919, 1922, ABCFM 684-1 
Togoshi Machi, Ebara Ku. 
Tokyo. (Tel. Ebara 2977; F.C. 
Tokyo 22598). 

Dozier 1 , Mrs. C. K., 1906, SBC 
Seinan Gakuin, Fukuoka, 
Fukuoka Ken. 

Dozier, Rev. & Mrs. Edwin B., 
1932, SBC Seinan Gakuin 
Fukuoka, Fukuoka Ken. 
(Tel. 3170). 

Dozier, Miss Helen, 1935, SBC 
Seinan Jo Gakuin, Kokura., 
Fukucka Ken. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



443 



Drake, Miss I. Katherine, 1909, 
UCC c/o U. C. C., 413 Wes 
ley Bldgs., Toronto, Canada. 

Draper, Rev. Gideon P. (S. T. 
D.), 1880 (retired), MEC 
222-H. Bluff, Yokohama. (Tel. 
Honkyoku 5084). 

Draper, Miss Marion R., 1913, 
MEC 22-B Bluff, Yokohama. 
Tel. Honkyoku 5084). 

Draper, Miss Winfred F., 1912, 
MEC 222-B Bluff, Yokoha 
ma. (Tel. Honkyoku 5084). 

Draper, Rev. & Mrs. W. F., 
1935, PE 9 Motokaji Cho, 
Sendai. 

Druitt, Miss M., SPG Shoin Jo 
Gakko, Aotani Cho, 3-chome, 
Nada Ku Kobe. 

Dunlop, Mrs. J. G., 1898, PN 
Baiko JoGakuin, Maruyama 
Cho, Shimonoseki Shi. 

Durgin, Mr.& Mrs. Russell L., 
1919, YMCA 5 of 7 Nicho- 
me Fujimi Cho, Kojimachi 
Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Kudan 
2532). 

Dyer, Mr. & Mrs. A. L., 1905, 
JEB c/o J. E. B., 55 Gower 
St., London W.I., England. 



Edwards, Miss N,, 1935, SPG 
56 Yukinogosho Cho, Mina- 
to Ku Kobe. 

Elliott* Miss Isabel, 1912, EPM 
Shoka, Formosa. 

Elliott, Dr. Mabel E., 1925, PE 
St.Luke s Hospital, Tsu- 
kiji, Tokyo. (Tel. Hospital, 
Kyobashi 6101-5). 

Kills, Mrs. Charles, IND Yo 
kohama Mura, Nagahama 



Machi, Agawa Gun, Kochl 
Ken. 

Engelmann, Rev. & Mrs. Mar 
cus J., 1929 ERC 31 Torii 
Machi, Wakamatsu Shi, Fu- 
kushima Ken. (Tel. 728). 

English, Mr. Arthur, ABCFM 
Amherst Bldg., Doshisha 
University, Kyoto. 

Eriekson, Rav. (D.D.) & Mrs. 
S. M., 1905, PS Kama Cho, 
Takamatsu. Kagawa Ken. 

Evans, Rev. & Mrs. Charles H., 
1894, PE 75 Myogadani Cho, 
Koishikawa, Tokyo. 

Evans, Miss Elizabeth M., 1911. 
PN Hokusei Jo Gakko, Mi- 
nami 5 Jo, Nishi 17-chome, 
Sapporo. 

Evens, Pastor & Mrs. H. P., 
1932 SDA 171 Amanuma, 1- 
chome, Suginami Ku, Tokyo. 

Ewing, Miss Annie M.,1914, IND 
499 Koyama Cho, Ebara Ku, 
Tokyo. 

Ewing. Miss Hettie L., 1926, 
IND Abilene, Tex., U.S.A. 



Fanning, Miss Katherine P., 
1914, ABCFM Higashi Ma 
chi, Tottori Shi. 

Farnham, Miss Grace, 1925, 
IND 485 4-chome, Mabashi, 
Suginami Ku, Tokyo. 

Fnrnum. Rev. & Mrs. Marlin 
D., 1927, ABF Shigei Mura, 
Mitsugi Gun, Hiroshima 
Ken. (F. C. Hiroshima 4658). 

Feely, Miss Gertrude, 1931, 
MES 55 Niage Machi, Oita 
Shi, Oita Ken. 



444 



DIRECTORIES AJJD STATISTICS 



Fehr, Miss VeraJ., 1920, MEC 
Kassui Jo Gakko, Naga 
saki. (Tel. 1416). 

Fesperman, Rev. and Mro. 
Frank L.. 1919, ERC 112 
Kita Niban Cho, Sendai. 
(Tel. 2139). 

Field, Miss Ruth, 1927, MES 
Lambuth Jo Gakuin, Ishl- 
gatsuji Cho, Tennoji Ku O- 
saka Shi. 

Field, Miss Sarah M., 1917, 
ABCFM Kobe Jo Gakuin, 
Okadayama, Nishinomiya, 
Hyogo Ken. (Tel. Nishino 
miya 2264-65). 

Finch, Miss Mary D., 1925, MES 
Hiroshima Jo Gakuin, Hi 
roshima. (Tel. 506). 

Finlay, Miss L. Alice, 1906. MEC 
143 Kajiya Cho, Kago- 
shima. (Tel. 1592). 

Fisher, Mr. & Mrs. Royal H., 
1914, ABP c/o Mrs. Harry N. 
Hoffman, 603 Hoffman : St., 
Elmira, New York, U. S. A. 

Foerstel, Miss Ella L. A., 1934, 
PE St. Luka s Hospital, 
Tsukiji, Tokyo. 

Foerstel, Miss M., 1927, MSCC 
Hamilton House, Tenno Cho, 
Okaya, Nagano Ken. 

Footev Miss Edith L., 1923, PE 
Karasumaru Dori, Shimo- 
tachi Uri Agaru. Kyoto. (Tel. 
Nishijin 2372: F. C. Osaka 
55455 ) . 

Foote. Mr. E. W.. 1923. PE 
St. Paul University, Ikebu- 
kuro, Tokyo. 

Foote, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. 
John A., 1912, 1911, ABF 
58 1-chome, Minami Dori, 
Mot.o Higashi Yodogawa Ku, 
Osaka. 



Ford, Rev. J. C. 1928, SPG 
(All Saints, English Chap 
laincy), 58 Nakayamate Dor:, 
3-chomfi, Kobe Shi. 

Forsheet, Mr. & Mrs. Clayton D . 
1935, SDA 171 Amanuma, 
1-chome, Suginami Ku, To 
kyo. (Tel. Ogikubo 2051; 
F.C. Tokyo 56801). 

Fowells, Miss A., 1933, SPG 
Shoin Jo Gakko, Aodani Clio, 
Nada Ku, Kobe. 

Fowler, Mr. & Mrs. J. E., 1933, 
PE St. Paul s University, 
Ikebukuro, Tokyo. 

Francis, Rev. T. R., 1913, CMA 
Sannomaru, Fukuyama, 
Hiroshima Ken. . 

Frank, Rev. & Mrs. J. W., 1899, 
MES Tokuyama Machi, 

Yamaguchi Ken. 

Freeth, Miss F. May, 1895, CMS 
Miyaji Machi, Aso Gun, 
Kumamoto Ken. 

Frehn. Rev. & Mrs. M. C., 
1925, CMA Kitami, Tokyo 
Fu. 

Fulton, Rev. (D.D) & Mrs. S.P., 
1888, PS 45 Kamitsutsui 
Dori, 5-chome, Kobe. 



Gaimts. Miss Rachel, 1914, MES 
(Associate) Hiroshima Jo 
Gakuin. Hiroshima. (Tel. 
506 ) . 

Gale, Mrs. Emma, 1925, IND 
240 Takagi, Kawaragi Mura. 
Muko Gun, Hyogo Ken. 

Gait, Miss Jessie W., 1922, EPM 
Presbyterian Girls School, 
Tainan, Formosa. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



445 



Gaudier, Miss G.B., 1934, JEB 
Naizen, Yagi Cho, Takaichi 
Gun, Nara Ken. 

Gardener, Miss Fanny E., IND 
98 North Side Clapnam 
Common, London S. W. 4. 

Gardiner, Miss Ernestine W., 
1921, PE St. Luke s Hospi 
tal, Tsukiji, Tokyo. 

Gardner, Miss Emma E., 1921, 
PS Saiwai Cho, Takamatsu, 
Kagawa Ken. 

Garmurf, Rev. & Mrs.. C. P., 
1905, ABCFM, CLS 12 Ha- 
chiyama Machi, Shibuya Ku, 
Tokyo. (Tel. Kyo Bun Kwan, 
Kyobashi 0252). 

Garmari, Miss Margaret, 1934, 
ERC 33 Uwa Cho, Komega- 
fukuro, Sendai. (Tel. 2544). 

Garrard, Mr. M. H., 1924, JEB 
c/o JEB, 55 Gower St., 
London W. C. 1, England. 

Garrott, Rev. W. Maxfleld, Ph. 
D., 1934, SBC Selnan Gaku- 
in, Fukuoka. 

(iauld, Miss Gretta, 1924, EPM 
Shinro, Tainan, Formosa. 
(Tel 805). 

Gauld, Mrs. M. A., 1892, EPM 
Shinro, Tainan, Formosa. 

Gealy, Rev. (Ph.D.) & Mrs. F. 
D., 1923, MEC 1107 W. 2nd 
St., Oil City, Penna. 

Gerhard, Miss Mary E., 1905, 
ERC 28 Uwa Cho, Komega- 
fukuro. Sendai. (Tel. 2191). 

Gerliard. Rev. (Pd.D.) & Mrs. 
Paul L., 1896, 1902, ERC 6 
Minami Rokken Cho, Sen 
dai. (Tel. 2261). 

Gerhard. Mr. & Mrs. Robert H , 
1928, ERC 61 Kozcnji Don, 
Sendai. (Tel. 1959). 



Gerrish, Miss Ella M., 1928, 
MEC Greenville Junction, 
Maine, U. S. A. 

Gibbs, Rev. & Mrs. Maurice A, 
1919, WM Haughton, N. Y., 
U.S.A. 

I Gillespy, Miss J. C., 1902, JEB 
c/o Mitsvibishi Kaisha 
Shataku, Sakae Machi, Taka- 
sago Machi, Kako Gun, Hyo- 
go Ken. 

Gillett, Rev. & Mrs. C. S., 1921, 
ABCFM McGiffert Hall, 99 
Claremont Ave., New York. 

Gillett, Miss E. R., 1896, IND 
123 Kashiwagi Machi, Yodo- 
bashi Ku, Tokyo. (F. C. To 
kyo 60322). 

Gillilan, Miss Elizabeth, 1923 & 
1929, PN Tokyo Joshi Dai- 
gaku, logi Machi, 3-chome, 
Suginami Ku, Tokyo. (Tel 
Ogikubo 2049). 

Glaeser, Mr. & Mrs. Martin L. p 
1931, IND 25 Josaibashi Do- 
ri, Fukuoka. 

Goldsmith, Miss Mabel O., 1928, 
CMS 351 Sasayama Cho 5- 
chome, Kurume. 

Gordon, Mrs. M. L., 1872 (re 
tired), ABCFM % Rt. Rev. 
C. S. Reif snider, Rikkyo Dai- 
gaku, Ikebukuro, Tokyo. (Tel. 
Otsuka 1817). 

Gosden, Mr. Eric W., 1933, JEB 
% C. S. Wilkinson, 23 Tsu- 
yuno Cho 2-chome, Kobe. 

Govenlook, Miss Isabel, 1912, 

UCC Eiwa Jo Gakko, Nishl 

Kusabuka, Shizuoka .(Tel 
1417) 

Graham, Miss Jean A. C., 1933, 
UCC Aiseikan, 47 2-chome, 
Kameido, Joto Ku, Tokyo. 
(Tel. Sumida 3102). 



440 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Gray, Mr. & Mrs. F. H., 1902, 
JAM Tawaraguchi, % Iko- 
ma Bible School, Ikoma, 
Nara Ken. (Box 5, Ikoma P. 
O.), (F. C. Osaka 59374) 

Gray, Miss Gladys G., 1920, 
PE 58 Katahira Cho, Sendai. 

Greenbank, Miss Katherine M., 
1920, UCC Eiwa Jo Gakko, 
Atago Cho, Kofu Shi, Yama- 
nashi Ken. (Tel. 2591) 

Gressitt, Mr. & Mrs. J. Fuller- 
ton, 1907, ABF 820 2-chome, 
Shimouma Machi, Setagaya 
Ku, Tokyo. (Tol. Setagaya 
2674) 

Grube,, Miss Alice, 1933, PN 
Wilmina Jo Gakko, Tama- 
tsukuri, Higashi Ku, Osaka. 

Gubbins, Miss Gertrude M., 
1922, IND Garden Home, 
Ekota Machi, 3-chome, Na- 
kano Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Yo- 
tsuya 497). 

Gulick, Mr. & Mrs. Leeds, 1921, 
1922, ABCFM 55 Nibancho, 
Matsuyama. (Tel. Matsuyama 
Night School, 912), (F. C. 
Tokushima 2245) 

Gushue-Taylor, Dr. (M.B.B.S.. 
F.R.G.S.) & Mrs. G., 1912, 
PCC Taihoku, Formosa. 

H 

Hackett, Mr. & Mrs. H. W., 
1920, ABCFM 124 Nakaya- 
mate Dori, 6-chome. Kooe. 
(Tel. Motomachi 47) 

Haden, Rev. (D. D.) & Mrs. 
Thomas H., 1895, 1915 (re 
tired), MES Crozet, Va. 

Later: % J. S. Oxford, 23 Ki- 

tanagasa Dori, 4-chome, Kobe. 

Hngen, Miss Olive I., 1919, MEC 

Kassui Jo Gakko, 



Yamate, Nagasaki. 

Hager*. Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. S. E., 
1893, MES 120 Goken Ya- 
shiki, Himeji. 

Haig, Miss Mary T., 1920, UCC 
324 Hyakkoku Machi, Kofu 
Shi, Yamanashi Ken. (T^i- 
1166) 

Hail. Mrs. Harriet W., 1898 tz 
1928, PN Wilmina Jo Gak 
ko, Tamatsukuri, Higashi Ku, 
Osaka. (Tel. Higashi 3220) 

Hailstone, Miss M. E., 9120, 
SPG Koran Jo Gakko, 353 
Sanko Cho, Shirokane, Shi- 
ba Ku, Tokyo. ((Tel. Taka- 
nawa 4943) 

Haisey, Miss Lila S., 1904, PN 
Joshi Gakuin, 33 Kami Ni- 
ban Cho, Koimachi Ku, To 
kyo. (Tel. Kudan 1175) 

Hamilton, Miss F. Gertrude, 
1917, UCC Toyo Eiwa Jo 
Gakko, 2 Toriizaka, Azabu 
Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Akasaka 
1058) 

Hamilton, Miss F., 1914, MSCC 
Shinta Machi, Matsumoto, 
Nagano Ken. 

Hamilton, Miss Kathleen, 1924, 
CMS % Mrs Martin, For- 
dyce, Grer,nlane, Stanmoiv, 
Middlesex, England. 

Hannaford, Rev. & Mrs. How 
ard D., 1915, 1918, PN Meiji 
Gakuin, Shiba Ku, Toky<-> 
Tel. Takanawa 3666-8). 

Hanseii, Miss Kate I., Mus. D , 
1907, ERG 16 Juniken Cho, 
Komegafukuro, Sendai. (Tel. 
3673) 

Harder, Miss Helene. 1927, LCA 
337 Tera Machi, Haruyoshi, 
Fukuoka. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



447 



Harrison, Rev. & Mrs. E. R., 
1916, PE 32 Hodononaka 
Cho, Akita. 

Hartshorne, Miss A. C., 1896, 
IND Eigakujiku, Kita Tama 
Gun, Kodaira Mura, Tokyo 
Fu. (Tel. Kodaira 4, 16) 

Hassell, Rev. (D. D.) & Mrs. A. 

Pierson, 1909, PS Honcho, 

Tokushima Shi. 
Hathaway, Miss M. Agnes, 

1905 (retired), UGC 200 Hi- 

sagi Shirayama, Zushi, Kana- 

gawa Ken. 

Hawkins, Miss F. B., 1920, MSCC 
Hamilton House, Tenno Cho, 
Okaya, Nagano Ken. 

Heaslett, Most Rev. Bishop (D. 
D.) & Mrs. S., 1900, 1894, 
SPG, CMS 220 Yamate Cho, 
Naka Ku, Yokohama. 

Healey, Rev. & Mrs. F. G., 1930, 
EPM 102 2-chome, Tsuno- 
hazu, Yodobashi Ku, Tokyo. 

Heckelman, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. 
F. W., 1906, MEC c/o Board 
of Foreign Missions, M. E. 
Church, 150 5th Ave., New 
York. 

Heighten, Miss Ruth, 1935, PCC 
Taihoku, Formosa. 

Helm, Mr. & Mrs. Nathan T., 
1927, PN 2637 1-chorm, 
Sanno Cho, Omori Ku, To 
kyo. 

Heltibridle, Miss Mary, 1927, 
LCA 217 Nakanohashi Koji, 
Saga. 

Hempstead, Miss Ethel L., 1921, 
MP 16 Motoshiro Cho, Ha- 
mamatsu. 

Hcnnigar, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. 
E. C., 1905, UCC 23 Kami 
Tomizaka Cho, Koishikawa 
Ku, Tokyo. 



Henty, Miss Audrey M., 1905, 
CMS 80-E Eccleston Sq., 
London, S.W. 1. 

Hepner, Rev. (D.D., Ph.D.) & 
Mrs. C. W., 1912, LCA % Bd. 
of Foreign Missions, 18 E. 
Mt. Vernon Place, Baltimore, 
Md., U.S.A. *7 

Hereford, Miss Grace, 1925, PN 
Wilmina Jo Gakko, Tama- 
tsukuri, Higashi Ku, Osaka. 
(Tel. Higashi 3270) 

Hereford, Miss Nannie, 1932, 
PN Hokusei Jo Gakko, Mi- 
nami 5 Jo, Nishi 17-chome, 
Sapporo. 

Hereford, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. 
W. F., 1902, PN 189 Koku- 
taiji Machi, Hiroshima. 

Hermanson, Miss Hildur, 193~, 
PCC Mackay Memorial Hos 
pital, Taihoku, Formosa. 

Hertzler, Miss Verna S., 1911, 
EC 14 Yojo Dori, 2-chome, 
Minato Ku, Osaka. 

Heskethi, Miss Ellen, 1924, JRM 
Berachah Jojien, 7 Tom:- 
zawa, Nagamachi, Sendai. 
(Tel. 4318) 

Hester, Miss Margaret W., 1928, 
PE Yamanoue, Tenma, 
Nara Shi. 

Heywood, Miss C. Gertrude, 
1904, PE St. Margaret s 
School, Kugayama, Sugina- 
mi Ku, Tokyo Shi. 

Hibbard, Miss Esther, 1929, 
ABCFM Muromachi Dori, 
Imadegawa Agaru, Kyoto. 

Hilburn, Rev. (Ph.D.) & Mrs. 
S. M., 1923, MES Kansai 
Gakuin, Koto Mura, Nishino- 
miya. 

Hind, Mrs. J., 1891 (retired), 
CMS Semba Cho, 6-chome, 



448 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Tobata Shi, Fukuoka Ken. 

Hitch, Miss Annie May, 1936, 
TM 455 Taishido, Setagaya 
Ku, Tokyo. 

Hitch. Mr. Thomas G., 1936, 
TM 455 Taishido, Setagaya 
Ku, Tokyo. 

Kittle, Miss Dorothy, 1919, Pi. 
Aoba Jo Gakuin, 69 Moto 
Yanagi Cho, Sendai. 

Hoare, Miss D. E., 1918, JEB 
2 of 229 Ichimuraa, Kashi- 
wara Cho, Osaka Fuka. 

Hockin, Miss Margaret, 1935, 
YWCA 2 3-chome, Ichigaya, 
Sadowara Cho, UshigomeKu, 
Tokyo. 

Hodges, Mrss Olive I., 1902, MP 
Eiwa Jo Gakko, 124 Maita 
Machi, Yokohama Shi. (Tel. 
3-6031) 

Hoekje, Rev. (D. D.) & Mrs. 
Willis G., 1907, 1908, RCA 
5 Meiji Gakuin, Shiba Ku, 
Tokyo. (Tel. Takanawa 3666; 
F. C. Fukuoka 1081) 

Hoffman, Miss Mary E., 1930, 
ERC 33 Uwa Cho, Komega- 
fukuro, Sendai. (Tel. 2544) 

Holland, Miss C. G., 1915, MES 
35 Nakayamate Dori, 4- 
chome, Kobe. 

Holmes, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. C. 
P.. 1906, UCC 96 Hoekami 
Cho, Fukui Shi, Fukui Ken. 

Holmes, Miss Mary, 1916, SPG 
422 Kannonzaki Cho, San- 
byaku-me, Shimonosekl. 

Holtom, Rev. (Ph.D., D.D.) & 
Mrs. Daniel C., 1910, ABF 1 
of 4 Miharvi Dai, Naka Ku, 
Yokohama. (Tel. Kanto oa- 
kin, Chojamachi 201) 



Holt, Miss Eugenie, ABCFM 
Kobe Jo Gakuin, Okadayama, 
Nishinomiya, Hyogo Ken. 

Horn, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. E. T., 
1911, LCA 921 Sagimiya, 2- 
chome, Nakano Ku, Tokyo. 

Homo, Miss Alice C. J., 1906, 
CMS Minami Odori, Ita 
Machi, Tagawa Gun, Fuku 
oka Ken. 

Horobin, Miss H. M., 1923, 
MSCC Inariyama Machi, 
Nagano Ken. 

Howardi, Miss R. Dora, 1891 
(retired), CMS 61 Asahi 
Cho, 2^chome, Sumiyoshi 
Ku Osaka. (Tel. Ebisu 1486) 

Howey, Miss Harriet M., 1916, 
MEC Fukuoka Jo Gakko, 
Fukuoka. (Tel. 2222) 

Hoyt, Miss Olive S., L. H. D , 
1902, AECFM 65 Okaido, 3- 
chome, Matsuyama. 

Hubbard, Miss Jeanette, 1935, 
PE St. Luke s Hospital, 
Tsukijl, Tokyo. (TeJ.. Kyo- 
bashi 6101-5). 

Huckabee, Rev. & Mrs. W. C., 
1933, MES 323 Zakoba Ma 
chi, Hiroshima Shi. 

Hughes, Miss Alice M., 1897, 
(retired) CMS Minamihara, 
Awa Gun, Chiba Ken. 

Humphreys, Miss Marian, 1915, 
PE Shiken Cho, Nikko Ma 
chi, Tochigi Ken. 

Hurd, Miss Helen R., 1911, UCC 
Baika Kindergarten, Ueda 
Shi, Nagano Ken. (Tel. 9). 

Husted, Miss Edith E., 1917, 
ABCFM Kobe Joshi Shin- 
gakko, Okadayama, Nishino 
miya, Hyogo Ken. (Tel. Ni 
shinomiya 2624). 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



449 



Hutchinson, Canon & Mrs. A. 

C., 1909, 1912, CMS 850 Rop- 

ponmatsu, Fukuoka Shi. 
Hutchinson. Rev. & Mrs. E. G., 

1916, 1919, CMS- Nishi 

Cho, Yonago Shi. 



I 



Ilsley, Miss Alico M.. 1935, ERG 
168 Higashi Sambancho, 
Sendai. (Tel. 4395). 

Iglehart, Rev. (D.D., Ph.D.) <te 
Mrs. C. W.,1909, 1911, MEG 
9 Aoyama Gakuin, Tokyo. 
(Tel. Aoyama 2008-10). 

Iglehart, Rev. (S.T.D. & Mrs. 
E.T., 1904. MEC. Aoyama 
Gakuin, Tokyo. 

Isaac, Miss I.L., 1918, MSCC 
604 Jarvis St., Toronto 5, 
Canada. 



Jackson, Mr. & Mrs. Raymond, 
IND 8 Otabako Cho, Mina- 
mi Ku, Nagoya. 

James, Miss Ruth, 1931, JRM 
162 Kita Yoban Cho, Sen 
dai. (Tel. 3315). 

Jansen, Miss Bernice A., 1930, 
PE 69 Moto Yanagi Machi, 
Sendai. 

JAPAN BOOK AM) TRACT 
SOCIETY, 4 Ginza, 4-cho- 
me. Kyobashi Ku. Tokyo. 
(T3l. Kyobashi (56) 4573; 
F.C. Tokyo 2273). 

Jesse. Miss Mary D., 1911, SBC 
Seinan Jo Gakuin, Kokura 
Shi, Kukuoka Ken. 

Johnson, Miss Katharine, 1922, 
MES Hiroshima Jo Gakuin, 
Hiroshima. (Tel. 3060). 



Johnson, Mr. Theodore, IND 
24 So. Grant St., Stockton, 
Calif., U.S.A. 

Johnson, Miss Thora, 1927, PE 
St. Agnes School, Muro 
Machi Dori, Shimotachi Uri, 
Kyoto. (Tel. Nishijin 330). 

Jones, Miss Ethel, 1935, TM 1- 

3 Nakacho, Yotsuya Ku, To 
kyo , 

Jones, Dr. & Mrs. Frank M., 
1929, PE St. Barnabas Hos 
pital, 66 Saikudani Cho, 
Tennoji Ku, Osaka. (Tel. 
Tennoji 3828; F. C. Osaka 
82538). 

Jones, Rev. H.P. (wife absent), 
1908, MES Kwansei Gakuin 
Koto Mura, Nishinomlya, 
Hyogo Ken. 

Jones, Mr. & Mrs. Tudor, 1924, 
JEB c/o JEB, 55 Gower St., 
London W. C. I, England. 

Jorgensen, Mr. & Mrs. Arthur, 
1912, YMCA 4 of 7 2-cho- 
me, Fujimi Cho, Kojimachi 
Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Kudan 
2531). 

Jost, Miss Eleanor E., 1928, 
UCC 2 Toriizaka, Azabu, To 
kyo. (Tel. Akasaka 1058). 

Jost, Miss H. J., 1898, UCC 

4 Aoyama Gakuin, 22 Midori- 
gaoka, Shibuya Ku, Tokyo. 
(Tel. Aoyama 2008). 

Juergensen, Miss Agnes, 1924, 
AG 66 Takamachi, Hama- 
matsu Shi. 

Juergensen, Rev. & Mrs. C. F. 
1914, (retired), AG 1666 
Takinogawa Machi, Takino- 
gawa, Tokyo. 

Juergensen Rev. & Mrs. John 
W., 1919, 1928, AG 18 5- 
chome, Shogetsu Cho, Na- 
goyu. 



450 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Juergensen, Miss Marie, 1924, 
AG 1666 Takinogawa Ma- 
chi, Takinogawa Ku, Tokyo. 



K 

Kane, Miss Marion E., 1932, 
ABCFM Kobe Jo Gakuin, 
Okadayama, Nishinomiya, 
Hyogo Ken. (Tel. Nishino 
miya 2624-5). 

Karen, Rev. & Mrs. A., 1922, 
LGAF 1633 Ikebukuro, 3- 
chorne, Toshima Ku, Tokyo. 

Karns, Miss Bertie, 1936, CN 
Nishinotoin, Gojo Sagaru. 
Kyoto. 

Kaufman, Miss Emma R., 1912, 
YWCA 12 Kita Koga Cho, 
1-chome, Surugadai, Kanda 
Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Kanda 
1118-9). 

Keagey, Miss Margaret D., 1908, 
UCC 138 Matsushiro Cho, 
Hamamatsu Shi, Shizuoka 
Ken. 

Kelly Miss Ruth, 1932, JRM 
Sumiyoshi Cho, Sumiyoshi 
Ku, Osaka. 

Kennard, Rev. (Ph.D., Lit.D., 
Th.D.,) & Mrs. J. Spencer, Jr. 
1920, ABF 10 of 166 Sanya, 
Yoyogi, Shibuya Ku, Tokyo. 
(Tel. Yotsuya 3786). 

Kennedy, Miss Clara E., 1924, 
IND 372 Minami 3-chome, 
Numabukuro, Nakano Ku, 
Tokyo. 

Kerr, Rev. & Mrs. W. C., 1908, 
1912. PN 32 Hitsu-undo, 
Keijo, Korea. 

Kilburn, Miss Elizabeth H., 
1919, MEC 2 Higashi Sanban 
Cho, Sendai. 



Killanii, Miss Ada, 1902, UCC 
69 Agata Machi, Nagano. (Tel. 
1789). 

Kinney, Miss Jane M., 1905, 
UCC j^lorenceville, N. B., 
Canada. 

Kirkaldy , Miss Minnie, 1924, 
JRM Haze, Higashi Mozu 
Mura, Senpoku Gun, Osaka 
Fu. (Tel. Fukuda 8). 

Kirtland, Miss Leila G., 1910, 
PS Marugame Shi, Kagawa 
Ken. 

Knapp, Deaconess Susan T., 
1918, PE American Church 
Mission, Ikebukuro, Tokyo. 

Knipp. Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. J. 
Edgar, 1900, UB Kamide, 
Miidera Shita, Otsu Shi, Shi- 
ga Ken. 

Knudten, Rev. & Mrs. A. C., 

1920, LCA 258 Motokoi, 
Chigusa Machi, Higashi Ku, 
Nagoya. 

Koch, Pastor & Mrs. Alfred, 
1924, SDA Minami 6 Jo, 
Nishi 11-chome, Sapporo, 
Hokkaido. 

Kraft, Mr. & Mrs. Edward J., 

1921, SDA 171 Amanuma, 1- 
chome, Suginami Ku, Tokyo. 

Kramer, Miss Lois, P., 1917, EC 
84 Sasugaya Cho, Koishi- 
kawa Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Ko- 
ishikawa 3546). 

Krider, Rev. & Mrs. W. W., 
1920, MEC Board of For. 
Mission M. E. Church, 150 
Fifth Ave., New York. 

Kriete, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs 
Carl D., 1911. ERC 168 Hi 
gashi Samban Cho, Sendai. 
(Tel. 4395). 

Kuecklich, Miss Gertrud, 1922. 
EC Senefelderstr, 109 Chri- 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



451 



stl, Verlagshaus, Stuttgart W., 
Germany. 

Kuyper, Rev. & Mrs. Hubert, 
1911, 1912, RCA 1852 Naka- 
jima Ura, Oita Shi, Oita Ken. 

KYO BUN KVVAN, 2 Ginza, 
4-chome, Kyobashi Ku, To 
kyo. (Tel. Kyobashi 252). 



Lade, Miss Helen R., 1922, PE 
St. Lukes Hospital, Tsukiji, 
Tokyo. (Tel. Kyobashi 

6101-5). 

Lake, Rev. & Mrs. Leo C., 1916, 
PN 2 of 6 Nishi Kita 7 Jo, 
Sapporo, Hokkaido. 

Lamott, Rev. <fe Mrs.. Willis C., 
1919, PN Meiji Gakuin, I- 
mazato Cho, Shiba Ku, To 
kyo. (Tel. Takanawa 3666- 
8). 

Lancaster, Miss Cecile E., 1920, 

SBC Seinan Gakxiin, Itozu, 

Kokura Shi, Fukuoka Ken. 
(Tel. 964). 

Landsborough, Dr. & Mrs 
David, 1895, EPM 15 Rus 
sell Square, London, W.C.I., 
England. 

Lane, Miss Evelyn A., 1912, 
CMS Seishi Jo Gakxiin, 
Sarushinden, Ashiya, Hyogo 
Ken. 

Lan, Rev. & Mrs. Ernst, 
1928, LM 405 Miyatani, Ki- 
kuna Machi, Kanagawa, Yo 
kohama. 

Lea, Miss L., 1927, SPG Sholn 
Koto Jo Gakko, Aotani Che, 
3-chome, Nada Ku, Kobe. 

Lediard, Miss Ella, 1916, UCC 
14 Saibansho Dori, Kana- 
zawa Shi. (Tel. 1607). 



Lee, Miss Mabel, 1903, MEC 
596 Kuhonji, Oemachi, Ku- 
mamoto Shi. 

LeGalley, Mr. Charles M., 1929, 
ERC Schaff Bldg., 1505 
Race St., Philadelphia, Pa., 
U.S.A. 

Leidal, Miss Marie, 1935, ERC 
112 Kita Nibancho, Sen- 
dal. (Tel. 2139). 

Lehman, Miss Lois, 1922, UCC 
2 Toriizaka, Azabu, Tokyo. 
(Tel. Akasaka 1058). 

Lelth, Miss M. Isobel, 1933, 
UCC Eiwa Jo Gakko, Nishi- 
kusabuka Machi, Shizuoka 
Shi. (Tel. 1417). 

Lemmon ,Miss Vivian, 1930, 
IND 485 4-chome, Mabashi, 
Suginami , Tokyo. 

Lewis, Rev. & Mrs. H.M., 1932, 
PE Koriyama Shi. 

Lindsay, Miss OHvie C., 1912, 
UCC 14 Saibansho Dorl, 
Kanazawa Shi. (Tel. 1607). 

Lindsey 1 , Miss Lydia A., 1907, 
ERC 16 Juniken Cho, Ko- 
megafukuro, Sendai. (Tel. 
3673). 

Lindstrom, Mrs. C., 1891 (re 
tired), CMA 135 Kumochi 
Dori, 4-chome, Kobe. 

Llnii, Rev. & Mrs. J. K., 1915, 
LCA 921 Sagiyama, 2-cho- 
me, Nakano, Tokyo. 

Lippard, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. C. 
K., 1900, LCA Ogi Machi, 
Moji Shi. 

Lippard, Miss Faith, 1925, LCA 
- Konodai, Ichikawa Shi, 
Chiba Ken. 

Little, Dr. & Mrs. J.L., 1931, 
EPM Shoka, Formosa. 



452 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Livingston Miss Anne A., 1913, 
EPM Shinro, Tainan, For 
mosa. 

Lloyd, Rev. & Mrs. J. H., 1908. 
1914, PE Higashi Kachi Ma- 
chi, Wakayama Shi Waka- 
yama Ken. (F. C. Osaka 
68232). 

Lloyd, Miss Mary, 1929, JRM 
Beth-Nimrah, 4 Gilbert Rd., 
Bournemouth, England. 

Logan. Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. 
Charles A., 1902, 1936, PS 
171 Tcrashima Machi, Toku- 
Rhima. 

London, Miss Matilda H., 1907, 
PN Joshi Gakuin, 33 Kami 
Niban Cho, Kojimachi Ku, 
Tokyo. (Tel. Kudan 1175). 

Loomis, Miss Clara D., 1901, WCJ 
Kyoritsu Jo Gakko, 212 Ya- 
mate Cho, Yokohama. (Tel. 
2-3003; F. C. Tokyo 770066). 

LubeiH Rev. & Mrs. Barnard M , 
1929, 1932, RCA Coopersvil- 
le, Michigan, U.S.A. 

Luke. Mr. & Mrs. Percy T., 
1932, IND 123 Kashiwagi, 1- 
chome, Yodobashi Ku, To 
kyo. 

Lumpkin, Miss Estelle, 1911, PS 
Tokushima Honcho, Toku- 
shima. 

Luthy, Rev. & Mrs. S. R., 1922, 
MEC Union Theological 
Seminary, New York City. 

Lye, Miss Florence, 1929, IND 
c/o C.H. Lye, Kawende P. 
O., Oakville, Manitoba, Can. 

Lynn, Mrs. Harrison A., 1921, 
WU 214 S. llth St., Newark, 
New 1 Jersey. 



M 

MacCauslandi, Miss Isabella, 
L.H.D., 1920, ABCFM Kobe 
Jo Gakuin, Okadayama, Ni- 
shinomiya, Hyogo Ken. (Tel. 
Nishinomiya 2264-65). 

MacDonald, Miss Ethel G., 1929, 
PCC Nagamineyama , Sh 1 - 
nohara, Kita Machi, Nada 
Ku, Kobe. 

MacKay, Mr. & Mrs. George W., 
1911, PCC Tansui, Formosa. 

MacKay, Rev. Malcolm R., 1934, 
PCC Nagamineyama, Shi- 
nohara, Kita Machi, Nada 
Ku, Kobe. 

Mackenzie, Miss Virginia M, 
1919, PM Baiko Jo Gakuin, 
Maruyama, Shimonoseki Shi. 

Mackintosh, Miss Sabine E., 
1916, EPM Presbyterian 

Girls School, Tainan, For 
mosa. 

MacLean, Miss Jean C., 1928. 
PCC Nagamine Yama Shi- 
nohara, Kita Machi, Kobe. 

MacLeod, Rev. (D.D.) Duncan, 
1907. EPM 15 Russell Sq., 
London, W.C.I. 

MacLeod, Miss Ruth, 1934, EPM 
Shinro, Tainan, Formosa. 

MacMillan, Rev. & Mrs. Hugh, 
1924, PCC Tansui, Formosa. 

Madden, Miss Grace, IND 99 
Temmabashi Suji, 1-chome, 
Kita Ku, Osaka. 

Madden, Mr. & Mrs. M.B., 1895, 
IND 99 Temmabashi Suji, 
1-chome, Kita Ku, Osaka 
Shi 

Mann, Rt. Rev. Bishop & Mrs. 
J. C, 1905, 1908, CMS 303 
Maeshinya Haruyoshi, Fukn- 
oka. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



453 



Marshall, Rev. & Mrs. D. F., 
1923, EPM Shinro, Tainan, 
Formosa 

Marshall, Mr & Mrs. George H., 
1930, PE St. Paul s Univer 
sity, Ikebukuro, Tokyo. (Tel. 
St. Paul s Otsuka 404 & 
1223). 

Martini, Rev. & Mrs. David P , 
1923, 1929, PN 8 1-chome, 
Nishi Kitabatake, Sumiyoshi 
Ku, Osaka. 

Martin, Prof. (Ph.D.) & Mrs. J. 
V., 1900, 1914, IND 536 2- 
chome, Aotani, Nada Ku, 
Kobe 

Matthews, Rnv. & Mrs. W.K., 
1902, MES Kwansei Gakuln, 
Koto Mur?,, Nishinomiya 
Shigai. (Tel. Nishinomiya 
620). 

Mauk, Miss Laura, 1915, EC 
34 Sasugaya Cho, Koishiica- 
wa Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Koishi- 
kawa 3546). 

Mayer, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. P.S., 
1909, EC 500 1-chome, Shi- 
mo Ochiai, Yodobashi Ku, 
Tokyo 

MeAlpinej, Rev. James A., 1925, 
PS Meiji Cho, Gifu Shi. 

McCaleb, Mr. J. M., 1892, IND 
688 1-chome, Zoshigaya, 
Toshima Ku, Tokyo. 

McCall, Rev. & Mrs. C.H., 1908, 
ABCFM Kusaie, Carolina 
Islands, South Seas. 

McCoimell, Miss Alice, 1935, 
JRM 162 Kita Yoban Cho, 
Sendai. (Tel. 3315). 

McCoy, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. R. 
D., 1904, UCMS 354 Nakaza- 
to Machi, Takinogawa Ku, 
Tokyo. (Tel. Koishikawa 
523). 



MoCrory, Miss Carrie H., 19 U. 
PN Tomioka Cho, Otaru 
Shi Hokkaido. 

McDonald, Miss Mary D., 1911, 
PN Tokyo Joshi Daigaku, 
log! Machi, 3-chome, Sugi- 
nami Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Ogi- 
kubo 2049). 

McGill, Miss Mary B., 1928, PE 
Jizo, Kusatsu, Gumma Ken. 

McGrath, Miss Violet, 1928, 
JRM Haze, Higashimozu 

Mura, Sempoku Gun, Osaka 
Fu. (Tel. Fukuda 8). 

Mclhvaine, Rev. R. Haber, 1934, 

PFM % L. W. Moore, Asahi 
Machi, Toyohashi Shi. 

Mclhvaine, Rev. William A., 

1919, PS Box 330, Nashville, 
Term. (Until Sept. 1st). 

McKenzie, Mr. & Mrs. A.P., 

1920, UCC Kwansei Gakuin, 
Koto Mura, Nishinomiya. 

McKim, Miss Bessie, 1904, PE 
532 Naka Machi, Mito Shi. 

McKim, Miss Nellie, 1915, PE 
532 Naka Machi, Mito Shi. 

McKnight, Rev. & Mrs. W.Q., 
1919, AECFM 13 Guki Cho, 
Senclai. (Tel. 3609; F. C. 
Sendai 9810). 

McLachlan, Miss A. May, 1924, 
UCC Eiwa Jo Gakko, Nish: 
Kusabuka Cho, Shizuoka 
Shi. (Tel. 1417). 

McLeod, Miss Anna O., 1910, 
UCC 3045 East 5th St., 
Long Beach, Calif. 

McNaughton, Rev. & Mrs. R.E., 
1928, IND 65 Suginami Cho, 
Hakodate, Hokkaido. 

McSparran, Dr. & Mrs. Joseph 
L., 1917, IND 100 Yamashi- 
ta Cho, Yokohama. (Tel. 2- 



454 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



4974) Office: 7 Nihon O- 
dori, Naka Ku, (Tel. 2-3203) 
Telegrams: McSparran Yo 
kohama). 

McWilliams, Rev. & Mrs. W.R., 
1916, UCC Nishikusabuka 
Cho, Shizuoka Shi. 

Merrill, Miss Katharine, 1924, 
ABCPM 65 Okaido, 3-cho- 
me Matsuyama. 

Meyers, Rev. (D.D.) & J. T., 
1893, 1926, MES 113 Kunl- 
tomi, Okayama Shi. 

Miekle, Mr. & Mrs. J. J., 1921, 
MES Kwansei Gakuin, Ko 
to Mura, Nishinomiya Shi- 
gai. (Tel. Nishinomiya 620^. 

Miles, Miss Mary, 1921, PN 
Hokuriku Jo Gakko, Kana- 
zawa Shi. 

Millard, Mr. & Mrs. Francis R , 
1929, SDA 171 Amanuma, 1- 
chome, Suginami Ku, To 
kyo. (Tel. Ogikubo 2051). 

Mille, Miss Erma L., 1926, MM 
Ogaki Shi, Gifu Ken. 

Miller, Miss Jessie M., 1935, 
MSCC 540 Ikebukuro, 1- 
chorne, Toshima Ku, Tokyo. 

Miller, Rev. (D.D) & Mrs. L.5. 
G., 1907, LCA Kyushu Ga 
kuin, Kumamoto. 

Mills, Rev. E.O., 1908, SBC 
1041 Narutaki Cho, Nagasaki. 

Minkkinen, Rev. & Mrs. T., 
1905, LGAF Kami lida, Na 
gano Ken. 

Monk, Miss Alice M., 1904, PN 
156 Fifth Ave., New York- 
City. 

Montgomery, Rev. & Mrs. W. 
E., 1909, EPM Shinro, Tai 
nan, Formosa. 



Moore, Rev. & Mrs. B. C., 1924, 
RCA 2 of 71 Kyomachi, 3- 
chome, Kurume Shi, Fuku- 
oka Ken. (F. C. Fukuoka 
20927). 

Moore, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. J. 
Wallace, 1890, 1893 (retired), 
PS Hanazono Cho, Taka- 
matsu, Kagawa Ken. 

Moore, Rev. & Mrs. Lardner W., 
1924, PS Asahi Machi, To- 
yohashi. 

Moran, Rev. & Mrs. Sherwood 
F., 1916, ABCFM 235 Shu- 
kugawa, Nishinomiya, Hyc- 
go Ken. (Tel. Nishinomiya 
3290). 

Morris Rev. & Mrs. J. Ken 
neth, 1925, PE 102 Gosho- 
den Cho, Murasakino, Kyoto 
Shi. (Tel. Nishijin 4300). 

Morris, Miss Kathleen, 1932, 
JRM Haze, Higashimozu, 
Mura, Sempoku Gun, Osaka 
Fu. (Tel. Fukuda 8). 

Morse, Rev. Father W. P. (S.S. 
J.E.), 1934, PE 379 Sakal, 
Musashino Machi, Tokyo 
Fuka. 

Mosimann, Rev. & Mrs. Otto, 
1929, LM 17 Koyasu Machi, 
Hachioji Shi, Tokyo Fu. 

Moss, Miss Adelaide F., 1918, 
MSCC 604 Jarvis St., To 
ronto 5, Canada. 

Mosrl, Rev. Frank H., Jr., 1934, 
PE St. Luke s Hospital, 
Tsukiji, Tokyo. 

Munroe, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. 
Harry H., 1905, 1906, PS 
Takamatsu, Kagawa Ken. 

Murphy, Miss Gladys M., 1930, 
PCC Lake Egmont. Hali 
fax Co., N. S., Can. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



455 



Murray, Miss Edna B., 1921, 
PE St. Margaret s School, 
Kugayama, 3-chome, Sugi- 
nami Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. O- 
gikubo 2118). 

Murray, Miss Elsa R., 1928, 
JFM 14 Umeda Machi, Ki- 
ta Shichiban Cho, Sendai. 

Musser, Mr. & Mrs. C. K., 1926, 
IND 357 Ikejiri, Setagaya 
Ku, Tokyo. 

Myers, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. 
Harry W., 1897, 1898, PS 
112 Yamamoto Dori, 4-chome, 

Mylancler, Miss Ruth, 1909, 
FMA 50 1-chome, Maru- 
yama Dori, Sumiyoshi Ku, 
Osaka. (Tel. Tengachaya 
2989 ) . 



N 



Naefe, Miss Alma C., 1935, ERC 
168 Higashi Sanbancho, 
Sendai. (Tel. 4395). 

Nash, Miss Elizabeth, 1891, (re 
tired), CMS Biwa Ku, Ha- 
mada Machi, Shimane Ken. 

NATIONAL BIBLE SOCIETY 
OF SCOTLAND, 95 Yedo Ma 
chi, Kobe Ku, Kobe. (Tel. 
Saimomiya 2725; F. C. O- 
saka 11083). 

NATIONAL SINDAV SCHOOL 
ASSOCIATION OF JAPAN, 

13 Nishiki Cho, 1-chome, 
Kanda Ku, Tokyo. (Te!. 
Kanda 2774). 

Nelson, Pastor & Mrs. A. N., 
3918, SDA Showa Machi, 
Kimitsu Gun, Chiba Ken. 

Nettleton, Miss Mary, 1929, PE 
Jizo, Kusatsu, Gummi 
Ken. 



Newbury, Miss Georgia M , 
1921, PCC Girls School, 
Tansui, Formosa. 

Newman, Rev. & Mrs. R. G., 

1931, UCC 8-chome, Hisaya 
Cho, Nagoya. 

Nichols, Rt. Rev. & Mrs. S. H., 
1911, PE Karasumaru Dori, 
Shimotachi Uri, Kyoto. (Te]. 
Nishijin 2372; F.C. Osaka 
38079). 

Nicholson, Miss Goldi.e 1932, 
ABF 2 Nakajima Cho, Sen 
dai. (Tel. 1192). 

Nicholson, Mr. & Mrs. Herbert 
V., 1915, AFP Higashi Hara- 
machi, Mito Shi, Ibaraki 
Ken. (F. C. Tokyo 75981). 

Nicodemus, Mr. & Mrs. F. B., 
1916, ERC 69 Katahira Cho, 
Sendai. (Tel. 1930). 

Niemi, Miss Tyyne, 1926, LGAF 
Minami 14 Jo, Nishi 14- 
chome, Sapporo. 

Noordhoff, Miss Jeane, 1911, 
RCA Orange City, la., U.S.A. 

Norman., Rev. (D.D) & Mrs. 
Daniel, 1897 (retired), UCC 
Karuizawa. 

Norman, Rev. & Mrs. W. H. H., 

1932, UCC Nakatakajo Ma 
chi, Kanazawa. 

Noss, Rev. & Mrs. George S., 
1921, ERC 1505 Race St., 
Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. A. 

Notlihelfer, Rev. & Mrs. Karl, 
1929, LM 3 Horinouchi, Su* 
ginami Ku, Tokyo. 

Nugent, Rev. & Mrs. Carl, 1920, 
[ERC 308 Shinchiku, Higa 
shi Dori, Yamagata. 

NUHO, Miss Christine M., 1925, 
PE St. Luke s Hospital," 
Tsukiji, Tokyo. (Tel. Kyo- 
bashi 6101-5). 



456 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



o 

Ogburn, Rev. & Mrs. N. S., 1912, 
1921, MES-- %Bd. of Mis 
sions, M. E. Church South, 
706 Church Street, Nashville, 
Term., U. S. A. 

Oglesby, Mrs. J. M., 1931, PE 
Karasumaru Dori, Shimota- 
chiuri. Kyoto. (Tel. Nishijin 
2372). 

OlseiV, Dr. & Mrs. Elmer H., 
1935, SDA 171 Amanuma^ 1- 
chome, Suginami Ku, Tokyo. 
Tel. Ogikubo 2051). 

Oilman, Mr. & Mrs. Paul V., 
1931, PN % Mrs. J. B. Mor 
ton, 1405 41st St., Belvlew 
Heights, Birmingham, Ala., 
U. S. A. 

Oltmans, Rev. (D.D) & Mrs. 
Albert, 1886 (retired), RCA 
2 Meiji Gakuin, Shirokane, 
Shiba Ku, Tokyo. 

Oltmans, Miss C. Janet, 1914, 
RCA Ferris Seminary, 173 
Bluff, Yokohama. (Tel. Hon- 
kyoku 1870). 

Ostrom, Rev. (D.D) & Mrs. H. 
Conrad, 1911, PS 51 Shir, 
hara, Nada Ku, Kooe. 

Outerbridge/, Rev. (S.T.D.) dc 
Mrs. H. W., 1910, UCC 
Kwansei Gakuin, Koto Mura, 
Nishinomiya Shigai, Kyogo 
Ken (Telegrams: Wesleyana 
Nishinomiya) (Tel. Nishino 
miya 620). 

Oxford, Mr & Mrs. J. S. 1910, 
MES 23 Kita Nagasaa Dori, 
4-chome, Kobe. 



Paine, Miss Margaret R., 1922, 
PE Tozaimachi, Nishizu, O- 
bamamachi, Fukui Ken. 



Paine, Miss Mildred Anne, 
1920, MEC Aikei Gakuen, 
Motoki Machi, 1-chome, A- 
dachi Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Ada- 
chi 2815). 

Palmer, Miss Helen M., 192], 
PN Wilmina Jo Gakko, Ta- 
matsukuri, Higashi Ku, O- 
saka. (Tel. Higashi 3220). 

Palmer, Miss M. E., 1936, JRM 
162 Kita Yoban Cho, San- 
dai. 

Paimorc, Rev. & Mrs. P. L., 1922, 
MES Honcho, Tokuyama 

Machi Yamaguchi Ken. 

Parker; Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth A., 
1930, UCC Canadian Acad 
emy, Harada Mura, Kobe. 

Parr, Miss Dorothy A., 1927, 
CJPM 86 Hyakken Machi, 
Maebashi Shi, Gumma Ken. 

Patlon, Miss Annie V., 1900, PS 
37 Aoi Cho, Higashi Ku, Na- 
goya. 

Patton, Miss Florence, D., 1895 
(retired), PS 6-chome, 26 B, 
Okazaki, Aichi Ken. 

Pawley, Miss Annabelle, 1915 .fe 
1935, ABF Soshin Jo Gakko, 
1 of 8 Nakamaru, Kanaga- 
wa Ku, Yokohama. (Tet. 
Honkyoku 2176). 

Peavy, Miss Anne R., 1923, MES 
Lambuth Jo Gakuin, Ishiga- 
tsuji Cho. Tennoji, Osaka. 

Peckham. Miss Caroline 3, 
1915, MEC Sextonville, Wis., 
U.S.A. 

Peel, Miss Azalia E., 1916, MEC 
Webster, N. Y., U. S. A. 

Penny, Miss Florence E., 1932. 
JRM Haze, ; Higashimozu 
Mura, Sempoku Gun, Osaka 
Fu. (Tel. Fukuda 8). 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



457 



Peters, Miss A. P., 1930. PE 

St. Luke s Hospital, Ttsukt- 

ji, Tokyo. (Tel. Kyobashi 
6101-5). 

Perkins, Mr. & Mrs. H. J., 1920, 
SDA Box 133 College Place, 
Washington, U. S. A. 

Philipps, Miss E. G., 1901, SPG 
108 Zoshigaya, Koishtka- 
wa Ku, Tokyo. 

Pickens, Miss Lillian O., 1918, 
FMA 50 1-chome, Maruya- 
ma Dori, Sumiyoshi Ku, O- 
saka. (Tel. Tengachaya 

2989). 

Pider, Miss v Myrtle Z., 1911, 
MEC Tokyo Joshi Daigaku, 
logi Machi, 3-chome, Sugi- 
nami Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Og!- 
kubo 2049). 

Pieroy, Rev. & Mrs. H. Graham, 
1931, CHS New Life Sann- 
trium, Obuse Mura, Kami 
Takai Gun, Nagano Ken. 

Pieters, Miss Johana A., 1904, 
RCA Baiko Jo Gakuin, Shi- 
monoseki Shi, Yamaguchi 
Ken. 

Pifer, Miss B. Catherine, 1901, 
1901, ERG 207 Azuma Ma 
chi, Nagasaki, Toshima Ku, 
Tokyo. 

Place, Miss Pauline, 1916, MEC 
Portland, Ind., U. S. A. 

Pond, Miss Helen M., 1923, PE 
St. Luke s Hospital, Tsukiji 
Tokyo. (Tel. Kyobashi 6101- 
5). 

Pott, Rev. Roger P., 1935, SPG 
234 Yamate Cho, Naka Ku, 
Yokohama. 

Potts, Miss Marion, 1921. LCA 
Kyushu Jo Gakuin, Kum?.- 
moto Shigai. (Tel. 2187). 



Powell, Miss L., 1934, MSCC 
New Life Sanatorium, Obu- 
se Mura, Kami Takai Gun, 
Nagano Ken. (Tel. Obuse 33). 

Powell, Miss Cecelia R., 1922, 
PE 10 Hoei Naka Machi, 
Fukui Shi, Pukui Ken. 

Powlas, Miss Annie, 1919, LCA 
Bd. of For Missions, 18 E. 
Mt. Vernon St., Baltimore, 
Md., U. S. A. 

Powlas, Miss Maud, 1918, LCA 
Jiaien, Kengen Mura, Ku- 
mamoto Shigai. 

Powles, Rov. & Mrs. P. S. C., 
1916, MSCC Nishishiro Cho, 
1-chome, Takata Shi. 

Pratt, Miss Susan, A., 1892, WU 
Kyoritsu Joshi Shingakko, 
212 Bluff, Yokohama. Tel. 
2-3003; F.C. Tokyo 778066). 

Preston, Miss Evelyn D., 1908, 
CMS 8 Chalbert St., London 
N. W. 8., England. 

Price, Rev. & Mrs. P. G., 1912, 
UCC 8-chome, Hisaya Cho, 
Nagoya Shi. 

R 

Ramsay, Miss Margaret M., 
1928, PCC Taihoku, For 
mosa. 

Randall 1 , Rev. & Mrs. A. E., 1930, 
AG 1000 Kita Shin Machi, 
Ikoma, Nara Ken. 

Ransom, Miss Mary H., 190.1, 
PN 170 So. Marengo Avo., 
Pasadena, Calif. 

Ranson, Deaconess Anna L., 
1904, PE Isoyama, Fukuda 
Mura, Soma Gun, Fukushi- 
ma Ken. 

Ray, Rev. & Mrs. Hermon S., 
1934. SBC 41 Kago Machi, 
Koishikawa Ku, Tokyo. 



458 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Ray, Rev. (D.D.) <te Mrs. J. P., 
1904, SBC 456 Senda Machi, 
Hiroshima Shi. (Sept.) 

Reed, Mr. & Mrs. J. P., 1921, 

1926, MES Kwansei Gakuin, 
Koto Mura, Nishinomiya Shi- 
gai. (Tel. Nishinomiya 620). 

Reeve, Rev. & Mrs. Warren S., 

1927, 1923, PE 779 Hirano, 
Nagare Machi, Sumiyoshi 
Ku, Osaka. 

Reeves, Miss Virginia, 1932, 
RCA Ferris Seminary, 37 
Bluff, Yokohama. 
(Tel. 2-1870). 

Reif snider, Rt. Rev. (D.D.) & 
Mrs. C. S., 1901, PE Amer 
ican Church Mission, Ikebu- 
kuro, Tokyo. (Tel. Otsuka 
2400) 

Reiscluuier, Rev. (D.D., LL.D.) 
& Mrs. A. K., 1905, PN To 
kyo Joshi Daigaku, logimachi 
3-chome, Suginami Ku, To 
kyo. (Tel. Ogikubo 2049) 

Reiser, Miss A. Irene, 1920, PN 
Hokuriku Jo Gakko, Ka- 
nazawa Shi. 

RKLIGIOtS TRACT SOCIETY 

4 Ginza, 4-chome, Kyoba- 
shi Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Kyo- 
bashi 4573) 

Keniiio, Rev. William, 1906, 
IND 37 Hitomi Cho, Hako 
date Shi. Hokkaido. 

Khuads. Miss Esther B, 1921. 
AFP 30 Koun Cho. Mita. 
Shibn Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Mita 
3390) 

Rhodes, Mr. & Mrs. E. A., 1919, 
IND 26 Karasawa, Naka Ku, 
Yokohama. 

Richardson, Miss Constance 
M., 1911, CMS 146 Koura 

Che, iJ-ctiome, Kita Sako 
Machi, Tokuahima Shi. 



Uicliardson, Miss Helena, 1920, 
JEB Honmachi, Shimoichi 
Mura, Yoshino Gun, Nara 
Ken. 

Richer!, Mr. & Mrs. Aclolph, 
1930, 1924, IND 25 Josai- 
bashi, Fukuoka Shi. 

Kilter, Miss Jessie, 1904, PN 
17Miyajiri Cho, Yamada Shi, 
Ise. 

Riker, Miss Susannah M., 1926, 
PN 61 Naka 1-chome, Kita- 
batake, Sumiyoshi Ku, Osaka. 

Roberts, Miss Alice, 1897 (re 
tired), CMS 541 Ikebukuro, 
1-chome, Toshima Ku, To 
kyo. 

Roberts, Rev. & Mrs. Floyd L., 
1929. ABCFM Hartford Sem 
inary, Hartford, Conn. U.S.A. 

Robertson. Miss Elvah A.. 1905, 
IND 61 of 3 Azamitsu, Kyu- 
noji Mura, Nakagawachi Gun, 
Osaka Fu. 

Robinson, Miss Amy, 1936, PS 
Nagahei Cho, 5-chome, Na- 
goya. 

Robinson, Mr. & Mrs. C. C., 
1920, IND % Canadian Aca 
demy, Harada Mura, Kobe. 

Robinson, Miss H. M., 1912, IND 
8 3-chome. Otabako Cho, 
Minami Ku, Nagoya Shi. 

Roe, Miss Mildred, 1927, YWCA 
13 Nishiki Cho. 1-chome, 
Kanda Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. 
Kanda 3652) 

Rogers, Miss Margaret S., 192], 
WU % H. L. Willet, Willow 
Wade, Ambler, Pa., U.S.A. 

Rolfe, Lieut. Col. & Mrs. V. E., 
1925, SA 17 2-chomc, JimX>o 
Cho, Kunda Ku, Tokyo. Tel. 
Kanda 479, 2344) 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



450 



Kork. Miss M. Luella, 1919, 
UCC 96 Hoekaml Cho, Pu- 
kui Shi, Pukui Ken. 

Rose, Rev. & Mrs. Lawrence, 
1934, PE Shingakuin, Ike- 
bukuro, Tokyo. 

Rupert, Miss Nettie L., 1913, 
TND Emmaus House, 161 
Yamamoto Dori. 4-chom c !, 
Kobe. 

Rusch. Mr. Paul S., 1926, PE - 
St. Paul s University, Ikebu 
kuro, Tokyo. 

Ryan. Miss Esther L., 1913, UCC 
96 Hoekami Cho, Fukni 
Shi, Fukui Ken. 

Ryder, Miss Gertrude E., 1908, 
ABF 51 1-chome, Denma 
Cho, Yotsuya Ku, Tokyo. 



Sadler, Miss Neta, 1930, UCC 
1126 College Ave.. Brandon, 
Man.. Canada. 

Salonen, Rev. & Mrs. K., 1911, 
LGAF Euseokatu. 31 Hel 
sinki, Finland. 

Salisbury, Rev. & Mrs. C. K., 
1932. SPG Seikokai Shinga 
kuin. Toshima Ku, Tokyo. 

Santee, Miss H. C., 1908. IND 
Emmaus House, 161 Yama 
moto Dori, 4-chome, Kobe. 

Saunders, Miss Violet, 1931, 
UCC R. R. No. 3, Thornton, 
Ont... Canada. 

Saville, Miss Rose, 1925, JRM 
27 Aoicho, Higashi Ku, Na- 
goya. 

Savolainen. Rev. & Mrs. J. V , 
1907, LGAF 1051 Minami 
14 Jo Nishi 14-chom?, Sap 
poro Shi. 



Sawyer, Mr. Ray, IND % Mr. 
Madden, 99 Temmabashisujl 
1-chome, Kita Ku, Osaka. 

Schaeffer. Miss Mabel R., 1921, 
PE St. Paul s University, 
Ikebukuro, Tokyo. 

Schell, Miss Naomi, 1921. SBC 
(Sept.) % Goodwill Center, 
Tobata Shi, Fukuoka Ken. 
Tel. 840) 

Schenck, Rev. & Mrs. H. W , 
1931, IND 64-B Bluff, Yo 
kohama. (Pastor, Yokohama 
Union Chxirch ) . 

Scliereschewsky. Miss Caroline, 
1910, PE 15 Kichijoji, Tokyo 
Fu. 

Schilllnger, Rev. & Mrs. George 
W., 1920, LCA Kyushu Ga- 
kuin, Kumamoto. (Sept). 

Schneder, Rev. (D.D..LL.D.) & 
Mrs. D. B.. 1887, ERC 1505 
Race St.. Philadelphia, Pa., 

U.S.A. 

Schoonover, Miss Ruth, 1931, 
IND 4855! 4-chome, Mabashi, 
Suginami Ku. Tokyo. 

Schroer. Rev. & Mrs. Gilbert 
W., 1922, ERC 71 Osawaka- 
wara Koji, Morioka Shi, Iwate 
Ken. (Tel. 1217; F. C. Sendai 
4984) 

Schweitzer. Miss Edna M., 
1912, EC 84 Sasugaya Cho, 
Koishikawa Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. 
Koishikawa 3546) 

Scott, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. F. N, 
1903, MEC Chinzei Gakuin, 
Nagasaki. (F. C. Treasurer, 
Tokyo 48401; Personal, Fu- 
kxioka 4060). 

Scott, Mr. & Mrs. R. W., 1531, 
PE St. Paul s University, 
Ikebukuro, Tokyo. 



460 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



SCRIPTURE UNION OF JAPAN 

4 Ginza, 4-chome, Kyoba- 
shi Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Kyo- 
bashi 4573) 

Scruton, Miss M. Fern, 1926, 
UCC Baika Kindergarten, 
Ueda Shi, Nagano Ken. (Tel. 
9). 

Searcy, Miss Mary G., 1920, MES 
Lambuth Jo Gakuin, Ishi- 
gatsuji Cho, Tennoji, Osaka. 

Seiple, Rev. (Ph.D.) & Mrs. 
William G., 1905, ERG 4119 
Hay ward Ave., Baltimore, 
Md., U.S.A. 

Shacklock, Rev. & Mrs. Floyd, 
1920, MEC 150 Fifth Ave, 
New York. 

Shafer, Rev. (Litt. D.) & Mrs. 
Luman J., 1912, RCA Bd. of 
Foreign Missions, 25 E. 22nd 
St., New York. 

Shannon, Miss Ida L., 1904, 
MES Hiroshima Jo Gakuin, 
Hiroshima Shi. (Tel. 506) 

Shannon, Miss Katherine, 1908. 
MES 35 Nakayamate Don. 
4-chome, Kobe. (Tel. Fukiai 
5158) 

Sharpless, Miss Edith F., 1910, 
AFP 888 Tenno Cho, Mito. 

Shaver, Rev. & Mrs. I. Leroy 
1919, MES 10 Ichibancho, 
Matsuyama. 

Shaw, Rev. & Mrs. H. R., 1927, 
PE 7 Shimo Ishibiki Cho, 
Kanazawa Shi. 

Shaw, Miss L. L., 1904, MSCC, 
CLS 604 Jarvis St., Toronto 
5, Canada. 

Shaw, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. R. 
D. M., 1907, SPG 1328 Ike- 
bukuro, 3-chome, Toshima 
Ku, Tokyo. 



Shepherd, Miss K., 1910, SPG 
1543 Shinjuku, Hiratsuka 
Shi, Kanagawa Ken. 

Sheppard, Miss E., IND 12 
5-chomc, Yamamoto Dori, 
Kobe. 

Shimmel, Miss Edith, 1935, TM 
1-3 Nakacho, Yotsuya Ku, 
Tokyo. 

Shipps, Miss Helen K., 1930, 
PE St. Luke s Hospital, Tsu- 
kiji, Tokyo. (Tel. Kyobashi 
6101-5) 

Shirk. Miss Helen M., 1922, 
LCA 337 Tera Machi, Haru- 
yoshi, Fukuoka. 

Shively, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. B. 
F, 1907, UB 216, Muromachi, 
Imadegawa Agaru, Kyoto. 

Shore, Miss S. G., 1921, MSCC 
Kyomachi, Gifu. 

Simeon, Miss R. B., 1919, IND 
511 1-chome, Uenomaru, 
Akashi Shi, Hyogo Ken. 

Simons, Miss Marian, 1930. 
MEC 591 Sheridan Avo., 
Ypsilanti, Michigan, U.S.A. 

Singleton, Mr. & Mrs. Leslie, 
1921, EPM 15 Russell Sq., 
London, W. C. 1, England. 

Sipple, Mr. & Mrs. Carl S., 1930, 
1928, ERC 61 Kozenjidori, 
Sendai (Tel. 3687). 

Sisters of the Community of 
the Epiphany, 360 Sanko Cho, 
Shirokane, Shiba Ku, Tokyo. 

Skiles, Miss Helen, 1922, PE 8 
Kawarada, Matsugasaki Mu- 
ra, Kyoto Fu. 

Smith, Miss Eloise G., 1230, 
MEC Fukuoka Jo Gakko, 
Fukuoka Shi. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



461 



Smith, Miss E., 1926, SPG 
5-A Naka Yamate Dori, 3- 
chome, Kobe Shi. 

Smith, Rev. & Mrs. H. E., 1927, 
AG Nishi Iru, Koyama Ono 
Cho, Kitaoji, Muromaclii, 
Kyoto Shi. 

Smith, Miss Harriet P., 1929, 
ERC 33 Uwa Cho, Komnga- 
fukuro, Sendaai. (Tel. 2544) 

Smith, Miss I. Webster, 1917, 
JEB Sunrise Home, Okura- 
dani, Akashi, Hyogo Ken. 

Smith, Miss Janet C., PN Ho- 
kusei Jo Gakko, Minami 5 Jo, 
Nishi 17 - chorne, Sapporo 
Shi. 

Smith, Rev. & Mrs. John C., 
1929, PN Komatsubara Do 
ri, Wakayama Shi. 

Smith, Miss Marie, AG Nishi 
Iru, Koyama Ono Cho, Kitf>- 
cji, Muromachi, Kyoto Shi. 

Smith, Rev. & Mrs. P. A., 1912, 
PE Hikorte, Shiga Ken. (P. 
C. Osaka 41754) 

Smith, Mr. & Mrs. Roy, 1903, 
1910, MES 34 Ikuta Cho, 4- 
chome, Kobe. 

Smyseri, Rev. M. M., 1903, IND 
Yokote Machi, Hiraka Gun, 
Akita Ken. (F. C. Sendai 
5183) 

Smyth, Brigadier Annie, 1906, 
SA 17 2-chome, Jimbo Cho, 
Kanda Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. Ku- 
dan 479, 2344) 

Smythe, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. L. 
C. M., 1913, 1916, PS Box 
330, Nashville, Tenn. 

Soal; Miss A. A., 1917, JEB 72 
Chimori Cho, 2-chome, Suma 
Ku, Kobe. 



Spaokman, Rev. & Mrs. H. C , 
1922, PE American Churon 
Mission, Ikebukuro, Tokyo . 

Spencer, Miss Gladys G., 1921, 
PE 46 Tera Machi, Aomori 
Shi. 

Spencer, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. R. 
S., 1917, MEC 21 Kego Hon- 
dori, 1-chome, Pukuoka Shi. 
(F. C. Fukuoka 16069) 

Spencer, Rev. & Mrs. V. C., 
1913, 1932, MSCC 3 Higashi 
Kataha Machi, 3-chome, Na- 
goya Shi. (F. C. Nagoya 
20297, Canada Eikyokai Mis 
sion). 

Sprowles, Miss A. B., 1906, MEC 
4 Aoyama Gakuin, Tokyo. 
Tel. Aoyama 2011) 

Stannehl, Miss Isobel, 1932, 
JRM Haze, Higashimosu 
Mura, Sempoku Gun, Osaka 
Fu. (Tel. Fukuda 8) 

Staples, Miss Marie M., 1914, 
UCC 69 Agatamachi, Naga 
no. (Tel. 1789) 

Staples, Mrs. Minnie L., 1912, 
CN Nishinotoin, Gojo Saga- 
ru, Kyoto. 

Starkey, Miss Bertha F., 1910, 
MEC Severance Hospit&.l 
Compound, Seoul, Korea. 

Starr, Dr. & Mrs. Paul V., 1933, 
SDA 171 Amanuma, 1-cho 
me, Suginami Ku, Tokyo. 
(Tel. Ogikubo 2051) 

Start, Dr. R. K., 1930, MSCC 
(Oct.) New Life Sanitorium, 
Obuse, Kami Takai Gun, 
Nagano Ken. (Tel. Obuse 33) 

Staveley, Miss J. Ann, 1928, 
CMS 60 Aioi Cho, 1-chome, 
Otaru Shi, Hokkaido. 



462 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Stegeman, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. 
H. V. E., 1917, RCA Ferris 
Seminary, 37 Bluff, Yoko 
hama. (Tel. 2-1870) 

Stevens, Miss C. B., 1920, MES 

Lambuth Jo Gakuin, Ishi- 

gatsuji Cho, Tennoji Ku, 
Osaka. 

Stevens, Dr. & Mrs. Eugene, 
1930, PCC Mackay Memorial 
Hospital, Taihoku, Formosa. 

Stewart, Rev. & Mrs. S. A., 1906, 
1898, MES Gsnzan, Korea. 

Stirewalt, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. 
A. J. (absent), 1905, LCA, 
CLS 303 Sanchome, Hyaku- 
nin Machi, Yodobashi Ku, 
Tokyo. (Tel. Yotsuya 5853) 

St. John, Mrs. Alice C., 1913, 

PE St. Luke s Hospital, Tsu- 
kiji, Tokyo. (Tel. Kyobashi 
6101-5) 

Stockdale, Miss Katherine F., 
1934, SPG 8 Sakae Cho, 
Shiba Ku, Tokyo. 

Stokes, Miss K., 1922, SPG 
% SPG, 15 Tuflin St., Lon 
don, S. W. 1. 

Stone, Rev. & Mrs. A. R., 1926, 
1925, UCC 33 Minami Agata 
Machi, Nagano. 

Stott, Rev. & Mrs. J. D., 1930, 
MES 22 Sasa Machi, Uwa- 
jima, Ehime Ken. 

Stoudt, Mr. & Mrs. O. M., 1917, 
ERG 15 Nishiki Cho, Sendai. 
Tel. 2628) 

Stowe, Miss Grace H., 1908, 
ABCFM Kobe Jo Gakuin, 

Okadayama, Nishinomiya. 
(Tel. Nishinomiya 2264-5) 

Stowe, Miss Mary E., 1908, 
ABCFM Kobe Jo Gakuin, 



Okadayama, Nishinomiya. 
(Tel. Nishinomiya 2264-5) 

Stranks, Rev. & Mrs. C. J., 1928, 
SPG 2 of 1158 Kaketa, Mi- 
kage Machi, Kobe Shigai 

Strong, Rev. G. N., 1926, SPG 
Meichisau (Naikeyama), Shi- 
monoseki. 

Strothardt, Miss Alice O., 1914, 
UCC Eiwa Jo Gakko, Nishi- 
kusabuka, Shizuoka Shi, 
Shizuoka Ken. (Tel. 1417) 

Stufobs, Rev. & Mrs. David C., 
1935, MES Palmore Inst., 
23 4-chome, Kitanagasa Do- 
ri, Kobe. 

Simmers, Miss Gertrude, 1931, 
PE St. Agnes School, Muro- 
machi, Shimotachi Uri, Sa- 
garu, Kyoto. (Tel. Nishijiu 
330) 

Suttie, Miss Gwen, 1928, UCC 
Eiwa Jo Gakko, Atago Cho, 
Kofu, Yamanashi Ken. (Tel. 
2591). 



Tanner, Miss K., 1911, SPG 
Koran Jo Gakko, 358 Sanko 
Cho. Shirokane, Shiba Ku, 
Tokyo. 

Tapson, Miss Minna, 1888 (re 
tired), CMS Garden Homo, 
3-chome, Ekota Machi, Naka- 
no Ku, Tokyo. 

Tarr, Miss Alberta, 1932, MES 
Hiroshima Jo Gakuin, Hi 
roshima Shi. 

Taylor, Miss Erma M., 1913, 
MEG 9 Naka Kawagecho. 
Hirosaki. 

Taylor, Misss Isabel, 1931, PCC 

Tansui, Formosa. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



463 



Taylor, Mrs. Mary, 1912, IND 
Box 328, Sannomiya P. O., 
Kobe. 

Taylor, Miss Minnie, 1910 (re 
tired), RCA 3 Oura, Higashi 
Yamate Machi, Nagasaki. 

Teaguei, Miss Carolyn M., 1912, 
MEC % Bd. of For. Miss. 
M. E. Ch., 150 Fifth Ave, New 

York. 

TerBorg, Rev. & Mrs. John, 
1922, RCA Meiji Gakuin 
Mita, Shiba Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. 
Takanawa 3666). 

Tetley, Miss Winifred, 1930, 
JEB 55 Gower St., London 
W.C.I, England. 

Tharp, Miss Elma R., 1918, 
ABF 34 of 62 Hayashi Cho, 
Koishikawa Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. 
ABF Office, Kanda 3115). 

Therte, Rev. & Mrs. Harvey, 
1920, EC Blue Earth, Minn., 
U.S.A. 

Thomas, Miss Grace E., 1931, 
CJPM 9 Kent Road, Bristol, 
England. 

Thomas, Miss Helon, 1936, 
AFP 14 1-chome, Mita Dai- 
machi, Shiba Ku, Tokyo. 

Thomas, Miss Irene, 1934, JRM 
162 Kita Yoban Cho, Sendai. 
Tel. 3315). 

Thomas, Rev. Winburn T., 
1933, PN 7 of 1 Tanaka A- 
sukai Sho, Kyoto. 

Thompson, Miss Fanny L., 
1905, CMS 33 Taisho Machi, 
3-chome, Omuta Shi. 

Thoreiu Miss Amy, 1925, JEB 
Matsuzaka Shi, Mie Ken. 



Thorlaksson, Rev. & Mrs. S. O., 
1916. LCA 33 7-chome, Ka- 
mitsutsui Dori, Fukiai Ku, 
Kobe. 

Thornton, Rev. & Mrs. S. W , 
1930, OM Kamigawara, Sandix 
Cho, Hyogo Ken 

Thurston, Mr. & Mrs. C. F., 
1927, SDA 171 Amanuma, 
1-chome, Suginami Ku, To 
kyo. (Tel. Ogikubo 2051). 

Topping, Miss Helen F., 1911, 
IND Andover-Newton The 
ological School, Newton Cen 
ter, Mass., U.S.A. 

Topping, Rev. & Mrs. Henry, 
1895 (retired^, ABF 303 3- 
chome, Hyakunin Machi, Yo- 
dobashi Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. 
Yotsuya 5853). 

Topping, Rev. <& Mrs. Willard 
F., 1923, 1921, ABF 69 Shi- 
motera Machi, Himeji. 

Torbefr, Miss Isabel, 1928, JRM 
162 Kita Yoban Cho, Sen 
dai. (Tel. 3315). 

Towson, Miss Manie, 1917, MES 
Morino Cho, Kanaya, Na- 
katsu Shi. 

Towson, Rev. W. E., (retired), 
1890, MES Morino Cho, Ka 
naya, Nakatsu Shi. 

Tracy, Miss Mary E., 1903, WU 
Kyoritsu Jo Gakko, 212 Bluff, 
Yokohama. (Tel. 2-3003). 

Tremain, Rev. & Mrs. Martel A., 
1927, PN Nokkeushi Kita- 
rnino Kuni, Hokkaido. 

Tristram, Miss Katherine S., 
1888 (retired), CMS Poole 
Girls High School, Katsuya- 
ma Dori, 5-chome, Higashl- 
nari Ku, Osaka. (Tel. Ten- 
noji 290). 



464 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Troughton. Mr. & Mrs. H. W. 
F., 1934, IND 155 Umemolo 
Cho, Hirano, Kobe. 

Trotti, Miss Dorothea E., 1910, 
SPG 8 Sakae Cho, Shiba 
Ku. Tokyo. 

Trout, Miss Jessie M., 1921, 
UCMS 475 Kami Kitazawa, 
2-chome, Setagaya Ku, To 
kyo. (Tel. Matsuzawa 2901). 

Tiimlin, Miss Mozelle, 1923, 
MES Bd. of Mission, 706 
Church St., Nashville, Term., 
U. S. A. 

Tvveedie, Miss E. Gertrude, 
1903, UCC 274 Sogawa Cho, 
Toyama Shi, Toyama K-m. 
(Tel. 2126). 

U 

Vttey, Miss Irene C., 1933, CMS 
8 Sakae Cho, Shiba Ku, 
Tokyo. 

UPPER CANADA TRACT SO 
CIETY, 4 Ginza 4-chome, 
Kyobashi Ku, Tokyo. (Tel. 
Kyobashi 4573). 

Tusitalo, Miss Siiri, 1903, LG 
AP 1633 Ikebukuro, 3-cho- 
me, Tcshima Ku, Tokyo. 



VanKirk, Miss Anne S., 1921, 
PE St. Barnabas Hospital, 
66 Saikudani Cho, Tennoji 
Ku, Osaka. (Tel. Tennoji 
3828). 

Verry, Miss Hazel P., 1918, IND 

600 Lexington Ave., Now 
York, N.Y., U.S.A. . ; 

Viall, Rev. Father, (S.S.J.E.) 
Kenneth L. A., 1935, PE 
379 Sakai, Musashino Machl, 
Tokyo Fu. 



Vinall, Mr. & Mrs. G. H., 1929, 
BS 95 Yedo Machi, Kobe. 
(Tel. Sannomiya 2725; F. C. 
Osaka 11083). 

Vories, Mrs. J. E., 1914, OB 
Omi-Hachiman. 

Vories, Mr. & Mrs. John, 1933, 
OB Omi Brotherhood, Omi- 
Hachiman. 

Vories, Mr. (LL.D.) & Mrs. W. 
M., 1905, 1919, OB Omi- 
Hachiman (Tel. Omi-Hachi 
man 456; F. C. Omi Sales 
Co., Osaka 5434). 

Voules, Miss J., 1913, SPG 56 
Yukino Gosho Cho, Minalo 
Ku, Kobe. 



W 

Wagner, Miss Dora A., 1913, 
MEC lai Jo Gakko, Hako 
date. 

Wagner, Rev. & Mrs. H. H., 
1918, FMA 468 North Ave. 
52, Los Angeles, Calif., U.S.A. 

Waimvrighti, Rev. (M.D., D.D.) 
& Mrs. S. H., 1888, MES,CLS 
2 Aoyama Gakuin, Shibu- 
ya Ku, Tokyo. 

Wait, Mr. R. T., 1933, JEB 
792 Oaza Sono, Gobo Cho, 
Wakayama Shi, Wakayama 
Ken. 

Walker, Mr. & Mrs. F. B., 1903, 
SPG 5 Nakayamate Dori, 3- 
chome, Kobe. 

Walker, Miss M. M., 1931, 
MSCC 604 Jarvis St., To 
ronto 5, Canada. 

Waller, Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. J. 
G., 1890, MSCC 604 Jarvis 
St., Toronto 5, Can. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



465 



Waller Rev. W. W., 1929. MSCC 
Baba Cho, Ueda Shi, Naga 
no Ken. 

Walling , Miss C. Irene, 1930, 
PN- Joshi Gakuin, Kami Ni- 
bancho, Kojimachi Ku, To 
kyo. (Tel. Kudan 1175). 

Walser, Rev. & Mrs. T. D., 1916, 
PN 19 of 9 Tsuna Machi, 
Mita, Shiba Ku, Tokyo. 

Walsh, Rt. Rev. (D.D.) & Mrs. 
Gordon J., 1913, CMS 553 
Nishi 8-chome, Minami 12 
Jo, Sapporo Shi, Hokkaido. 

Walvoord. Miss Florence C., 
1922, RCA- 25 E. 22nd St., 
New York 

Warner, Rev. & Mrs. Paul F., 

1924, MP 43 Chokyuji Ma 
chi, Nagoya. (Tel. East 87). 

Warren, Rev. & Mrs. C. M., 
1899, ABCFM % ABCFM, 14 
Beacon St., Boston, Mass., 
U. S. A. 

Warren, Rev. & Mrs. F. F., 

1925, FMA 303 West Dravus 
St., Seatle, Wash., U. S. A. 

Watkins, Miss Elizabeth T., 
1929, IND Seinan Gakuin, 
Nishijin Machi, Fukuoka Shi. 
(Tel. 3170). 

Watts, Rev. & Mrs. F. E., 1926, 
IND Seaman s Institute, 109 
Ito Machi, Kobe. (Tel. San- 
nomiya 3433). 

\Vatts, Rev. & Mrs. H. G., 1927, 
MSCC Suido Machi, Niigata 
Shi, Niigata Ken. (F. C. Na 
gano 4180). 

Webber, Mr. (Ph.D.) & Mrs. 
Perry A., SDA Showa Ma 
chi, Kimitsu Gun, Chitaa 
Ken. 

WeidSner, Miss Sadie Lea, 1900, 
MM Ogaki, Gifu Ken. 



Wetghton, Mr. R. G. P., 1933, 
EPM Presbyterian Middle 
School, Tainan, Formosa. 

Weir, Miss Mildred, 1935, PCC 
Taihoku, Formosa. 

Wells, Miss Lillian A., 1900, PN 
13 Noda Machi, Yamaguchi 
Shi. 

Wengler, Miss Jessie, 1920, AG 
20 Oiwake Cho, Hachioji 
Shi, Tokyo Fu. 

Whewell, Miss Elizabeth A., 
1928, MM Ogaki, Gifu Ken. 

White, Miss Anna Laura, 1911, 
MEC Kassui Jo Gakko, Na 
gasaki. (Tel. 1416). 

White, Miss Sarah G. t 1931, PE 
St. Luke s Hospital, Tsukiji, 
Tokyo. (Tel. Kyobashi 6101- 
5). 

Whitehead, Miss Dora, 1927, 
IND 5929 Oi Ito Machi, Shi- 
nagawa Ku, Tokyo. 

Whitehead, Miss Mabel, 1917, 
MES % M. E. Ch. So., 706 
Church St., Nashville, Tenn.. 
U. S. A. 

Whiting, Rev. & Mrs. M. M., 
1912, UCC Kwansei Gakxiin, 
Koto Mura, Nishinomiya, 
Hyogo Ken. 

Wiley, Miss Alma P., 1934, CN 

Nishinotoin, Gojo Sagaru, 
Kyoto Shi. 

Wilkey, Rev. & Mrs. J. Douglas, 
1930, PCC 701-9 Bay St.. 
Toronto, Canada. 

Wilkinson, Mr. & Mrs. S. S., 
1916, JEB 23 Tsuyama Cho, 
2-chome, Kobe. 

Williams, Miss A., 1934, SPG 
56 Yukino Gosho Cho, Mi- 
nato Ku, Kobe. 



466 



DIRECTORIES AND STATISTICS 



Williams. Miss Agnes S . 1916, 
CMS Poole Girls School, 
Katsuyama Don, 5-cnome. 
Higashinari Ku, Osaka. (Tel. 
Tennoji 290). 

Williams, Miss Anna Belle, 
1910, MES Lambuth Jo Ga- 
kuin, Ishigatsuji Clio, Ten 
noji Ku, Osaka. (Tel. Minami 
1475). 

Williams, Mr. F. T., 1929, JEB 
Sunrise Home, Okuradani, 
Akashi, Hyogo Ken. 

Williams, Miss H. R.. 1916, PE 
St. Agnes School, Muro- 
machi, Shimctachiuri, Saga- 
ru, Kyoto. (Tel. Nishijin 
330). 

Wilson, Miss Dorothy, 1935, 
JRM 162 Kita Yoban Cho, 
Sendai. (Tel. 3315). 

Wilson, Miss Eleanor, 1925, 
ABCFM Kusaie, Caroline 
Islands, South Seas. 

Wintlier, Rev. & Mrs. J. M. T., 
1899, LCA 15 Gokurakuji 
Cho, Fukuoka 

Whither, Miss Maya, 1928. LCA 
217 Nakanohashi Koji, 
Saga Shi. 

Wolfe, Miss Evelyn M., 1920, 
MP % J. H. Lucas, War- 
wood, Wheeling, W. Va., 
U. S. A. 

Wood, Miss V., 1933, SPG 
Shoin Jo Gakko, Aodani Cho, 
3-chome, Kobe. 

Woodard, Rev. & Mrs. William 
P., 1921, ABCFM Shukuga- 
wa, Nishinomiya. Hyogo Ken. 
(Tel. Nishinomiya 3290). 

Woortcl, Rev. & Mrs. Frederick 
H. B., 1933, CMS 61 Asahi 
Machi, 2-chome, Sumiyoshl 
Ku, Osaka. 



Woodward. Rev. & Mrs. Stan 
ley C., 1930, 1932, CMS 487 
Asagaya, 3-chome, Suginami 
Ku, Tokyo. 

Woodsworth, Rev. & Mrs. H. F., 
1911, UCC Kwanssi Gakuin. 
Koto Mura, Nishinomiya 
Shigai. 

Woodworth, Miss Olive F., 
1928, EB 102 Umemoto Cho, 
Kobe. 

Wool ley , Miss Alice D., 1925, 
IND % B. B. K. Argall, Hill 
Pharmacy. Tor Hotel Road, 
Kobe. 

Woolley, Miss Katherine, 1912, 
SPG Koran Jo Gakko, 385 
Sanko Cho, Shirokane, Shi- 
ba Ku, Tokyo. 

Wordsworth. Miss R., 1910, 
SPG 1489 Samukawa, Chiba 
Shi. 

Worthington, Miss Honoria J., 
1899 (retired), CMS 1083 
Midori Cho, Hiroshima Shi. 

Wraight, Miss Marion. 1933, 
JRM 18 Nijikki Cho, Ushi- 
gome Ku, Tokyo. 

Wright, Miss A. H , 1896, IND 
635 Shimo Tatsuda, Kuro- 
kami Cho, Kumamoto Shi. 
(Tel. 488). 

Wright, Miss Phyllis, 1935, JRM 
162 Kita Yoban Cho, Ssndai. 
(Tel. 3315). 

Wright, Rev. & Mrs. R. C., 1927, 
UCC Takaoka Shi. 



Vates, Rev. N. P., 1908, IND 
Taito, Formosa. 

Young, Dr. L. L., 1905 (Korea), 
1927 (Japan), PCC Naga- 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



407 



mine Yama, Shinahara, Ki- 
tamachi, Kobe. (Mrs. Young 
absent). 

Young, Rev. & Mrs. T. A., 1912, 
1905, UCMS r cUCMS, Mis 
sions Bldg., Indianapolis, 
Ind., U.S.A. 



Zaugg, Rev. (Ph.D., D.D.) & 
Mrs E. H., 1906, ERC 162 
Higashi Sanban Cho, Sen- 
dai. (Tel. 3678). 

Zoll, Mr. Donald, 1933, PE 9 
Motokaji Cho, Sendai. 



Zander, Miss Helen R., 1928, 
RCA Ferris Seminary, 178 
Bluff, Yokohama. 




INTERDENOMINATIONAL 
INTERNATIONAL IN OUTLOOK 

Together with the Japan 
Christian Year Book. 

(this volume) 

Organ of the 

Federation of Christian 
Missions in Japan. 

Edited by a Joint Board of 
Missionaries and Nationals. 



Price 1.20 Per Copy. 

Subscriptions in Japan 4.00 per annum. 

(To missionaries retired or on furlough, Postage extra .50) 

Subscriptions from abroad $2.25 or 9/ per annum. 
Order from the Publishers: 

THE CHRISTIAN LITERATUTE 
SOCIETY OF JAPAN 

(KYO BUN KWAN) 

Ginza, Tokyo 




CAPITAL SUBSCRIBED . . 5,000,000.00 
CAPITAL PAID-UP ....... 1,300,000.00 

TOTAL RESERVE FUNDS 1,806,589.46 



Managing Director: 
KINGO KARA, Esq. 



Fire Policies issued at reasonable and moderate 

rates of premium on property of every description. 

All claims promptly and liberally settled. 



HEAD OFFICE: 
No. 3, Ginza Nishi Rokuchome, Kyobashi-ku, 

TOKYO 

PHONES: 

GINZA (57) 5301, 5302, 5303, & 5304. 
TELEGRAPHIC ADDRESS: "MKKYIFIRE" TOKYO 



ST. LUKE S INTERNATIONAL 
MEDICAL CENTER 

TOKYO 

Open to All, Irrespective of Race, Nationality or Creed. 

STAF F 

Medical and Surgical, including Senior, Associate and 

Junior physicians and Internes 68 

Nurses Graduates 132 

Public Health 5 

Students Undergraduates 44 

Postgraduates 9 

Midwives 11 

Social Service Workers 7 

Administrative and Executive 20 

Engineering 20 

Office, Pharmacy, Technical, Hospital & Out-Patient Service 259 
Total 575 

DEPARTMENTS 

IN-PATIENT 

Present Capacity 360 

OUT-PATIENT AND DIAGNOSTIC CLINIC 

Approximate attendance for the year 1935 156,650 

This department includes Clinics in Medicine, Surgery, Gyne- 
cology and Obstetrics, Pediatrics, Skin, Dentistry, Eyo, Ear, 
Nose and Throat, Tuberculosis, X-Ray, Physiotherapy. A 
Pharmacy and Laboratories with Pathological, Bacteriolog 
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ment are provided for the Public and Physicians of Kyobashi 
Ward who wish to avail themselves of this service. 

School clinic, for children from thirteen primary schools in 
Kyobashi Ward. 

Pre-natal and Post-natal Maternity Clinics, conducted in co 
operation with Tokyo Municipality. 

Infant Nursery Ward, in cooperation with the Municipality of 
Tokyo. 

PUBLIC HEALTH 

Field Service in Tokyo City and house-to-house visiting. 

Child Guidance Clinic. 

COLLEGE OF NURSING. 

dumber of students : Undergraduates 44 

Post Graduates 9 

4 years instruction for Graduate Diploma. 

Telephones: Kyobashi (56) 6101-6106 
Code Address: STLUKES Tokyo 

St. Luke s International Medical Center, 

Akashi Clio, Kyobashi Ku, Tokyo. Japan 



Services Offered by 

The Omi Brotherhood 

Omi-Hachiman, Tokyo & Osaka 
W. M. VORIES & COMPANY, Architects 

TO HELP SOLVE 

YOUR BUILDING PROBLEMS 

Write or Call on one of the following offices: 
W. M. VORIES & COMPANY, Architects 
Head Office 

Omi-Hachiman (Telephone: 466) 
Tokyo Office 

Fujiya Bldg., Toranomon, Shiba. 
(Telephone: Sliiba 2128) 
Osaka Office 

Daido Seimei Bldg., Tosabori, Nishi-ku. 

(Telephone: Tosabori 5384) 

Summer Office 

Karuizawa, Main Street. 
FOR THE TREATMENT OF AFFECTIONS 

OF THE RESPIRATORY ORGANS 

Write to 

THE OMI SANATORIUM 

Omi-Hachiman (Telephone: 318). 



Two main lines of the industrial de 
partment Omi Sales Company, Ltd. 

Importers Manufacturers Wholesalers. 

Mertholatum at any drug or de 
partment store. 

O S C Building Hardware used in 
all new Government buildings, etc. 



WHEN PASSING THRU OMI 

Include in your program a visit to our headquarters 
at Omi-Hachiman. Your inspection of our general 
evangelistic and educational work is always welcome. 



New Zealand Insurance 
Co., Ltd. 



Head Office: AUCKLAND, N. Z. 

ESTABLISHED 1859 



CAPITAL 1,500,000 

CAPITAL PAID-UP 1,500,000 

RESERVES _ 1,393,119 

TOTAL GROSS ASSETS 3,234,060 

The Company transacts all classes of 
FIRE and MARINE INSURANCE 

Throughout Japan and its dependencies. 



GENERAL AGENTS: 

SALE & CO, LTD. 

No. 14, 2-chome, Marunouchi, Kojimachi-ku, 
TOKYO. 

TELEPHONES: MARl NOl CHI (23)3026 & 3027 



Printed In Japan. 



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SOLE AGENTS 

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TOKYO, YOKOHAMA & KOBE 

Tokyo Sub-Agents 
KYO BUN KWAN 




THE AMERICAN SCHOOL IN JAPAN 

I nder the management of fifteen mission and business 
organizations. 

Boarding and day departments. Accredited throughout the 
I nited States. College Board Examinations. Competent staff of 
American-trained teachers. Complete course from primary to 
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athletics, arts and crafts, music, dramatics. 

New building, fire and earthquake proof. Modern equipment. 
84th year opens Wednesday, September Kith, !!):>(!. 

For catalogue apply to 

HAROLD C. AMOS, Principal. 

1985 Kami Meguro 2-chome, Meguro Ku, Tokyo 

Telephone: Aoyama (3f>) fi297 





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